1 page single spaced answer 3 questions

for questions 2 (i attached a powerpoint sides about the theories of motivation) Starbucks cafe, an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain, has been in the news recently as a result of a manager calling the police on two black patrons who were seated in the restaurant but had not yet made a purchase. In response, the restaurant will close its doors and conduct implicit bias training for its employees at 8,000 locations.Is an employees’ likely change in behavior following the training also dependent on personality and other individual differences?Using theories of motivation, describe how employees’ levels of job satisfaction are likely to change as a result of implicit bias training? (i attached a powerpoint sides about the theories of motivation)Are particular styles of leadership likely to influence an organization’s willingness to implement implicit bias training?
topic_9_motivationneedsandjobdesign_2.ppt

topic_10_intrinsicmotivationandsatisfaction.ppt

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topic_11_equityandexpectancytheories.ppt

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TOPIC 9
Motivation: Needs and Job Design
Learning Objectives
• Appreciate why motivation is of central
importance in organizations and the difference
between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
• Understand what we can learn about
motivation from need theories
• Describe the job characteristics model and its
implications for using job design to create a
motivating work setting
Fundamentals of Employee Motivation
• Motivation – psychological processes that
arouse and direct goal-directed behavior
A Job Performance Model of
Motivation
Need Theories of Motivation
• Needs: Physiological
or psychological
deficiencies that
arouse behavior.
6-5
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
• Once a need is satisfied it activates the next
higher need in the hierarchy
• Managerial implication – a satisfied need may
lose its motivational potential
• Need for achievement: Desire to accomplish something
difficult.
• Need for affiliation: Desire to spend time in social
relationships and activities.
• Need for power: Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or
encourage others to achieve.
McClelland’s Need Theory
Achievement-motivated people share three
common characteristics:
1. Preference for working on tasks of moderate
difficulty
2. Preference for situations in which
performance is due to their efforts
3. Desire more feedback on their successes and
failures than low achievers.
McClelland’s Need Theory: Managerial
Implications
• Organizations should consider the benefits of
providing achievement training for employees
• Achievement, affiliation, and power needs can
be considered during the selection process,
for better placement
• Managers should create challenging task
assignments or goals
Motivating Employees Through
Job Design
• Job Design – changing the content and/or
process of a specific job to increase:
job satisfaction and performance
Mechanistic Approach
• Targets efficiency, flexibility, and employee
productivity
• Employee efficiency and productivity are
increased
• Simplified, repetitive jobs lead to job
dissatisfaction, poor mental health, higher
levels of stress, and low sense of
accomplishment
Motivational Approaches
• Job enlargement – putting more variety into a
job
– Horizontal loading
• Job rotation – moving employees from one
specialized job to another
– Increased worker flexibility and easier scheduling
Motivational Approaches:
Job Enrichment
• Job enrichment – building achievement,
recognition, stimulating work, responsibility,
and advancement into a job
Motivational Approaches:
Job Enrichment
• Motivators – job characteristics associated
with job satisfaction
• Hygiene factors – job characteristics
associated with job dissatisfaction
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model
6-15
• Intrinsic motivation – motivation caused by
positive internal feelings
• Extrinsic motivation – caused by the desire to
attain specific outcomes
• Core job dimensions – job characteristics
found to various degrees in all jobs
Core job dimensions
•
•
•
•
•
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance
Autonomy
Feedback
The Job Characteristics Model
6-18
Steps for Applying the
Job Characteristics Model
1. Diagnose the work environment to determine
the level of employee motivation and job
satisfaction
2. Determine whether job redesign is
appropriate for a given group of employees
3. Determine how to best redesign the job
Biological and Perceptual- Motor
Approaches
• Biological:
– Based on research from biomechanics, work
physiology, and ergonomics
– Focuses on designing the work environment to
reduce employees’ physical strain, fatigue, and
health complaints
• Perceptual-Motor:
– Based on human factors and skills
– Focuses on reducing errors and accidents
Topic 10
Intrinsic Motivation
and
Job Satisfaction
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
?
