215 Words Abstract

1). Psychological PurposeThe psychological purpose behind the Methods II Preview Assignment is to give you a brief preview to the paper you will write in Methods II next semester. Not only do I want you to see what will go into your eventual Methods II research paper, but I also want to make sure that you can write a clear, succinct paragraph for a research study that covers all of the relevant information needed to convey the important parts of a study in a single paragraph (i.e., an Abstract).The Abstract is one of the first items readers see. You need to convey a lot of information in this very short paragraph, as the potential reader will decide whether to read your full paper based on the information in the Abstract. There are several elements needed in the Abstract about research studies, including information about: a). the research question(s), b). the participants, c). the experimental methodology, d). the findings, and e). the conclusions / implications. Being able to write a precise yet succinct Abstract takes some effort, so make sure you go through several drafts before settling on your final version. Make sure to include keywords / key phrases as well (keywords are an essential part of articles, as these are the words or phrases that library databases like PsycINFO provide to searchers interested in specific topics).2). APA Formatting PurposeThis Article Critique assignment should once again assess your ability to follow APA formatting guidelines. Use your APA Publication book to ensure you don’t lose points in this area3). Writing PurposeI want to make sure you can write clearly and specifically, summarizing what might be a 20 page paper in a single paragraph. This assignment serves that purpose. Methods II Preview Assignment (Worth 40 Points)You will read a paper written by an actual Research Methods and Design II student from a prior semester. This paper includes two studies the student conducted, with Study One introducing the main variables and Study Two offering an extension with replication of Study One. Your job is to read the whole paper and then complete the following:Title Page (2 points)For your title page, follow the same guidelines as your article critique paper. You can include the same title and header as the study you are looking at, but make sure to put YOUR OWN NAME as the author.Your assignment should be in APA format in all respects (appropriate headers with running head and page numbers; correct references where needed; correct alignment of the headings, subheadings, fonts, spacing, etc.)In Part One, I want you to answer the following prompts about the example paper. For APA purposes, indicate ‘Part One’ as your Level 1 heading [3.03], followed by these questions with your answers:What is the hypothesis for study one? Please give me both the null and alternative hypotheses when you answer this questionWhat is the independent variable(s) for study one? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IVWhat is the dependent variable(s) for study one? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed.What did they find in study one? Give the general outcomeWhat is the hypothesis for study two? Please give me both the null and alternative hypotheses when you answer this questionWhat is the independent variable(s) for study two? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IVWhat is the dependent variable(s) for study two? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed.What did they find in study two? Give the general outcomeI want you to review the references and spot the reference(s) that is (are) not in APA format and rewrite it for me according to APA rules. Note: there may be as few as zero and as many as ten incorrect references, so make sure to look at them all!In Part Two, write an abstract for the paper! This should be fairly easy, as you can paraphrase the information from Part One. However, this time you need to write it in one short paragraph (150 to 200 word maximum!). Note: there are two studies, and you have to mention both. Yes, this is tough, but authors often summarize (in the same short abstract) papers that they wrote that may include six or seven different studies! My suggestion is to find the overlap between both studies and discuss both simultaneously. For example, “Both studies looked at X, but study two also examined Y.” Make sure your abstract starts at the top of its own page (it should be all on its own). Your abstract should include the following (2 points each, or 14 points total):Include the word “Abstract” as a Level 1 heading (but not bolded)Identify the general problem or research question (the hypotheses) for both studies.Note the participants for both studiesNote the IVs and DVs for the studiesNote the findings for both studiesNote the overall conclusions / implications of the two studiesInclude keywords for the studyWriting Quality (6 points)Avoid run-on sentences, sentence fragments, spelling errors, and grammar errors.The writing should be PERFECT here. You will lose points for each writing error, so proofread, proofread, and proofread some more!
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Running head: COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
The Influence of Color Priming and Forewarning on Anagram Performance
A. Student
Florida International University
1
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
Abstract
Methods One Students: Typically, authors add their abstract for the paper here on the second
page. As you can see, the abstract for this paper is missing. Your job is to supply that abstract!
Read over the following paper, which is an actual paper turned in by a former student taking
Research Methods and Design II at FIU. This is similar to a paper you will write next semester.
Review the studies in this paper, and spot the hypotheses, independent and dependent variables,
participants, results, and implications, and write it up in one paragraph (no more than 200 words
maximum). Make sure to include keywords as well (keywords are words or short phrases that
researchers use when searching through online databases like PsycInfo – they need to be
descriptive of the paper, so come up with three or four that seem to suit this paper). Good luck!
