150 Word Total (Answer Criminology Questions)

Provide a minimum 150 word answer in your own words to the following questions on the posted readings. Answers should be scholarly, substantial, and show evidence of having completed the reading assignments. Use examples from the readings. >>1 is Attached below and other will be located in the comments<< Restorative justice promotes healing and repairing the harm that was done through the criminal act. Restorative justice seeks negotiation and cooperation rather than the adversarial approach of retribution.After reading the information in your Reading Assignment on Restorative Justice, briefly describe the principles of this perspective. What does it attempt to do and how?What would you say are the benefits of this approach?What are the possible negative outcomes?Outline and discuss one of the specific restorative justice programs that you read about in the readings. Include your opinions and reactions to this particular program and others.**PLAGIARISM WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. PLEASE WRITE IN YOUR OWN WORDS** social_conflict_theories.ppt Unformatted Attachment Preview SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME III Social Conflict Theories SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORIES • Ties into culture conflict and subcultural theories • Deeper explanation as to why there is conflict between different groups and institutions • How does this social conflict cause criminal behavior? LAW AND SOCIAL ORDER PERSPECTIVES • Various events in the 20th century conspired to change laws and create new kinds of criminal activity – Examples? • An understanding of the relationship between law and social order is critical to any study of social change and of theories of criminology that emphasize the role of social conflict as it relates to criminality • Let us first examine some other perspectives before discussing the social conflict perspective… CONSENSUS PERSPECTIVE ?Holds that most members of society agree about what is right and what is wrong and that the various elements of society work together toward a common vision of the greater good CONSENSUS PERSPECTIVE ?Key Principles: ?Most members of society believe in the existence of core values ?Laws reflects the collective will of the people ?Law serves all people equally ?Law violators represent a unique subgroup with distinguishing features PLURALIST PERSPECTIVE • Holds that many different values and beliefs exist in any complex society and each social group will have its own set of beliefs, interests, and values • The perspective assumes that most individuals agree on the usefulness of law as a formal means of dispute resolution PLURALIST PERSPECTIVE ?Key Principles: ?Society consists of many and diverse social groups ?Each group has its own set of values, beliefs, and interests ?A general agreement exists as to the usefulness of formalized laws as a mechanism for dispute resolution ?The legal system is value neutral ?The legal system is concerned with the best interests of society SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • Maintains the following major assumptions; • There is no true consensus in society as to what is right and what is wrong. • Those in power create the laws and the law is a fundamental tool used for the powerful to maintain that power. • Conflict in society is unavoidable: It is a fundamental aspect of society and it can never be fully resolved. SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • Formal social control agencies coerce the unempowered to comply with rules established by those in power. • Social order rests on the exercise of power through law. Those in power work to remain there. • Laws are a tool of the powerful, used to keep control of social institutions PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • 1. Society is made up of diverse social groups. • 2. Each group holds to differing definitions of right and wrong. • 3. Conflict between groups is unavoidable. • 4. The fundamental nature of group conflict centers on the exercise of political power. • 5. Law is a tool of power and furthers the interests of those powerful enough to make it. • 6. Those in power are inevitably interested in maintaining their power against those who would usurp it. SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE ?Social class ? Key element of social conflict perspective ?Involves distinctions made between individuals on the basis of significant defining characteristics (race, religion, profession, income, wealth, housing, etc.). ?Individuals are assigned to classes on the basis of ascribed and achieved characteristics. SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE ?Most modern social scientists view social class as made up of three distinct groups; upper, middle, and lower ?Social class may be based on; ?Ascribed Characteristics ? Characteristics a person is born with [race, gender, family background/ancestry] ?Achieved Characteristics ? Acquired during a person’s life through personal effort [education, profession, wealth] SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE ?Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels ?The Communist Manifesto - 1848 ?Discussed two fundamental social classes in capitalist society ?Bourgeoisie – “haves” ?Proletariat – “have-nots” ?Struggle between classes is inevitable ?The natural outcome of such struggle would be the overthrow of the capitalist social order and the birth of a communist society SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE ?Socialism ?Economic system ?Everyone has equal say as to how the system should be run ?Power and goods are shared ?However, everyone must “play by the same rules.” This is why socialism is a flawed system. ?Communism ?Uses socialist economic system but power as to how system is run is reserved to those in political power ?If only a few have power, are goods equally shared? SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • George Vold • Saw crime as the result of political conflict between groups and as a natural expression of the struggle for power and control. • Considered conflict to be a universal form of interaction that intensifies the loyalty of group members to their respective groups. • Wrote Theoretical Criminology (1958) • Introduced group conflict theory. SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORY • Vold, Cont’d • A key aspect to group conflict theory is recognizing the social process view of society as a collection of various groups that are held together in a dynamic equilibrium of opposing group interest and efforts. • This social process involves a continuous struggle to maintain, or enhance, the position of one’s own group within the context of these other competing groups. • Conflict is an essential component to this social process. SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORY Group conflict theory focuses only on those situations in which criminal behavior is a result of conflicting group interests. • These types of crime include the following: • Crimes arising from political protest, • Crimes resulting from labor disputes, • Crimes arising from disputes between and within competing unions, and • Crimes arising from racial and ethnic clashes. SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORY • Vold, Cont’d • The process of law making, law breaking, and law enforcement reflects conflicts between interest groups. • Powerful groups make laws that express and protect their interests. • Law is a political statement, and crime is a political definition imposed on those whose interests do not lie with what the powerful define as acceptable. • Crime is seen as a manifestation of needs and values denied by society. SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • Ralf Dahrendorf • Saw conflict as a fundamental part of society, so that an absence of conflict would be abnormal. • Power and authority lead to conflict between groups, and conflict leads to change (destructive or constructive). • Destructive change lessens social order. • Constructive change increases social cohesiveness. SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • Austin Turk • Criminality and Legal Order (1969) • Saw the law as a tool serving social groups seeking control over others. • Saw crime as the natural consequence of intergroup struggles because it resulted from the definitions imposed by the laws of the powerful upon the disapproved strivings of the unempowered. • Stated that “nothing and no one is intrinsically criminal; criminality is a definition applied by individuals with the power to do so, according to illegal and extra-legal, as well as legal criteria.” SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • Turk, Cont’d • Society is characterized by conflict arising between various groups seeking to establish control over one another. • Maintained that social order is based in a consensuscoercion balance maintained by the authorities. • Turk’s “theory of criminalization” (i.e., the process of being labeled a criminal) occurs through the interaction between those who enforce the law and those who violate the law. RADICAL-CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY • Suggests that the causes of crime are rooted in social conditions empowering the wealthy and politically well organized while less fortunate groups have little or no power. • Some writers distinguish between radical and critical criminology. • Critical criminology critiques social relationships that lead to crime. • Radical criminology is a proactive call for change in underlying social conditions. RADICAL-CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY • William Chambliss • Society is made up of various groups that are in conflict. • What makes a behavior criminal is the coercive power of the state to enforce the will of the ruling class. • The law is a tool for those in power (i.e., the ruling class) which functions to use coercive power in conflict. • The relationship between power and the use of the law extends to various institutions such as the legislatures, law enforcement, and especially the appellate courts. RADICAL-CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY • By the mid-1970s, Chambliss’s work had become more Marxist. • He suggested that crime is created by the ruling class, who define as criminal activities that contravene their own interests. • Members of the ruling class can violate the law because they created it. • Middle- and upper-class criminals are less likely to be apprehended and punished by the criminal justice system. • Suggested that socialist societies would have less crime than capitalist