163. Modify a history paper. Read two books.

Modify a current history paper. Read two books. You will need to add some citations from these 2 books. Use as much imformation from the books as you can. And you need to find these 2 books by yourself. All the work has to be original. You need to make sure your references include all these 2 books.Racism: A Short History (Princeton Classics)Rivers of Blood, Rivers of Gold: Europe’s Conquest of Indigenous Peoples.
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Ethics, social responsibility and sustainability
ETHICS, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
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Ethics, social responsibility and sustainability
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Ethics are principles considered to be moral that govern a person’s way of behavior or the way of
conducting of an activity. Values are standards of behavior which enables one to weigh what is
important and right in life. Social responsibility is an ethical arrangement or duty that shows that
people or groups have a duty to perform for the benefit of the community and society at large.
Sustainability is the ability to be upheld for the time required or live for long.
Ethical dilemmas are becoming a big issue in the corporate world as it is sometimes hard to
determine ethical from non-ethical subjects until the damage has occurred; and hence it requires
a competent manager who is conversant with the ethical issues so as to be able to deal with
socially responsible issues. Inserting responsible behavior in an organization and developing a
responsible organizational culture includes new communicative approach to management and
organizational change Nijhof and Jeurisen (2005) Eds.In order to avoid the ethical dilemmas the
strategy has to start from the top of the corporate ladder at the managerial level. This is to say
that ethical leadership is important. Ethical leadership actively assess the ethical capabilities and
conduct of leaders that leads to changing leadership (Brown et al.2005). To ensure social
responsibility endeavor managers may decide to put into existence an organizational culture
formed on the basis of proper ethical values (Puffer and McCarthy 2008). This is only possible
by setting ethical examples themselves. Social learning theory show that people adapt behaviors
though observation and copying the people they admire most (Bandura 1977) hence good
managers set good examples.
Managers can promote ethics in their respective organization through the following activities;
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By conducting their private life in an ethical manner.
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By being practical about achieving success not by just word of mouth but by showing the
employees how to achieve it.
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By being equitable and just in their decision making.
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Discusses the ethics of business and business values with the employees.
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Bearing in mind the best interest of employee.
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Setting good examples on ethical behaviors.
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Consulting with the workers or team before making a decision.
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Being trustworthy.
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Ensuring discipline is imparted on the employees who carry out unethical practices.
Ethics, social responsibility and sustainability
•
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Being good listeners to their employees on matters affecting them or on their various
opinions.
Upholding ethical standards is important as it enables one to be socially responsible and enhance
sustainability in an organization. The management involving corporate responsibility is still wide
and unexplored in terms of scientific experimentation (Lindgreen et al. 2009: p. 252; Russel et
al. 2007;Runhaar and Lafferty 2009).Broadening our scope of view on matters pertaining
corporate responsibility and use it in part of corporate sustainability hence leading to corporate
sustainable responsibility which means pledging to operate in an economically, socially and
environmentally sustainable manner. Morgan et. al reasons that ‘A responsible firm whether
managed by the label of citizenship, social responsibility or sustainability purpose at minimizing
damage and at the same time be able to maximize benefits in its relations with stakeholders’
(2009: p. 41). Corporate responsibility from a changed management point of view shows how
governance and leadership of a corporation can change the corporation culture and get the better
of resistance to change, Doppelt (2010: p. 96). He shows that change in management structures
and processes can provide much better advantage for change to sustainability than to put into
practice certain sustainability initiatives e.g. improving waste disposal mechanism is an
important step towards sustainability but is not an effective pivot of change. Other ways of
maintaining social responsibility include ensuring customers satisfaction is on top of the list,
providing flexible policies to provide a good working balance for employees among others.
Going beyond company’s interest to that of the wider community Solomon argues that in the
‘‘Aristotelian approach’’ to business in the map of the application of business theory to business
ethics is the process of putting into thought of the place of business in society. He suggests that
we understand the point of business in society from a virtue ethics perspective in which business
is seen as ‘a human institution in service to humans and not as a mysterious machine with a
mysterious magic of the market’ (p. 1024). He also says that excellence in business is not only
shown by its dominance and success in practice but also by its role in service to the larger
community. This can be achieved by for example a paper manufacturing company can build a
dam to cater for water for its use in the factory which can also be used by the community
members in irrigating the ir farms in dry season and watering their livestock. They are also the
ones benefiting directly when the company employs people from the community. The company
Ethics, social responsibility and sustainability
4
should also consider proper waste disposal by recycling hence avoiding environmental pollution
at the same time adhering to the environmental conservation measures. The community should
also be able to benefit indirectly from business around by receiving donations e.g. schools in the
community receiving money for buying books as a form of goodwill or giving back to the
community and hence enhancing good community company relations.
Upholding ethical standards and being socially responsible add on the challenges facing effective
managers. This is visible in that many managers are focused mainly on the success of their
business or corporations and would rather push aside the ethical standards and social
responsibility so as to increase the company’s gain in terms of money and success at the expense
of the society. They at times prefer monetary and a rise in rank as a reward rather than ‘‘internal
goods’’ which encompasses a feeling of wellbeing. Some are stuck in between moral dilemma
and financial gains hence it becomes a problem to them. Some managers are driven by market
incentives and hence results to engagement in sustainable practices. Other motivations which
help in regulation of conduct include company and government regulations. A study of the
Newzealand wine industry showed that individual moral and ethical pursuit are key drivers
among companies sustainable practices which are imparted by people at managerial positions.
Good and effective managers follow ethical standards as Hursthouse (1999) argues that the
theory of virtue ethics implies that individuals consign to virtues and ethical conduct because it is
the right thing to do and it is their nature to do so.
Ethics, social responsibility and sustainability
5
Reference list.
1) Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
2) Moore, G. (2005). Humanizing business: A modern virtue ethics
approach. Business Ethics Quarterly, 15(2), 237–255.
3) Solomon, R. C. (2004). Aristotle, ethics and business organizations.
Organization Studies, 25(6), 1021–1043.
4) Hursthouse, R. (1999). On virtue ethics. Oxford: Oxford University
Press.
5) Brown, M. E., Trevin˜o, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical
leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision
Processes, 97, 117–134
6) Klettner, A., Clarke, T., and Boersma, M. (2014). The Governance of Corporate
Sustainability: Empirical Insights into the Development, Leadership and Implementation
of Responsible Business Strategy. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(1): 145 – 65.
7) Shah, S. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility: A Way of Life at the Tata Group.
Journal of Human Values, 20(1), 59 – 74.
8) Wang, Y. (2013). From Virtue Ethics to Virtuous Corporation – Putting Virtues into
Business Practice. PLATFORM: Journal of Media and Communication, 5(1), 131 – 139.
9) Wu, L.Z., Kwan, H. K., Yim, F. H. K., Chiu, R. K., and He, X. (2015). CEO Ethical
Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Moderated Mediation Model. Journal
of Business Ethics,130(4), 819 – 831
Ethics, social responsibility and sustainability
6

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