Keywords: Methods II Paper, Abstract Assignment, Methods II Preview
2
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
3
The Influence of Color Priming and Forewarning on Anagram Performance
Colors are an essential part of life, from warning us of poisonous creatures to describing
our emotions, they have proven their worth. Certain colors can be perceived in specific situations
or attributed to a particular emotion. For instance, priming of sadness can lead to perception of
the color blue, whereas priming of anger can lead to perception of the color red (Fetterman,
Robinson, Gordon, & Elliot, 2011). The central aim of our study is to explore the effect priming
with a specific color has on anagram performance.
Priming is defined as the unconscious influence that a stimulus has on the agility or
accuracy in performing a task (Schacter & Rajendra, 2001). According to Jefferis and Fazio
(2008), priming impacts behaviors by informing the person if they have met the demands of the
situation. The influence priming has on behavior is shaped by what one perceives in a particular
situation. For example, priming the color red in the context of romantic attraction would have a
different response than priming the color red in an achievement situation, situations in which
there is a possibility for success or failure and competence is measured (Elliot, Maier, Binser,
Friedman, & Pekrun, 2009). In the context of romantic attraction, the color red unconsciously
increases perceived attractiveness of another person (Elliot & Niesta, 2008). With regards to
achievement, the color red elicits avoidance behavior due to its association with factors such as
the red in alarms that suggest danger (Elliot, Maier, Moller, Friedman, & Meinhardt, 2007; Elliot
et al., 2009).
To study the influence that red has on achievement, Elliot et al. (2007) designed a study
that involved color priming and used anagram performance as a representation of achievement.
In one of the experiments conducted, the colors red, green, and black were used to test anagram
performance. Participants were assigned to the color conditions (red, green, or black) through the
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
4
process of random assignment. First participants were given a practice test and later they were
given the real anagram test. Before completing the real anagram test, participants were told to
check that all of the pages contained their participant number. The numbers were written in red,
green, or black ink at the top of every page of the test. Results showed that exposure to red,
compared to green or black, on achievement tasks impaired performance.
In accordance with the idea that color affects performance, Steele (2014) recreated a
study that hypothesized that words associated with avoidance were solved faster on a red
background and words associated with approaching were solved faster on a blue background.
Participants were asked to complete an anagram task in which instructions for the task were
written in black letters on a white, red, or blue background. The words were linked to activating
either approach, avoidance, or neutral motivation. The findings opposed those of the previous
study that Steele (2014) replicated. The previous study reported that a red background would
result in faster solution of avoidance words and that a blue background would result in faster
solution of approach words. Steele’s 2014 study found that words classified as avoidance were
solved slower on the red background compared to approach and neutral words. Similarly, words
classified as approach were solved slower on the blue background. An implication as to why the
result of the replicated study were contradictory to those of the original study suggested that
words classified as avoidance, approach, or neutral were actually classified in the wrong group.
Study One
To further explore the impact that color priming has on anagram performance, we
designed a study in similar fashion to Elliot et al. (2007), in which participants completed an
anagram task after priming for a specific color. Each participant was given an identical anagram
task to complete but with instructions for the anagram task written in red, green, or black ink. We
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
5
predicted that participants given red ink will perform worse on the anagram task than those
given green or black ink instructions. That is, red ink participants will correctly unscramble
fewer words than participants given both green ink and black ink, whom we do not expect will
differ in their anagram performance. We also predicted that participants given red ink (compared
to green or black ink) will find the anagram task more challenging for themselves and others and
will find it more frustrating. They will also think that they will perform worse on the task when
given red ink. However, we predicted that all participants, regardless of ink color, will believe
that the ink color did not affect them.
Method
Participants
There were 115 participants in our study. Of these, 55 were male (47.8%) and 60 were
female (52.2%). The age of the sample ranged from 12 to 69 (M = 26.22, SD = 9.63). This
included 19.1% Caucasian (N = 22), 59.1% Hispanic (N = 68), 6.1% Native American (N = 7),
5.2% African American (N = 6), 4.3% Asian (N = 5), and 6.1% of participants chose to not
report their ethnicity (N = 7).
Materials and Procedure
Potential participants were randomly approached and informed of the possible risks and
benefits of participating in the study. If the potential participant verbally agreed to take part in
the study, he or she was presented with one of three anagram questionnaires. The questionnaires
contained instructions written in red, green, or black ink; this color manipulation was our
independent variable. Each of the anagram questionnaires consisted of three identical parts and
only differentiated in the color with which the instructions were written.