Intrinsic Motivation:
motivation caused by
positive internal
feelings.
?
Extrinsic Motivation:
motivation caused by
the desire to attain
specific outcomes.
A Model of Intrinsic Motivation
Figure 6-4
Opportunity
rewards
From task
activities
Sense of
Choice
From task
purpose
Sense of
Meaningfulness
Accomplishment
rewards
Sense of
Competence
Sense of
Progress
A Model of Intrinsic Motivation
• Sense of meaningfulness – task purpose is
important and meaningful
• Sense of choice – ability to use judgment and
freedom when completing tasks
A Model of Intrinsic Motivation
• Sense of competence – feelings of
accomplishment associated with doing
high-quality work
• Sense of progress – feeling that one is
accomplishing something important and
making progress towards a goal
Managerial Implications
? Managers can foster a sense of meaningfulness by inspiring
their employees and modeling desired behaviors
? Managers can lead for choice by empowering employees and
delegating meaningful assignments and tasks
? Managers can enhance a sense of competence by supporting
and coaching their employees
? Managers can increase employees’ sense of progress by
monitoring and rewarding them
Job Satisfaction Defined
• Job satisfaction: an affective
or emotional response to
one’s job
The Causes of Job Satisfaction
• Need fulfillment: satisfaction is determined by the extent to which the
characteristics of a job allow an individual to fulfill his or her needs
• Discrepancies: satisfaction is a result of met expectations
• Value attainment: satisfaction results from the perception that a job
allows for fulfillment of individual’s important work values
• Equity: satisfaction is a function of how “fairly” an individual is treated at
work
• Dispositional/Genetic Components: satisfaction is partly a function of
both personal traits and genetic factors
Correlates and Consequences of
Job Satisfaction
Consequence
? Motivation
? Job Involvement – extent to which an
individual is personally involved
? Organizational Commitment – extent to
which an individual identifies with an
organization and is committed to its goals.
? Organizational Citizenship Behaviors:
Employee behaviors that exceed work-role
requirements.
Correlation
Correlates and Consequences of
Job Satisfaction
Consequence
? Absenteeism
? Withdrawal Cognitions – process of
thinking about whether or not to quit
? Turnover
? Perceived Stress
? Job Performance
Correlation
Motivational Challenges
• Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB):
Types of behaviors that harm employees and the
organization as a whole resulting from the absence of
satisfaction
•
•
•
•
•
•
Theft
White collar crime
Drug/alcohol abuse
Sexual harassment
Sabotage
Violence
Motivational Challenges
• Work versus Family Life Conflict
Attempting to balance the demands of work and
family obligations in order to reduce conflicts and stress.
Value-Based Model of
Work-Family Conflict
Figure 6-5
A Values-Based Model of
Work/Family Conflict
• Family values involve enduring beliefs about
the importance of family and who should play
key family roles
• Two distinct forms
– Work interference with family
– Family interference with work
A Values-Based Model of
Work/Family Conflict
• Value similarity – relates to the degree of
consensus among family members about family
values
• Value congruence – involves the amount of value
agreement between employee and employer
Organizational Response to
Work-Family Issues
•
•
•
•
Child-care services
Flexible work schedules
Cafeteria benefit plans
Telecommuting
•
•
•
•
Dry-cleaning services
Concierge services
ATM at work
Stress reduction programs
Signs You Should Look for Another Job
• Current job’s requirements aren’t a good match with your best
skills.
• Job doesn’t adequately meet your needs in areas you value, such
as work-family balance, work location and compensation.
• Requests for advancement or new opportunities are consistently
ignored or only half met.
• Is work making you miserable? Family and friends tell you that
your job has changed you for the worse.
• Your job ranks low on a “joy and meaning” scale.
• Your standing in the office has been diminished—for example, key
clients or vendors no longer deal with you.
.
