2-3 pages of sociological reflection

Write 2-3 pages of sociological reflection.Analyze 3 readings attached below carefully and write not only a summary but deeply analyzed context in the reflection.The refection should take the form of either a thematic connection between the readings and a discussion of the meaning–how practice is manifest in culture. Also, please reflect on 3 of the articles below.Bellah. Tokugawa Religion. 51-70Nukariya. The History of Zen in Japan. 28-51Griffis. Myths and Rituals of Shinto. 37-58
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CHAPTEE
HISTORY
OF
II
ZBN IN JAPAN
The Establishment of the Rin Zai1 School of Zen
in Japan. — The introduction of Zen into the island empire
is dated as early as the seventh century ; 2 but it was in
1.
that it was first established by Ei-sai, a man of bold,
energetic nature.
He crossed the sea for China at the age
of twenty-eight in 1168, after his profound study of the
1191
The Lin Tsi school was started by Nan Yoh, a prominent disciple
of the Sixth Patriarch, and completed by Lin Tsi or Bin Zai.
2 Zen was first introduced into Japan
by Do sho (629-700) as early
as 653-656, at the time when the Fifth Patriarch just entered his
patriarchal career.
Do-sho went over to China in 653, and met with
Hiien Tsang, the celebrated and great scholar, who taught him the
1
doctrine of the Dharma-laksana.
It was Hiien Tsang who advised
Zen
under
Hwui
Man (E-man). After returning
Do-sho to study
home, he built a Meditation Hall for the purpose of practising Zen in
the Gan-go monastery, Nara.
Thus Zen was first transplanted into
Japan by Do-sho, but it took no root in the soil at that time.
Next a Chinese Zen teacher,
Kung (Gi-ku), came over to Japan in
about 810, and under his instruction the Empress Danrin, a most
enthusiastic Buddhist, was enlightened. She erected a monastery
named Dan-rin-ji, and appointed 1 Kung the abbot of it for the sake
I
I
of propagating the faith. It being of no purpose, however,
Kung
went back to China after some years.
Thirdly, Kaku-a in 1171 went over to China, where he studied Zen
under Fuh Hai (Buk-kai), who belonged to the Yang Ki (Yo-gi)
school, and came home after three years.
Being questioned by the
Emperor Taka-kura (1169-1180) about the doctrine of Zen, he uttered
no word, but took up a flute and played on it. But his first note was
too high to be caught by the ordinary ear, and was gone without
producing any echo in the court nor in society at large.
28
HISTORY OF ZEN IN JAPAN
29
Tripitaka1
Monastery,2
for “eight years in the Hi-yei
the then centre of Japanese Buddhism. After visiting holy
places and great monasteries, he came home, bringing with
him over thirty different books on the doctrine of the Tenwhole
Dai Sect.3
This, instead of quenching, added fuel to his
burning desire for adventurous travel abroad. So he crossed
the sea over again in 1187, this time intending to make
pilgrimage to India ; and no one can tell what might have
been the result
if the Chinese authorities did not forbid
him to cross the border.
Thereon he turned his attention
years’
discipline suc
to the study of Zen, and after five
ceeded in getting sanction for his spiritual attainment by
the
Hii Ngan (Kio-an),
a noted
master of the
Rin Zai
school, the then abbot of the monastery of Tien Tung Shan
(Ten-do-san).
His active propaganda of Zen was com
menced soon after his return in 1191 with splendid success
temple4
at a newly built
in the province of Chiku-zen. In
1202 Yori-iye, the Sh5gun, or the real governor of the
of Ken-nin-ji
in the city of Kyo-to, and invited him to proceed to the
metropolis.
Accordingly he settled himself down in that
state at that time, erected the monastery
temple, and taught
activity.
Zen with his characteristic
The three divisions of the Buddhist canon, viz. :
(1) Sutra-pitaka, or a collection of doctrinal books.
(2) Vinaya-pitaka, or a collection of works on discipline.
(3) Abhidharma-pitaka, or a collection of philosophical and expository
works.
