Write 1000words management essay, Havard style. I have uploaded all the instructions. Please read them very carefully. IMPORTANT: There are 4 compulsory readings which are indicated on the instruction you must you. Besides, you still need at least 6 external sources for this essay. Please read the instruction and sample essay very carefully. And the most important, all the work has to be original. This will be sent to turn it in, any kind of plagiarism will not be accepted. Thank you!!
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MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE
ESSAY: TOPIC AND GUIDELINES
Friday of Week 3 at 11:00p.m.
1,000 words (excluding the reference list)
NATURE OF TASK
This is an individual assessment task.
All students must submit their essay electronically via Turnitin using the link in iLearn by
Friday of Week 3 at 11:00p.m. The length of the Essay should be 1,000 words (excluding the
reference list). Only essays submitted electronically will be marked.
You may make several submissions via Turnitin to check your work for plagiarism and adjust
accordingly up until the due date. If you submit again, after the due date, your submission
will be counted as a late submission and penalties will apply (see Unit Guide).
Please note that for a first-time submission, the similarity report will be available
immediately, but for any subsequent submissions, it will take 24 hours for the similarity report
to be generated in Turnitin. If you cannot access or review your submission via Turnitin in
iLearn, you have not correctly submitted your work, and will need to do so prior to the due
date. If you require assistance submitting through Turnitin, you may lodge a OneHelp Ticket
or refer to the IT help page.
No extensions will be granted unless an application for Special Consideration is made and
approved. Late essays must also be submitted through Turnitin. For late submissions and late
submission penalties, please refer to the Unit Guide.
More information about this task, essay structure and marking criteria is provided in iLearn.
This assessment targets development of students critical thinking skills and encourages
Understand the complex nature of contemporary organisations,
Provide a critical perspective of the academic literature on the topic,
Construct a sustained argument in response to the question,
Utilise and conform to the principles of academic rigour in the production of an
acceptable, formal response to the question.
Feedback will be provided in class. Marks will be available in Gradebook.
This assessment task relates to the following learning outcomes:
Describe and apply fundamental management theories and concepts to business
Critically examine and analyse organisational and management practices.
Analyse management challenges, problems, issues and construct practical solutions.
Use discipline specific terminology to communicate concepts and ideas relevant to
RETENTION OF RECORDS
Students are required to keep a copy of all items submitted or completed for assessment or
evaluation until the end of the grade appeal period. This includes any notes taken during the
process of responding to the essay question.
ESSAY TOPIC: ETHICS, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
MAIN ESSAY QUESTION:
In order to win over competitors and enhance sustainability prospects, organisations need to
manage for ethical standards. As such, managers need to be aware of what constitutes ethical
conduct, and the ways through which they can promote ethics in their respective
organisations. As Ratan Tata puts it, “businesses need to go beyond the interests of their
companies to the communities they serve”.
Explain this view and discuss the arguments for and against managing for ethical standards,
and going beyond company’s interests to that of the wider community. As part of your
response, discuss whether this makes it easier or more challenging to be an effective
You should critically discuss organisational ethics, corporate social responsibility and
sustainability, and include analytical responses to the following related questions:
1. Define ethics, values, social responsibility and sustainability.
2. Discuss the various approaches that managers employ in evaluating and deciding on
ethical dilemmas and socially responsibility issues.
3. How can managers promote ethics in their respective organisations?
4. Discuss the relationship between upholding ethical standards, being socially
responsible and sustainability.
5. What could be achieved by going beyond companys interests to that of the wider
6. Does upholding ethical standards and being socially responsible add on to the
challenges facing effective managers?
Klettner, A., Clarke, T., and Boersma, M. (2014). The Governance of Corporate Sustainability:
Empirical Insights into the Development, Leadership and Implementation of Responsible
Business Strategy. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(1): 145 – 65.
Shah, S. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility: A Way of Life at the Tata Group. Journal of
Human Values, 20(1), 59 74.
Wang, Y. (2013). From Virtue Ethics to Virtuous Corporation Putting Virtues into Business
Practice. PLATFORM: Journal of Media and Communication, 5(1), 131 139.