societies because of less intense class struggles. MARXIST CRIMINOLOGY • Richard Quinney: Capitalism and Crime • Six key Marxist propositions; • American society is based on an advanced capitalist economy. • The state is organized to serve the interests of a capitalist ruling class. • Criminal law is an instrument of the state and ruling class used to maintain and perpetuate the existing social and economic order. • Crime control in a capitalist society is accomplished through institutions and agencies administered by a governmental elite, representing the interests of the ruling class. • The contradictions of advanced capitalism require the oppression of the subordinate classes by any necessary means, including the coercion and violence of the legal system. • The crime problem will be solved only if capitalist society is eliminated and a socialist society established instead. MARXIST CRIMINOLOGY ?Richard Quinney ?Argues that almost all crimes committed by members of the lower classes are necessary for the survival of the individual members of those classes ?Crime is inevitable under capitalist conditions ?The solution to the problem of crime is the development of a socialist society CRITIQUE OF RADICALCRITICAL AND MARXIST CRIMINOLOGY • 1. It emphasizes methods of social change at the expense of well-developed theory. • 2. It fails to recognize that there seems to be a fair degree of consensus about the nature of crime: Crime is undesirable and criminal activity should be controlled. • 3. Marxist thinkers seem to confuse issues of personal politics with social reality, thus sacrificing their objectivity. • 4. Marxist criminology does not seem to appreciate the many problems contributing to the problem of crime. BEYOND RADICALCRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY • 1. Radical-critical criminology attributes much of the crime problem to differences in social class, particularly social arrangements that maintain class differences. • 2. Elliott Currie claims that market societies are especially likely to have high levels of violent crime because personal economic gain becomes the main goal. BEYOND RADICALCRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY • 3. The collapse of the former Soviet Union contributed to a loss of prestige and impact of Marxist criminology. • 4. Modern radical-critical criminologists are putting less emphasis on a call for revolutionary change. • 5. Today’s focus is on the elimination of inequalities in the criminal justice system, the elimination of prisons, the abolition of capital punishment, and an end to police misconduct. PEACEMAKING CRIMINOLOGY • A relatively new form of postmodern criminology. • Suggests that citizens and social control agencies need to work together to alleviate social problems and reduce crime. • The problem of crime control is not “how to stop crime” but “how to make peace.” PEACEMAKING CRIMINOLOGY • Key issues in peacemaking criminology: • Perpetuating violence through social policies based on current criminological theories • The role of education in peacemaking • Commonsense theories of crime • Crime control as human rights enforcement • Conflict resolution within community settings • Emphasizes rising above personal differences to end the political and ideological divisiveness in society. PEACEMAKING CRIMINOLOGY • Generally, peacemaking criminology contends that rather than using punishment and retribution as a means of social control, society should attempt reconciliation through mediation and dispute settlement. CRITIQUE OF PEACEMAKING THEORY • Criticized as being naive and utopian and for failing to recognize the realities of crime control and law enforcement. • However, peacemaking criminology envisions positive change on the social and institutional level rather than suggesting that victims should try to effect personal changes in offenders. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE ?Effective crime control best achieved by adopting a peace model of crime control ?Based on cooperation, not retribution ?Focuses on effective ways to develop a shared consensus on critical issues affecting the quality of life RESTORATIVE JUSTICE ?Dispute resolution programs based on participatory justice ?Informal criminal justice case processing that uses local community resources rather than traditional forms of official intervention ?Resolve disputes without assigning blame RESTORATIVE JUSTICE ?Many programs are a form of restorative justice RESTORATIVE JUSTICE ?Based on remedies and restoration rather than prison, punishment, and victim neglect ?Rooted in concept of a caring community ?Modern social movement to reform the criminal justice system that stresses healing rather than retribution RESTORATIVE JUSTICE Retributive Justice (Punishment) • Crime is an act against the state. • The criminal justice system controls crime. • Offender accountability = taking punishment. • Focus on establishing blame or guilt. • Emphasis on adversarial relationship. • Imposition of pain to punish and deter/prevent. • Response focused on offender’s past behavior. Restorative Justice • Crime is an act against a person or the community. • Crime control lies primarily within the community. • Offender accountability = assuming responsibility and taking action to repair harm. • Focus on problem-solving and liabilities/obligations. • Emphasis