1- Discuss three disaster coordination issues. 2. How would you as an Emergency Manager:

. Discuss three disaster coordination issues.2. How would you as an Emergency Manager: a. prevent corruption following a disaster; b. manage compound emergencies; c. ensure equality in assistance and relief distribution.Choose one.

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Discuss three disaster coordination issues.
Coordination issues can occur at any point during a disaster cycle, and it is the most
important aspect during a disaster situation. In my opinion, coordination issues are more
prominent during recovery. The better the coordination is, the more successful the
efforts would be and the same goes for poor coordination, especially following massive
disasters such as the 2004 tsunami. So, I’ve decided to focus my answer on the
coordination issues found during recovery following a disaster.
Coordination during recovery can be defined as aligning one’s actions with those of
other relevant actors and organizations to achieve a common goal needed to effectively
establish recovery. That is, coordination is the collaborative process of interaction and
harmonization of activities between different organizations and actors to meet a shared
objective of improving resiliency following a disaster. The three main coordination
issues pertaining to recovery are:
Coordination of roles and responsibility: Disasters pool together people from multiple different sectors,
expertise and nationality. This means that there would be a significant variation in ability, values, norms and
goals. When actors are forced into new and unplanned roles, responsibilities and goals due to the unfamiliar,
complex and dynamic character of the situation, they may not have sufficient understanding of their roles and
responsibilities and of the roles and responsibilities of others that they must coordinate with. They must then
improvise their efforts to meet the needs of the situation, and also take into account the range of other actors
already existing in the situation or entering in. Coordinating with such assorted personnel and resources is
very challenging, especially as this mix of actors acquire very different roles, responsibilities, abilities, values
and goals.
Information sharing: Information sharing amongst each other is vital for coordination. Sharing information
combined with a more collaborative effort can improve the overall efficacy of the entire operation. Factors
contributing to successful information sharing include availability of the information, source, accurate
collecting and analysis and timely dissemination. It is very beneficial for joint planning and programming for
joint activities, which is considered to be the most difficult level of coordination. Information sharing
improves sharing of resources between organizations, allowing ones’ trainings for other actors, help each
other solve tasks, identifying best practices and lessons learned from each organization and implement joint
activities to reach joint goals.
Donor coordination: There are many factors that drive donors to donate to a particular area or organization.
For instance, funding may be fierce in area where the most mass media attention is paid to regardless of other
areas and sectors that are equally or even more pressing. This may lead to aid fragmentation in area not
receiving funds and duplication of efforts in area receiving the most donations. Sharing information among
organizations and different nations, delegating responsibility to lead donors and using simplified procedures
and arrangements can improve donor coordination.
Raju, E., & Becker, P. (2013). Multi-organisational coordination for disaster recovery: The story of posttsunami Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 4, 82-91.
Nunnenkamp, P., Öhler, H., & Thiele, R. (2013). Donor coordination and specialization: did the Paris
Declaration make a difference?. Review of World Economics, 149(3), 537-563.
2. How would you as an Emergency Manager prevent corruption following a disaster
It was found that post disaster corruption is much higher than during normal times.
Corruption negatively contributes to providing relief and aid to people who are in dire
need of it. It leads to inability to provide timely support to the affected people, lack of
coordination of emergency support, favoritism during support, difficulties regarding
repayments, cancelling partnerships etc. It is the relief interventions that are more prone
to corruption due to the continuous flow of resources into the affected country.
Corruption also leads to mistrust between the NGO and local people, as well as with the
government, which can significantly hamper with the provision of relief and medical aid.
Therefore, from a disaster reliance perspective, it should be reduced and controlled
when its possible.
Though corruption is wide spread, steps can be taken to reduce it. As an emergency
manager, ensuring fair distribution of relief goods and community participation in the
relief distribution process would reduce mistrust and improve effectiveness. Community
participation can point out the household needs and through a joint decision relief
packages can be developed based on the needs and vulnerabilities and distributed
fairly. An example to support this would be, during the sathkira floods in Bangladesh, an
NGO used a transparent process to select relief items by calling the villagers into an
open field and explored their relief packages and identifying the most vulnerable needs,
thus creating a list based on that. If anybody had any objections to the list, it would
again be discussed in an open forum and necessary corrections will be made, therefore,
resulting in successful relief distribution.
Another strategy would be to provide a relief card or document to affected households,
on which a record of the relief that has been provided is kept with a schedule. This
would also make a significant contribution to transparency at the local level and hence,
contribute to equity in provision of relief goods. An effective functional system needs to
also be developed between the donors, local NGOs, and the community to ensure
smoother and a more transparent cash inflow. Therefore, overall government and NGO
collaboration, with communities, strengthens monitoring, avoids duplication, and
reduces corruption in relief works.
Islam, R., & Walkerden, G. (2015). How do links between households and NGOs promote disaster
resilience and recovery?: A case study of linking social networks on the Bangladeshi coast. Natural
Hazards, 78(3), 1707-1727.
Nunnenkamp, P., Öhler, H., & Thiele, R. (2013). Donor coordination and specialization: did the Paris
Declaration make a difference?. Review of World Economics, 149(3), 537-563.

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