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
6
In the first part of the questionnaire, the participants were given a timed anagram task to
complete. Without hinting to the color manipulation, participants were reminded to read the
questionnaire instructions carefully and to inform the researcher when they were ready to begin
so that the researcher could start the timer. The anagram task consisted of 20 scrambled words
that the participants had to unscramble by using all of the original letters to form a new word.
For example, BMTUH had to be correctly unscrambled to spell out the word THUMB. The
participants were given three minutes to unscramble as many words as they could and were
notified when they had one minute left to finish the task. After the three minutes, participants
were told to stop and to move on to the next part of the questionnaire.
Part two of the questionnaire consisted of six questions about the anagram task that the
participants completed. These six questions were part of our dependent variables. In the first four
questions the participants recorded their response on a scale of one to nine. In these questions the
participant recorded how challenging the task was for them (1 = not at all challenging, 9 =
extremely challenging), how challenging they thought other participants found the task (1 = not
at all challenging, 9 = extremely challenging), how frustrating they found the task (1 = not at all
frustrating, 9 = very frustrating), and how they thought they did on the anagram task (1 = very
poorly, 9 = very well). The fifth question asked the participants to recall the color of the ink used
for the instructions (red, green, black, or blue), which gave us insight as to whether the
participants did or did not pay attention to the study manipulation. The last question asked the
participants the extent to which the color ink on the instructions influenced their performance on
the anagram task (1 = decreased my number correct, 9 = increased my number correct).
Part three of the questionnaire asked for the participants’ demographic information. The
participants were asked about their gender, age, race/ ethnicity, whether or not English was their
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
7
first language, if they were a student at Florida International University, and if they were
colorblind. Participants were informed that they were free to leave blank any of the questions
they did not wish to answer in this section. At the end of the study, the participants were
debriefed on the study conditions and hypothesis and were given the answer key to the correct
unscrambled word for the anagram task. Once the study was completed and the participants
debriefed, we used the answer key to determine the number of correct anagrams the participant
solved. Participants were given one point for each anagram they correctly unscrambled so that
the scores would range from 0 – 20.
Our study consisted of seven dependent variables; however, the main dependent variable
of our study is the number of correct anagrams the participants solved. We predicted that
participants given instructions in red ink would perform worse on the anagram task than those
given green or black ink instructions. We also predicted that all participants, regardless of ink
color, will believe that the ink color did not affect them.
Results
A chi-square test was done to determine if participants correctly recalled the color of the
ink used in the instructions. Using color manipulation (red, green, or black) as our independent
variable and the color ink participants recalled seeing as the dependent variable, we saw a
significant effect, X2(6) = 153.38, p < .001. Participants in the red condition recalled seeing red (87.2%); participants in the green condition recalled seeing green (84.6%); and participants in the black condition recalled seeing black (83.8%). Phi showed a large effect. This indicated that participants were cognizant of our manipulation (the color of the instructions). To evaluate our main dependent variable, we ran a One-Way ANOVA with color manipulation (red v. green v. black) as our independent variable and the number of anagrams COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING participants correctly solved as our dependent variable. The ANOVA was significant, F(2, 112) = 7.20, p < .05. In order to investigate differences in the means, we ran a Tukey LSD post hoc test. This showed that participants solved fewer anagrams in the red condition (M = 4.87, SD = 1.34) than in both the green (M = 5.72, SD = 1.16) and black (M = 6.10, SD = 1.81) conditions. The green and black groups, however, did not differ from each other. This supported our hypothesis that participants given instructions in red ink would perform worse on the anagram task than participants who were given instructions in green or black ink. Another dependent variable we were interested in was whether or not participants believed that the color of ink used in the instructions affected the number of anagrams they correctly solved. To evaluate this, we ran a One-Way ANOVA with color manipulation (red v. green v. black) as our independent variable and participant belief of color influence as our dependent variable. The ANOVA was not significant, F(2, 112) = 1.54, p > .05. This supported
our hypothesis that, regardless of ink color, participants would believe the color ink used in the
instructions did not affect them. In this situation, participants in the red condition (M = 3.18, SD
= 1.59), the green condition (M = 3.10, SD = 1.41), and the black condition (M = 2.65, SD =
1.23) did not significantly differ from one another. Given the fact that the p-value for the
ANOVA test was not significant, we did not need to run a post hoc test.
Discussion
We predicted that instructions written in red ink would impair participant performance
on an anagram task as opposed to instructions written in green or black ink. That is, participants
given instructions written in red ink would correctly unscramble fewer words than participants
given instructions written in green ink or black ink, whom we did not expect to differ in their
anagram performance. We also predicted that all participants, regardless of ink color, would
8
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
9
believe that the ink color did not affect them. Results supported both of our hypotheses.