on dialogue and negotiation. • Restitution as a means of restoring all parties; goal of reconciliation/restoration. • Response focused on harmful consequences of offender’s behavior; emphasis on future. FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY • Redirects criminologists’ thinking to include gender awareness • Feminism is a way of seeing the world • Views gender in terms of power relationships • Consequences of sexism and unequal gender-based power distribution have affected fundamental aspects of social roles and personal experiences FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY • Patriarchy - power relations where males appropriate women’s labor power and control their sexuality. • Traditional criminology has been male-centered, with women largely ignored by criminologists. • Gender is a strong predictor of many aspects of criminal behavior, including offending. FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY • Radical feminism: In a patriarchal society men control the law and women are defined as subjects, so that women who act reasonably to avoid men’s exploitation may become criminalized. • Liberal feminism: Gender biases cause the development of separate areas of influence and traditional attitudes about the roles of men and women. • Socialist feminism: Gender oppression is a result of the economic structure of society. • Marxist feminism: Capitalism perpetuates economic inequality, dependence, and political powerlessness, leading to unhealthy gender relationships. FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY • Advocates eliminating male domination and restructuring power relationships to; • reduce crime rates for women • cause a decline in male violence against women. • Early researchers Freda Adler and Rita J. Simon • Suggested gender differences in crime rates were due to socialization rather than biology. • Feminist thinkers suggest social policies such as increasing controls over male violence toward women, creating alternatives for women facing abuse, and for the protection of children. FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY • Consider traditional roles assigned to women and men • Are there different expectations of boys and girls in how they are “supposed” to act? • What are some of the stereotypical characteristics of men and women? • How do these traditional roles cause inequality? CRITIQUE OF FEMINIST THEORY • Although the gender gap in crime still exists, despite increasingly balanced opportunities, gender disparities in arrests are rarely found, nor do sentencing practices seem to favor women. • Some critics argue that a feminist criminology is impossible, although feminist thought may inform criminology. CONVICT CRIMINOLOGY • The newest radical paradigm. • Formalized in 2001 and is less a school of thought than a body of writings and musings on the subject of criminology by convicted felons and ex-inmates who have obtained academic credentials or who are associated with credentialed others. CONVICT CRIMINOLOGY • Largely issues-based and personal. • Tends to assume a critical perspective with regard to the justice system, especially corrections. • Language used by convict criminologists differs from those of academic criminologists without convict backgrounds. • Primary method used is ethnographic. • The source of a number of recommendations for improving the justice system, most stemming from the personal experiences of the convict criminologists. CONVICT CRIMINOLOGY • Key claims of convict criminologists; • Prisons hold too many people, do not reduce crime, and contain too many minor offenders. • Prison expansion has disproportionately and unfairly affected the poor. • A substantial reduction in the number of federal and state prisoners is needed. • Corrections can benefit from the use of smaller prisons instead of the large institutions common in most states. • Treatment should be given priority over security to help ensure inmates will desist from crime upon release. CRITIQUE OF CONVICT CRIMINOLOGY • Most of the authors are white males and not all are exconvicts. • Feminist nonconvict criminologists have begun contributing to the field, moving it further from its roots. • Convict criminologists have been faulted for their activism and partisan approach. • Their research has been questioned due to their fairly obvious agendas. • Critics suggest that having been in prison distorts the criminologist’s view of the field, rather than enhancing it. POSTMODERN CRIMINOLOGY • Postmodern criminology applies understandings of social change inherent in postmodern philosophy to criminological theorizing and to issues of crime control. • It is a philosophical movement that is skeptical of science and the scientific method. • Rather than a theory, postmodern criminology is a group of criminological perspectives bound together by the tone of postmodernism, including paradigms such as chaos theory, discourse analysis, topology theory, and anarchic criminology. POSTMODERN CRIMINOLOGY • Builds upon the idea that past approaches have failed to realistically assess the true causes of crime and to offer workable crime control solutions, or that if they have, the theories and solutions are no longer ap ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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