222.Write 5 pages paper. Double space

Write 5 pages paper. Double spaceAll the requirements are on the word document. Please read them very carefully. All the work has to be 100 percent original. Any kind of plagiarism will not be accepted.


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To fulfill this assignment which is worth 400 points (as compared to
100 points and 200 points for the two previous Written Discussions),
you have a choice of two options. Choose ONLY ONE of the two:
1. Write a five page paper on the Pre-Columbian African Voyages
and Exploration of the Americas, which will lean heavily on the
work of Ivan Van Sertima which we covered during the past two
weeks (i.e., Karenga, p.105-108; “Ivan Van Sertima Testifies
before Congress”; They Came before Columbus book and
youtube videos). You should cite as much evidence as possible
utilized by Van Sertima to establish his proof. If you want to
give a counter-argument against Van Sertima’s thesis, this is
permissible, but you will find the sources on the web, list Van
Sertima’s main arguments or evidence and then the rebuttal to
his arguments or evidence. The parameters of the paper arefive
full double-spaced pages of text (plus a cover page and
bibliography which are not part of your five page count), using
an average size font , e.g. Times New Roman, a 12 point typesize, and 1 inch margins top, bottom, left and right. In short no
“tricks” like wide margins, large fonts or type-sizes,triplespacing or 2 1?2 spacing – to make a 4 page paper seem like a
five page paper. If you use unusual parameters to create
this illusion there will be penalty points deducted.
2. Create an annotated bibliography consisting of 12 sources –8
websites and 4 books –which are devoted to the discussion of
pre-Columbian voyages to the New World (the Americas), in
other words non-indigenous (non-Native American) explorers
who arrived in the Western Hemisphere –North, South or
Central America or the Caribbean islands — prior to the arrival
of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
An annotated bibliography is one which gives a brief description
(three or four sentences) about each of the sources listed on the
bibliography. In other words you will list each website or book title and
give a brief description of what that particular website or book is
about. When you list a website on a bibliography, you do so by giving
both the name of the website and the web address, so that others
can navigate to it easily.
Make sure that some of your sources are about African explorers in
the New World (excluding works by Van Sertima), since we have
been studying about them. But your bibliography need not be
restricted to African contacts with the New World, for example you
may find information about Chinese and other ethnicities or
nationalities who arrived in the Western Hemisphere before
Please take your time and list the BEST websites that you find, not
simply the first ones that you find. Your annotation will be your
summary of the information that you read on the website. Regarding
an annotation for books you can always paraphrase the blurbs that
you find on Amazon.com
Here are two SAMPLES an annotated website entry and an annotated book
[Please do not use these sample entries in your bibliography].
1. Mroueh, Youssef. “Muslims In the Americas Before Columbus”. Books on
Muslim History and Islamic Civilization. < http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/mamerica.html >
An online e-book by Dr. Youssef Mroueh, “ Muslims In the Americas Before
Columbus”, from Books on Muslim History and Civilization. Numerous evidence
suggests that Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived in the Americas at
least five centuries before Columbus. It is recorded that in the mid-tenth century
during the rule of the Umayed Caliph Abdul-Rahman III, Muslimes of African
origin sailed westward from the Spanish port of Delba into the “Ocean of
darkness and fog”. It is evident that people of Muslim origin are known to have
accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the New World.
2. Menzies, Gavin. 1421: The Year China Discovered The World. (London:
Bantam Press, 2002).
This book is by author, Gavin Menzies, who presents his hypothesis that ships
from the fleet of Chinese admiral Zheng He visited the Americas prior to their
discovery by European explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492, and that same
fleet circumnavigated the globe a century before Ferdinand Magellan, as part of
the era of Chinese exploration. The book is written informally as a series of
vignettes of Menzies travels around the globe examining what he claims is
evidence for his “1421 hypothesis”
In this assignment, we will dispel once and for all the elementary school fable that
Columbus discovered America. In doing so, we will also dispel the notion of a “discovery
of America.” If anyone “discovered” America it was the Native Americans (Amerindians
and Eskimos, etc.) who were the first peoples to migrate to the Americas from Central
Asia over the Bering Strait (between the Siberian part of Russia and Alaska–check a
map) some 15,000 to 40,000 years ago and who then over thousands of years
proceeded to migrate eastward and make settlements all through North America and to
migrate southward making settlements all throughout Central and South America and
the Caribbean.
Other peoples from all over the world including Africans and Chinese came to the
Americas in sea-faring ships, some establishing short-lived colonies or interbreeding
with Native Americans. None of these peoples were “discoverers.” Columbus was
actually the LAST of such explorers, but his name is etched in our history books
because his exploration included conquest –the genocide of Native Americans, the
seizure of mineral resources (gold) and the claim of land in the Americas as colonies for
the Spanish Empires. His voyages were thus the beginning of European settlement in
the Americas as first the Spanish, then the Portuguese, Dutch, French and British all
attempted to establish land claims and/or settler colonies and fought wars with one
another over claims to the land. Columbus’s misadventures, his crimes and his eventual
imprisonment (he was dragged away to prison naked and in chains) are all documented
in the first few pages of the late Howard Zinn’s textbook A People’s History of the United
Your assignment — which should be a worthy learning experience that helps to dispel all
of your elementary school fables about Columbus’s alleged “discovery” of America — can
be researched entirely on the web:

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