Participants in our red condition solved fewer anagrams than those in the green and black
condition, whose performance did not differ. Also participants did not believe that ink color had
any effect on their anagram performance. If participants who were given instructions in red ink
were unaware of the influence the color red had on their performance, what would happen if
participants were forewarned about the influence of color on performance? Would participants
given instructions in red ink perform much worse while participants given black ink instructions
perform much better in the anagram task? Would there be no change in performance? Will we
see other changes? We will explore the influence of forewarning on our second study.
Study Two
As social creatures, humans are constantly influencing and being influenced by the
environment. For example, color has the ability to affect people’s behavioral responses.
However, people may be unaware of these influences on their opinions, behaviors, and actions.
Would forewarning of these influences change the ways in which people otherwise react in a
particular situation? The central aim of our second study is to examine the impact that
forewarning has on performance. Specifically, we want to examine the impact that forewarning
on the negative effects of the color red has on anagram performance.
A study conducted by Petty and Cacioppo (1977), examined the effects that forewarning
about the content of a message had on resisting persuasion. In one if their experiments,
researchers wanted to see if participants who were forewarned about the content of a message
produced counterarguments because they were motivated to do so. Sixty introduction to
psychology students were randomly assigned to the study conditions: warning and instructed to
write topic thoughts, no warning and instructed to write topic thoughts, warning and instructed to
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
10
write actual thoughts, no warning and instructed to write actual thoughts. Students were told that
a psychologist from the counseling center was going to speak to them. Before the psychologist
gave his speech, they were given a questionnaire to complete. Participants in the warning
condition read that the psychologist will be talking about why all freshmen and sophomores
should be required to live on campus (a topic in which the students’ opinions differed from those
of the speaker). Participants in the no warning condition read that the psychologist will be talking
about conclusions he generated in his time working at the counseling center. After a silent three
minutes, participants were asked to move on to the next part of the questionnaire. The next part
asked participants in the actual thoughts condition to record all the thoughts they had during the
last three minutes. Participants in the topic thought condition were asked to record their thoughts
on the matter of freshmen and sophomores being required to live on campus. Afterwards, the
psychologist gave his speech on why freshmen and sophomores should be required to live on
campus. Results showed that participants in the warned condition and the no warning but
instructed to write topic thoughts condition had more resistance to persuasion because thinking
about the topic allowed them to come up with counterarguments.
Leon, Rotunda, Sutton, and Schlossman (2003), studied the influence of online
forewarning on ratings of attraction. Participants were randomly assigned to the forewarning
group or the no forewarning group. All of the participants used a computer to go to the web page
that contained a general statement about the Internet. Participants in the forewarning condition
additionally received information about the use of deception in the Internet. The next part of the
study consisted of navigating through four web pages that contained photographs of a person of
the opposite sex. The participant then rated the attractiveness of each photo and answered
questions about the likeliness of interacting with the person whose photo they saw. Results
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
11
showed that participants forewarned about the use of deception on the Internet perceived the
photo shown as less attractive than those who were not forewarned about the use of deception.
They were also less likely to express the desire of further interaction with the person through
engaging in online chats. These results were consistent with those of Petty and Cacioppo (1977)
in the idea that when forewarned of persuasiveness, people will become more resistant to that
persuasion. In this case, participants became more resistant to deception. In the case of our
second study, we predict that participants forewarned about the influence of red on anagram
performance will perform better than those who were not forewarned due to participants
developing resistance.
Weber and Bizer (2006), studied the effects that forewarning about exam difficulty had
on test performance. The researchers hypothesized that forewarning of test difficulty would
boost performance in students with low anxiety but decrease performance in students with high
anxiety. Before random assignment into one of the three experimental conditions, researchers
measured the level of dispositional anxiety each participant had by having them complete a traitanxiety questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned to: the forewarned condition in
which they were told that the test was difficult, the forewarned condition in which they were told
that the test would be easy, or the no forewarning condition. Then participants were told that they
would be completing a version of a previous GRE and that this test should be taken seriously.
Results showed that students with low trait anxiety performed better when forewarned about the
test being difficult as opposed to easy. Students with high trait anxiety performed worse when
forewarned that the test would be difficult as opposed to easy.
To expand further research on the topic of forewarning, we have devised a study that
looks at the effect that forewarning of the color red has on anagram performance. Participants
COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING
12
were randomly assigned to a forewarning or a no forewarning condition. In the no forewarning
condition participants were given an anagram task with instructions written in either red or black
ink. In the forewarning condition participants were informed about the effect that the color red
has on performance before given an anagram task with instruction written in either red or black
ink.
In accordance with study one, we predicted t …
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