2 The great
monastery erected in 788 by Sai-cho (767-822), the
Japanese
founder of the
Ten Dai Sect, known as Den Gyo Dai Shi.
1
I
The sect was named after its founder in China, Chi (538-597);
who lived in the monastery of Tien Tai Shan (Ten-dai-san), and was
called the Great Teacher of Tien Tai.
In 804 Den-gyo went over to
Imperial
China by the
order, and received the transmission of the
doctrine from Tao Sui (Do-sui), a patriarch of the sect. After his
return he erected a monastery on Mount Hi-yei, which became the
centre of Buddhistic learning.
* He erected
the monastery of Sho-fuku-ji in 1195, which is still
3
prospering.
THE RELIGION OF THE SAMURAI
30
This provoked the envy and wrath of the Ten Dai and
the Shin Gon 1 teachers, who presented memorials to the
Imperial court to protest against his propagandism of the
new faith. Taking advantage of the protests, Ei-sai wrote
Ko-zen-go-koku-ron (‘ The Protection of the
State by the Propagation of Zen
and not only explained
ignorance2
his own position, but exposed the
of the pro’),
a book entitled
Thus at last his merit was appreciated by the
Emperor Tsuchi-mikado (1199-1210), and he was promoted
to S5 Jo, the highest rank in the Buddhist priesthood,
together with the gift of
purple robe in 1206. Some time
a
testants.
after this he went to the city of Kama-kura, the political
centre, being invited by Sane-tomo, the Shogun, and laid
the so-called
prospering at the present moment.
foundation
the
of
Kama-kura
Zen,
still
The Introduction of the S5-T6 School3 of Zen.—
Although the Rin Zai school was, as mentioned above,
pure Zen
established by Ei-sai, yet he himself was not
a
2.
a
Ten Dai scholar as well as an experienced
teacher, being
practiser of Mantra.
The first establishment of Zen in its
a
is
based on MahavairocanabhiThe Shin Gon or Mantra Sect
sambodhi-sutra, Vajracekhara-sutra, and other Mantra- sutras. It was
established in China by Vajrabodhi and his disciple Amoghavajra,
who came from India in 720.
Ku kai (774-835), well known as
Ko Bo Dai Shi, went to China in 804, and received the transmission
disciple of Amoghavajra.
of the doctrine from Hwui Kwo (Kei-ka),
In
806 he came back and propagated
the faith almost all over the
the detail see A Short History of the Twelve Japanese
Buddhist Sects (chap, viii.), by Dr. Nanjo.

For

country.
2
Sai-cho, the founder of the Japanese Ten Dai Sect, first learned
the doctrine of the Northern School of Zen under Gyo-hyo (died in
797), and afterwards he pursued the study of the same faith under
Siao Jan in China.
Therefore to oppose the propagation of Zen is,
for Ten Dai priests, as much as to oppose the founder of their own
sect.
3
by Tsing. Yuen (Sei-genl, an eminent
disciple of the Sixth Patriarch, and completed by Tung Shan (To-zan).
This school
was
started
HISTORY OF ZEN IN JAPAN
31
Jo Yo Dai
Hi-yei
Monastery
Shi. Like Ei-sai, he was admitted into the
purest form was done by Do-gen, now known as
at an early age, and devoted himself to the study of the
Canon.
As his scriptural knowledge increased, he was
troubled by inexpressible doubts and fears, as is usual with
great religious teachers.
Consequently, one day he con
sulted his uncle, K6-in, a distinguished Ten Dai scholar,
about his troubles.
him, recommended
faith.
The latter, being unable to satisfy
him Ei-sai, the founder of the new
But as Ei-sai died soon afterwards, he felt that he
had no competent teacher left,
and crossed the sea
for
in 1223.
There he was
admitted into the monastery of Tien Tung Shan (Ten-dosan), and assigned the lowest seat in the hall, simply
Against this affront he strongly
because he was a foreigner.
China, at the age of twenty-four,
protested.