Wu, L.Z., Kwan, H. K., Yim, F. H. K., Chiu, R. K., and He, X. (2015). CEO Ethical Leadership and
Corporate Social Responsibility: A Moderated Mediation Model. Journal of Business Ethics,
130(4), 819 – 831.
LENGTH AND ESSAY PRESENTATION
The length of the essay, including citations, but excluding the reference list, is 1,000 words.
Include the word count at the end of the essay, and before the reference list. Turnitin similarly
should be 5% or lower.
Use 1.5 line spacing, 2.5 cm margins on top, bottom and on each side, Times New Roman font
size 12. You are required to use the Harvard (AGPS) Referencing style throughout your essay.
All essays must cite a minimum of five (5) academic/scholarly and peer reviewed articles. This
does not include the four (4) compulsory articles featured above. Thus, you should have a
minimum of nine (9) articles, including the four (4) compulsory articles.
Do not use colour printing or formatting templates when submitting your report. Do not
include an executive summary, content section, abstract, footnotes or endnotes. Do not use
headings and subheadings.
Turnitin will check your assignment against over a billion internet articles, academic articles
and previously submitted essays, to identify any cases which should be checked for
plagiarism. Note that the penalties for plagiarism can be severe, and a case of plagiarism,
detected by other means, will still be brought, even if the Turnitin program fails to detect it.
Thus, you must ensure that you submit only your own work, with all sources properly
acknowledged and referenced.
Please ensure that you follow the following structure in your essay:
WRITING STYLE: The essay should be written in a formal and academic style. The essay will
be evaluated for discriminatory language, clarity of expression and overall presentation. Do
not use bullet points, and casual language or bracketed comments. Do not use headings and
subheadings, as they reduce the integration and flow of your essay.
Your essay must be fully and appropriately referenced, using Harvard (AGPS) intext citations.
Substantial marks will be deducted for inadequate, or incorrect, referencing. Aim for, at least,
two (2) in-text citations per 100 words.
FEEDBACK AND MARKING CRITERIA/GUIDELINES: Marks and feedback will be given in class
two weeks after submission. Please review the marking rubric in iLearn. The marking criteria
1. Depth of knowledge and development of a consistent, clear and well-supported
answer to the question.
2. Overall level and quality of synthesis, analysis, critical thinking, support and
substantiation, in terms of key themes, arguments and issues raised in the question.
3. Quality of academic research undertaken, as per:
a. Appropriate number of relevant academic references sourced from peer reviewed
national and international journals, books, edited and refereed book chapters, and
databases. All essays must cite at least nine (9) academic sources.
b. Degree of relevance of sources to the arguments featured in your essay.
c. Employment of correct Harvard (AGPS) Referencing style.
4. Use of appropriate structure, as discussed above.
5. Clarity of expression, grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure and
terminology employed as per management and business glossaries covered in class.
6. Overall essay layout and presentation.
The sample essay below follows many (although not all) of the conventions of a typical
management essay. The introduction outlines the overall topic and then narrows its focus to
the specific aspect of that topic that will be discussed in the essay. However, the
introduction doesnt give a thesis statement (which explains the authors main argument)
or an outline of the structure of the essay. It is a good idea to include both of these things,
although as this essay shows, it is not compulsory.
The main body has a clear and logical structure, with clear topic sentences guiding the
reader through the overall argument by making it clear what the main idea of each
paragraph is. The main body of each paragraph uses in-text citations to provide evidence
and examples that help expand on the idea listed in the topic sentence.
Organizations across the globe respond differently to
complications that they face in modern world. Financial pressure
and economic downturns force firms to apply various strategies in
order to improve organizational performance. Luan, Tien and Chi
(2013) state that downsizing is considered to be a prevailing
strategy to improve performance and effectiveness of an
organization. Downsizing is defined as a conscious systematic
reduction of the number of employees through a deliberately
instituted set of actions by which firms aim to achieve specific
objectives (Rai & Lakshman, 2014). Even though such a tool as
downsizing is used in order to improve the company, it does not
signify that only organizations experiencing hardships downsize, in
fact, growing organizations are just as liable to undertake
downsizing (Trevor & Nyberg, 2008). Williams, Khan and Naumann
(2011) claim that the majority of Fortune 500 companies have
downsized at least once since 1990 and most of these companies
have repeatedly conducted downsizing.