TOPIC 11A
Equity and Expectancy Theories
Learning Objectives
• Describe why expectancy, valence, and
instrumentality are of central importance for
work motivation
• Appreciate the importance of equity and the
dangers of inequity
• Understand why procedural justice is so
important and how to promote it
EQUITY THEORY
• Equity theory Holds that
motivation is a
function of fairness
and justice in social
exchanges
THE INDIVIDUAL-ORGANIZATION
EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIP
• An employee’s inputs, for which he expects a just
return, include education/training, skills,
creativity, seniority, age, personality traits, effort
expended, and personal appearance.
• On the outcome side, the organization provides
such things as pay/bonuses, fringe benefits,
challenging assignments, job security,
promotions, status symbols, recognition, and
participation in important decisions.
THE INDIVIDUAL-ORGANIZATION
EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIP
Self
Other
O
I
O
I
=
NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE INEQUITY
• Negative inequity – Comparison in which
another person receives greater outcomes for
similar inputs.
• Positive inequity – Comparison in which
another person receives lesser outcomes for
similar inputs.
DYNAMICS OF PERCEIVED INEQUITY
1. People have varying sensitivities to
perceived equity and inequity
2. Inequity can be reduced in a variety of ways
– Changing input to match outcomes (e.g., leaving early or
slacking off)
– Change outcomes to match inputs (e.g., asking for a pay
increase, stealing)
– Persuading others to change inputs (e.g., complaining to
superiors)
– Withdrawal (e.g., tardiness or turnover)
– Change the comparison others. The longer a person has
had their comparison other the harder it is to change
THRESHOLDS OF EQUITY AND INEQUITY
• Equity sensitivity An individual’s
tolerance for
negative and positive
equity
THRESHOLDS OF EQUITY AND INEQUITY
• Benevolents have a higher tolerance for negative
inequity.
• Sensitives adhere to a strict norm of reciprocity
and are quickly motivated to resolve both
negative and positive inequity
• Entitleds have no tolerance for negative inequity
– expect to obtain greater output/input ratios than
comparison others and become upset when this is
not the case.
Benevolents
Sensitives
Entitleds
EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
• Expectancy theory – Holds that people are
motivated to behave in ways that produce
valued outcomes.
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY CONCEPTS
? Expectancy: Belief that effort leads to a specific
level of performance
? Instrumentality: A performance ? outcome
perception
? Valence: The Value of a reward or outcome
Four Prerequisites to Linking
Performances and Rewards
1.
Managers need to develop and communicate performance
standards to employees.
2.
Managers need valid and accurate performance ratings with which
to compare employees.
3.
Managers need to determine the relative mix of individual versus
team contribution to performance and then reward accordingly.
4.
Managers should use the performance ratings to differentially
allocate rewards among employees.
Goal Setting
•
•
Appreciate how and why organizational
objectives can motivate employees
Describe goal setting theory and the kinds of
goals that contribute to a motivating work
setting
?
?
Goal – what an individual is trying to
accomplish
Management by objectives – management
system incorporating participation in decision
making, goal setting, and feedback
1.
Goals direct attention.
2.
Goals regulate effort.
3.
Goals increase persistence.
4.
Goals foster the development and application of
task strategies and action plans.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Goal difficulty – the amount of effort required
to meet a goal.
Goal specificity – quantifiability of a goal
Feedback enhances the effect of specific,
difficult goals
Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set
goals are equally effective.
Goal commitment – amount of commitment to
achieving a goal.
Step 1: Set goals
Step 2: Promote goal commitment
Step 3: Provide support and feedback
Skills & Best Practices: Managerial
Actions for Enhancing Goal Commitment
1.
2.
3.
4.
Provide valued outcomes for goal accomplishment.
Raise employees’ self-efficacy about meeting goals by:
1. Providing adequate training
2. Role modeling desired behaviors and actions
3. Persuasively communicating confidence in the
employees ability to attain the goal
Have employees make a public commitment to the goal.
Communicate an inspiring vision and explain how
individual goals relate to accomplishing the vision.