In
the Buddhist community,
he said, all were
nationality.
brothers, and there was no difference of
The
only way to rank the brethren was by seniority, and he
therefore claimed to occupy his proper rank. Nobody,
however, lent an ear to the poor new-comer’s protest, so
he appealed twice to the Chinese Emperor Ning Tsung
(1195-1224), and by the Imperial order he gained his object.
study and discipline, he was Enlightened
acknowledged
as the successor by his master Jii Tsing
and
(Nyo-jo died in 1228), who belonged to the Tsao Tung
After four
(So To) school. He came home in 1227, bringing with
him three important Zen books.1
Some three years he
did what Bodhidharma, the Wall-gazing Brahmin, had
done seven hundred years before him, retiring to a hermiKing San Mei (Ho-kyo-san-mai, ‘Precious Mirror Samadhi’),
exposition
of Zen, by Tung Shan (To-zan, 806-869), one of
a metrical
the founders of the So To school.
(2) Wu Wei Hien Hiieh (Go-i-kenketsu, ‘Explanation of the Five Categories’), by Tung Shan and his
disciple Tsao Shan (So-zan).
This book shows us how Zen was
systematically taught by the authors. (3) Pih Yen Tsih (Heki-ganshu, ‘A Collection and Critical Treatment of Dialogues
by Yuen Wu.
(1) Pao
‘),
1
THE RELIGION OF THE SAMURAI
32
tage at Fuka-kusa, not very far from Kyo-to.
Just like
Bodhidharma, denouncing all worldly fame and gain, his
attitude toward the world was diametrically opposed to
As we have seen above, Ei-sai never
shunned, but rather sought the society of the powerful and
Ei-sai.
that of
the rich, and made for his goal by every means.
But to
Do-gen
the Sage of Fuka-kusa, as
was called at that time,
pomp and power was the most disgusting thing in the
world.
Judging from his poems, he seems to have spent
these years
chiefly in meditation ; dwelling now on the
transitoriness of life, now on the eternal peace of Nirvana ;
now on the vanities and miseries of the world ; now listen
ing to the voices of Nature amongst the hills ; now gazing
into the brooklet that was, as he thought, carrying away
his image reflected on it into the world.
of Do-gen, the Founder of the
—
To Sect. In the meantime seekers after a
3. The Characteristics
Japanese
So
new truth gradually began to knock at his door, and his
hermitage was turned into a monastery, now known as the
Temple
Ko-sho-ji.1
It
was at this time that many
Buddhist scholars and men of quality gathered about him,
of
but the more popular he became the more disgusting the
place became to him. His hearty desire was to live in a
solitude among mountains,
far distant from human abodes,
but falling waters and singing birds could
Therefore he gladly
disturb his delightful meditation.
accepted the invitation of a feudal lord, and went to the
where
none
It was
in this monastery (built in 1236) that Zen was first taught
independent
sect, and that the Meditation Hall was first opened
as an
in Japan. Do-gen lived in the monastery for eleven years, and wrote
Za-zen-gi (‘ The Method of Practising
some of the important books.
1
the Cross-legged
Meditation ‘) was written soon after his return from
China, and Ben-do-wa and other essays followed, which are included
in his great work, entitled Sho-bo-gen-zo (‘ The Eye and Treasury of
the
Right Law’).
HISTORY OF ZEN IN JAPAN
33
province of Echi-zen, where his ideal monastery was built,
now known as
In
1247,
Ei-hei-ji.1
being
requested
by Toki-yori,
Begent
the
General (1247-1263), he came down to Kama-kura, where
he stayed half a year and went back to Ei-hei-ji.
After
some time
Toki-yori, to show his gratitude for the master,
drew up a certificate granting a large tract of land as the
property of Ei-hei-ji, and handed it over to Gen-myo, a
disciple of Do-gen.
The carrier of the certificate was so
pleased with the donation that he displayed it to all his
brethren and produced it before the master, who severely
reproached him saying: “0, shame on thee, wretch!
Thou art defiled by the desire of worldly riches even to
thy inmost soul, just as noodle is stained with oil. Thou
canst not be purified from it to all eternity.
am afraid
Law.”
thou wilt bring shame on the Bight
On the spot
I
Gen-myo was deprived of his holy robe and excommunicated.