The first two sentences
introduce the overall topic of
how companies respond to
financial problems. The next
two sentences narrow the focus
by looking specifically at the
issue of downsizing and giving
a definition. The last two
sentences explain how common
the practice of downsizing is
and then provides some
Firms implement such a business tool as downsizing widely in their
practices due to various reasons. Firstly, companies undertake
downsizing primarily as a cost cutting measure in order to increase
profitability, remain competitive in the global marketplace, adapt
to the changing environment or even in some cases to survive
(Cascio, 1993, as cited in Trevor & Nyberg, 2008; ArmstrongStassen, Reavley & Ghanam, 2005). Moreover, Luan et al. (2013)
state that downsizing is considered to be a useful tool to reduce
excessive bureaucracy, which assists in cutting organizational costs
and increasing efficiency and is especially effective during an
economic downturn. Furthermore, innovations and technological
advancement force organizations to downsize due to the fact that
they result in increasing productivity and decreasing the number
of workers required (Williams et al., 2011). Hence, downsizing is a
widely used practical tool that can assist an organization in
tackling financial and performance problems in both emerging and
developed economies (Munoz-Bullon & Sanchez-Bueno, 2011, as
cited in Luan et al., 2013).
The first sentence (topic
sentence) explains that the
main idea of this paragraph is a
list of different reasons why
companies downsize. Each of
the next three sentences lists a
different reason why
companies choose to downsize:
to cut costs, to reduce
bureaucracy, and as a response
to advances in technology.
Each reason is taken from a
different source, which is
indicated by the in-text citation.
The final sentence summarises
the main purpose of
Downsizing is a controversial issue that has a tremendous effect
within the workplace. Due to its complexity downsizing has various
impacts on organizations in both short and long runs. A survey held
by Wyatt Associates indicated that a sufficient amount of firms that
had downsized in a 5 year time period had reduced costs and
bureaucracy and increased profits and productivity, however other
studies such as surveys held by Society for Human Resource
Management and Mabert and Schmenner’s study indicated that
approximately half of organizations that had undertaken downsizing
suffered from a decline in productivity (Appelbaum, Everard &
Hung, 1999). In addition to that, Trevor and Nyberg (2008) claim
that downsizing organizations do not manage to reduce expenses by
as much as they desire, whereas in some cases there is an increase
in costs due to downsizing. Trevor and Nyberg (2008) also claim that
financial performance of the organizations that implement
downsizing continues to lag after downsizing efforts are undertaken
and stock value of the organization generally decreases for two
years following downsizing. Furthermore, Nixon, Hitt, Lee and Jeong
(2004) state that, even though organizations may manage to reduce
their costs in the short run due to downsizing, they also lose
valuable resources, notably human capital which has a crucial effect
on organizational performance in the long run. Thus, when massive
layoffs are implemented without thorough planning, especially in
managerial and professional ranks, firms lose unique knowledge,
which is critical for attaining competitive advantage in the long run
(Nixon et al., 2004).
Layoffs and alternative methods of downsizing have a massive
impact not only on organization as a whole but also on all
individuals involved in the process, especially on victims and
survivors. While victims (i.e. people who lose their positions) might
appear to be more affected by layoffs, in fact, it is survivors (i.e.
people who remain) who experience more negative effects (Maertz,
Wiley, Lerouge & Campion, 2010). Luan et al. (2013) claim that
immediate negative survivor outcomes of downsizing are distrust,
loss of morale and decrease in productivity, besides of that
employees tend to become narrow-minded, self-centered and risk
averse. In addition to that, Van Dierendock and Jacobs (2012) state
that organizations that downsize experience lowered organizational
commitment among survivors, which has a tremendous effect on
the organizational performance in the long run. Thus, considering all
the negative employee-related outcomes of downsizing,
organizations that undertake downsizing should pay special
attention to their employees.