Skills & Best Practices: Managerial
Actions for Enhancing Goal Commitment
5.
6.
7.
8.
Allow employees to participate in setting the
goals.
Behave supportively rather than punitively.
Break a long-term goal (i.e., a yearly goal) into
short-term sub-goals.
Ensure that employees have the resources
required to accomplish the goal.
Guidelines for Writing SMART Goals
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Results oriented
Time bound
1.
Learning goal orientation
2.
Performance-prove goal orientation
3.
Performance-avoid goal orientation
1.
No one theory fits all
2.
Motivation ? Performance
Motivation: Feedback, Pay, and
Rewards
Topic 12
Learning Objectives
• Appreciate the two major roles of performance
appraisal
• Understand the role of feedback for motivation,
and why feedback often fails
• Understand the different kinds and methods of
performance appraisal
• Appreciate the importance of merit pay and the
choices organizations face in using pay to motivate
employees
Performance Appraisal
• Encourage high levels of employee motivation
and performance
• Provide accurate information to be used in
managerial decision making
Providing Effective Feedback
• Feedback – objective
information about
individual or collective
performance shared
with those in a position
to improve the
situation
Feedback Provided to Employees
• Level of contribution
• Accuracy of tasks and direction
Performance appraisals
give employees feedback
that contributes to
intrinsic motivation!
Two Functions of Feedback
Developmental purposes
Evaluative,
decision-making purposes
Developing a Performance Appraisal
System
Choice 1: The mix of
formal and informal appraisals
Choice 2: What factors to evaluate
Choice 3: Methods of appraisal
Choice 4: Who appraises performance
Factors to Evaluate
Traits
Behaviors
Results
Methods of Appraisal
Objective:
Subjective:
Numerical
counts
based on fact
Perceptions
based on traits,
behaviors, and
results
Who Appraises Performance?
• Supervisors
• Self-appraisals
• Peer appraisals
• Subordinate appraisals
• Customer/client
appraisals
• Multiple raters
360-degree appraisal
? Need for Feedback is variable
? Feedback can be positive or negative
? Upon receiving feedback, people
cognitively evaluate factors such as its
accuracy, the credibility of the sources,
the fairness of the system, and the
reasonableness of the standards
Problems and Biases
• Harshness, leniency,
and average
tendency biases
• Knowledge-ofpredictor bias
•
•
•
•
•
Stereotypes
Primacy effect
Contrast effect
Halo effect
Similar-to-me effect
1. Feedback is used to punish,
embarrass, or put down
employees.
2. Those receiving the feedback
see it as irrelevant to their work.
3. Feedback information is
provided too late to do any
good.
4. People receiving feedback believe it relates
to matters beyond their control.
5. Employees complain about wasting too
much time collecting and recording feedback
data.
6. Feedback recipients complain about
feedback being too complex or difficult to
understand.
Extrinsic rewards
financial, material, or
social rewards from
the environment
Intrinsic rewards
self-granted, psychic
rewards
Merit Pay Plans
• Use when
– Individual performance can be accurately assessed
– Employees are highly independent
• Distribute by
– Salary increase
– Bonuses
Individual-Based Merit Pay Plans
Piece-rate
Commission
pay
pay
Gain-Sharing Plans
• Employees receive share of profits or saved
expenses
– Encourages camaraderie and team spirit
– Discourages personal motivation
• Types
– Profit sharing
Acknowledging High Performers During
a Recession
• Giving gift cards for high performers shows
them that they are appreciated.
• Sending Thank You e-mails to show gratitude.
• Giving employees more flexible working
conditions.
Pay Differentials and Comparable
Worth
Gender
Age
Race
Leadership level
1. Too much emphasis on monetary
rewards
2. Rewards lack an “appreciation effect”
3. Extensive benefits become entitlements
4. Counterproductive behavior is rewarded
5. Too long a delay between performance
and reward
6. Too many one-size-fits-all rewards
7. Use of one-shot rewards
8. Continued use of demotivating practices

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