Furthermore, the master ordered the ‘ polluted ‘ seat in the
Meditation Hall, where Gen-myo
was wont
to sit, to be
‘ polluted ‘
removed, and the
earth under the seat to be dug
out to the depth of seven feet.
the ex-Emperor Go-sa-ga (1243-1246) sent a
special messenger twice to the Ei-hei monastery to do
honour to the master with the donation of a purple robe,
In
1250
but he declined to accept it.
:
it,
And when the mark of dis
tinction was offered for the third time, he accepted
expressing his feelings by the following verses
leap,
it
” Although in Ei-hei’s vale the shallow
waters
Yet thrice came, Imperial favour deep.
The Ape may smile and laugh the Crane
At aged Monk in purple as insane.”
1
The monastery was built in 1244 by Yoshi-shige (Hatano), the
He lived in Ei-hei-ji until his death,
still flourishing as the head temple of
the So To Sect.
3
is
feudal lord who invited Do-gen.
which took place in 1253. It
THE RELIGION OF THE SAMURAI
34
He was never seen putting on the purple robe, being always
clad in black, that was better suited to his secluded life.
The Social State of Japan when Zen was estab
lished by Ei-sai and D6-gen. — Now we have to observe
4.
the condition of the country when Zen was introduced into
Japan by Ei-sai and Do-gen.
Nobilities that had so long
governed the island were nobilities no more. Enervated
by their luxuries, effeminated by their ease, made insipient
All
by their debauchery, they were entirely powerless.
that they possessed in reality was the nominal rank and
hereditary birth. On the contrary, despised as the ignorant,
sneered at as the upstart, put in contempt as the vulgar,
the Samurai or military
everything in their
Yori-tomo1
when
(1148-1199)
class
had
It was the time
hands.
conquered all over the empire, and established the Samurai
Government at Kama-kura. It was the time when even the
emperorB were dethroned or exiled at will by the Samurai.
It was the time when even the Buddhist monks2 frequently
It was the time when
took up arms to force their will.
Japan’s independence was endangered by Kublai, the terror
of the world. It was the time when the whole nation was
full of martial spirit. It is beyond doubt that to these
rising Samurais, rude and simple, the philosophical doc
trines of Buddhism, represented by Ten Dai and Shin Gon,
But in
were too complicated and too alien to their nature.
Zen they could find something
something
congenial
to their nature,
that touched their chord of sj’mpathy, because
Zen was the doctrine of chivalry in a certain sense.
The Samurai Government was first established by Yoritomo, of
the Minamoto family, in 1186, and Japan was under the control of the
military class until 1867, when the political power was finally restored
to the Imperial house.
1
They were degenerated monks (who were called monk-soldiers),
belonging to great monasteries such as En-ryaku-ji (Hi-yei), Ko-fuku-ji
(at Nara), Mi-i-dera, etc.
2
HISTORY
OF ZEN
IN JAPAN
35
Resemblance of the Zen Monk to the Samurai.
— Let us point out in brief the similarities between Zen and
Japanese chivalry. First,, both the Samurai and the Zen
monk have to undergo a strict discipline and endure priva
5. The
Even such a prominent teacher
tion without complaint.
as Ei-sai, for example, lived contentedly in such needy
circumstances
that on one occasion1 he and his disciples
had nothing to eat for several days. Fortunately, they
were requested by a believer to recite the Scriptures, and
presented with two rolls of silk. The hungry young monks,
whose mouths watered already at the expectation of a longlooked-for dinner, were disappointed when that silk was given
to a poor man, who called on Ei-sai to obtain some help.
Fast continued for a whole week, when another poor fellow
came in and asked Ei-sai to give something.
At this time,
having nothing to show his substantial mark of sympathy
towards the poor, Ei-sai tore off the gilt glory of the image
of Buddha Bhecajya and gave it. The young monks, bitten
both by hunger and by anger at this outrageous act to the
object of worship, questioned Ei-sai by way of reproach :
” Is
it,
sir, right for us Buddhists to demolish the image of
“Well,”
Buddha?”
replied Ei-sai
6.
dote clearly shows us self-sacrifice
the Zen discipline.