This topic sentence explains
that the main idea of this
paragraph is that downsizing is
We can see that although this
paragraph discusses a different
idea from the previous
paragraph, they are connected
in a way that develops the
overall argument. Whereas the
previous paragraph listed some
benefits of downsizing, this
paragraph introduces the idea
that not everyone thinks that
downsizing is effective.
The rest of the paragraph
explains why it is considered
controversial, using a variety of
different sources to explain
some of the criticisms of
The topic sentence of this
paragraph explains that the
main idea is the effect of
downsizing on staff.
Again, we can see how the
argument is developing in this
essay, as the focus is
narrowing. Whereas the
previous paragraph focused on
negative effects of downsizing
on the company, this
paragraph examines negative
effects of downsizing on staff
In the final sentence, the
author gives his/her opinion by
making a recommendation
based on the information given
previously in the paragraph.
Success of downsizing is impacted by various factors and can be
measured differently. The most significant factor in defining the
success of downsizing is considered to be employees perception of
downsizing fairness, due to its relation with morale, trust and
productivity of employees (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007; Van
Dierendonck & Jacobs, 2012; Maertz et al., 2010; Rai & Lakshman,
2014; Trevor & Nyberg, 2008). Iverson and Zatzick (2007) state that
employees who consider downsizing to be unfair tend to suffer
more from stress and job dissatisfaction, which results in inability to
work efficiently. Moreover, the harshness of the undertaken
downsizing strategy has a vital impact on employees and their short
and long run productivity (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007). Organizations
that implement less harsh downsizing strategies such as voluntary
layoffs and alternative downsizing strategies (e.g. redeployment)
tend to lose less productivity in the long run comparing to
organizations that implement harsher strategies such as compulsory
layoffs (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007). Furthermore, organizational
culture has a significant impact on the survivors commitment, due
to the fact that survivor reactions to layoffs are more positive in
organizations with stronger work culture (Rai & Lakshman, 2014).
The topic sentence tells us that
the argument is now moving to
how the success of downsizing
can be measured. The second
sentence explains that
employee perception is the
best measure of whether
downsizing can be considered
Nowadays organizations still do not clearly perceive which is the
most efficient managerial strategy and specifically whether
downsizing is an efficient solution to performance problems.
However, various studies (Maertz et al., 2010; Nixon et al., 2004;
Williams et al., 2011) claim that even though downsizing may solve
short run problems, it has a negative impact on organizational
performance in the long run, thus such a business tool as
downsizing should be avoided if it is possible. Although downsizing
is generally considered to be a strategy that should be avoided,
there are some factors that lead to reduction of negative impacts of
downsizing on organizational performance. Van Dierendonck and
Jacobs (2007) claim that organizations that undertake downsizing
should pay special attention to survivors perception of downsizing
fairness, due to its strong correlation with employees
organizational commitment. Another factor that should be
considered is the harshness of the downsizing strategy, as there is
positive correlation between downsizing harshness level and
reduction of organizational efficiency (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007).
The first two sentences of the
final main body paragraph are
moving the reader towards
understanding the authors
overall position (or thesis). The
first sentence summarises how
complex the issue is. The
second sentence provides the
authors opinion (supported by
evidence from various studies)
that downsizing should be
avoided if possible.
In conclusion, downsizing is considered to be a very controversial
managerial strategy that should be avoided if it is possible. If it is
not possible to avoid this measure, downsizing should be
thoroughly planned and implemented in the least harsh manner and
with special attention to such details as survivors perception of
downsizing fairness and organizational work culture.
The conclusion is very short but
makes clear the authors
opinion) on the topic.
The rest of the paragraph
explains the link between
different methods of
downsizing and the effects
they have on staff.
The rest of the paragraph
explains the most effective
strategies for downsizing,
based on supporting evidence.
WMGM102, Essay Marking Rubric: Ethics, Social Responsibility and Sustainability
Criteria and their
loading (in %)
Addressing the main
essay question (15%)
Focus on the topic
Identification of issues
application of the
OR Student is
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