The
is
a
promptly, “Buddha
give
even his own life for the sake of suffering people.
would
How could he be reluctant to give his halo?” This anec
of first importance in
Honest Poverty of the Zen Monk
Samurai. — Secondly,
the
so-called
honest
and the
a
is
is
poverty
characteristic of both the Zen monk and the Samurai.
To
against the rules of Japanese
get rich by an ignoble means
The incident
is
1
chivalry or Bushido. The Samurai would rather starve
than to live by some expedient unworthy of his dignity.
There are many instances, in the Japanese history, of
told by Do-gen in his Zui-mon-ki
THE RELIGION OF THE SAMURAI
36
Samurais who were really starved to death in spite of their
having a hundred pieces of gold carefully preserved to meet
the expenses at the time
of an emergency
;
hence
the
proverb: “The falcon would not feed on the ear of corn,
starve.”
Similarly, we know of no case
even if he should
of Zen monks, ancient and modern, who got rich by any
ignoble means.
They would rather face poverty with glad
Fu-gai, one of the most distinguished
ness of heart.
Zen
masters just before the Bestoration, supported many student
monks in his monastery.
They were often too numerous
to be supported by his scant means.
This troubled his
disciple much whose duty it was to look after the foodsupply, as there was no other means to meet the increased
demand than to supply with worse stuff. Accordingly, one
day the disciple advised Fu-gai not to admit new students
Then the master, making
any more into the monastery.
no reply, lolled out his tongue and said: “Now look into
it.” The
my mouth, and tell if there be any tongue in
” Then don’t
perplexed disciple answered affirmatively.
bother yourself
taste any sort
about it.
food.”
of
If
there be any tongue,
I
can
Honest poverty may, without
called
one of the characteristics of the
Samurais and of the Zen monks ; hence a proverb : ” The
nothing.”
Zen monk has no money, moneyed Monto1 knows
exaggeration,
be
The Manliness of the Zen Monk and of the
Samurai.— Thirdly, both the Zen monk and the Samurai
r
were distinguished
and dignity in
by their manliness
7.
manner,
sometimes amounting to rudeness.
This is due
partly to the hard discipline that they underwent, and
partly to the mode of instruction. The following story,2
translated by Mr. D. Suzuki, a friend of mine, may well
exemplify our statement :
1
2
The priest belonging to Shin Shu, who are generally rich.
The Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1906-1907.
HISTORY
OF ZEN
IN JAPAN
37
” When Bin-zai1 was assiduously
applying himself to
Zen discipline under Obak (Huang Po in Chinese, who
One day
died 850), the head monk recognized his genius.
the monk asked him how long he had been in the monastery,
years.’

to which Bin-zai replied :
Three
The elder said :

Have you ever approached the master and asked his
Buddhism?’
instruction in
Bin-zai said:
have never
ask.’ ‘
Why, you
done this, for
did not know what to
might go to the master and ask him what is the essence of
‘I
I
?’
Buddhism
” Bin-zai,
according to this advice, approached Obak and
repeated the question, but before he finished
gave him a slap.
” When Rin-zai
the master
came back, the elder asked how the
I
Said Rin-zai : ‘ Before
interview went.
could finish my
question the master slapped me, but
fail to grasp its
meaning.’

The elder said : You go to him again and ask
question.’
the same
When he did so, he received the same
response from the master.
But Rin-zai was urged again
I
to
try it for the third time, but the outcome did not
improve.
” At last he went to the elder,
and said

In
obedience to
your kind suggestion,
have repeated my question three
times, and been slapped three times.
deeply regret that,
I
owing to my stupidity,
I
I
am unable to comprehend
hidden meaning of all this.
go
somewhere
else.’
:
I
the
shall leave this place and
Said the elder: ‘If you wish to
depart, do not fail to go and see the master to say him
farewell.’
“Immediately after this the elder saw the master, and
said : ‘ That young novice, who asked about Buddhism
three times, is a remarkable fellow.
When he comes to
take leave of you, be so gracious …
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