250 words applied project psychology

Answer to this discussion and state if:
Do you agree or disagree with their conclusions? Support your position with evidence from the articles.
What alternative conclusions could be drawn from the evidence they discussed?The discussion: The two articles I chose were “Practice-Based Evidence: Back to the Future” and “Psychological Treatments: Putting Evidence into Practice and Practice into Evidence”. The main points of “Practice-Based Evidence: Back to the Future” were updating or shifting their methods of studying treatments to practicing new methods. In their new treatments, they now are more focused on how people react. They are more interested in the nature and needs or wants of people in medicinal relationships. The primary and most important assumption the author made in this article was, “The president of the American Psychology Association [APA] notes that “much of the research that guides evidence-based practice is too inaccessible, overwhelming, and removed from practice” (Goodheart, 2010, p. 9). Yet lists of evidence-based treatments are being used to control funding in treatment, human services, and education. Stated simply, such policies are based on shaky science” (Brendtro, Mitchell, & Doncaster, 2011).The main points of “Psychological Treatments: Putting Evidence into Practice and Practice into Evidence” are that the Canadian Psychological Association launched a task force of psychological treatments. “The purpose of this task force was to operationalize what constitutes evidence-based practice in psychological treatment, to make recommendations about how psychologists can best integrate evidence into practice, and to disseminate information to consumers about evidence-based interventions” (Dozois, 2013). They also touch base on what decides how evidence is based the best and that they do not communicate their findings in the best way to relate to the transition from lab to clinic. Basically, they do not communicate their findings in a way that we understand. The primary assumptions that the author is making is that there is a gap between practitioners and scientists. While evidence based research is important and contributes a lot there is always room for more improvements. There needs to be more practice in science and more science in practice. I have to agree with David Dozois’s theory and research because he is more in depth and provides more reliable and valid sources. Although the other article makes some good points as well, you want to go with the theory and research that can be peer- reviewed and reliable. His information is also unbiased and backed up by many sources and different views on the topic. The source I found to support my reasoning is an article by Glasgow Caledonian University. The Glasgow Caledonian University article states that, “ Establishes the validity of research based upon the expert knowledge of other researchers in the discipline, therefore preventing falsified work from being accepted within an area of study.” References:Advantages and disadvantages of peer review. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.gcu.ac.uk/library/pilot/publication/peerreview/advantagesanddisadvantages/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Brendtro, L., Mitchell, M., and Doncast, J. (2011). Practice-Based Evidence: Back to the Future. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 19(4).Dozois, D.J.A. (2013). Psychological Treatments: Putting evidence into practice and practice into evidence. Canadian psychology, 54 (1), 1-11. Retrieved fromProQuest database.
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Psychological Treatments: Putting Evidence Into Practice and Practice Into Evidence
Dozois, David J A
Canadian Psychology; Feb 2013; 54, 1; ProQuest Central
pg. 1
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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from the editors
Practice-Based Evidence:
Back to the Future
Larry K. Brendtro, Martin L. Mitchell, & James Doncaster
Researchers are shifting from the medical model of studying treatments, to a practicebased model focusing on the nature and needs of a person in a therapeutic relationship.
As seen from the articles in this special issue, this has been a central tenet of Re-ED
since founded by Nicholas Hobbs fifty years ago.
simply, such policies are
based on shaky science.
Certainly there is no shortage of evidence that some
methods are destructive,
like withholding treatment
or placing traumatized kids
in toxic environments. But
a wide variety of therapeutic interventions can have
a positive impact if conducted within a trusting
alliance.
There are two very different views of what evidence
is most important.
Research in the traditional
medical model compares a
proposed treatment with
alternates or a placebo. If a
prescribed number of pubJames Doncaster, guest editor
lished studies give a statistical edge, the treatment is
anointed as “evidence-based.” This is followed
onfusion abounds about what qualifies as
by endorsements from the National Institute of
“evidence” of effective interventions. The
Health, the Department of Education, or other
president of the American Psychology Associaauthoritative bodies.
tion [APA] notes that “much of the research that
guides evidence-based practice is too inaccessible, overwhelming, and removed from practice”
Providing lists of curative treatments may work for
(Goodheart, 2010, p. 9). Yet lists of evidence-based
medicine, but this is not how to find what works in
treatments are being used to control funding in
complex therapeutic relationships. Mental health
treatment, human services, and education. Stated
research has shown that the process of enshrining
C
winter 2011 volume 19, number 4 | 5
specific treatment models as evidence-based is based
on flawed science (Chan, Hróbjartsson, Haahr,
Gøtzsche, & Altman, 2004). Dennis Gorman
(2008) of Texas A & M University documents similar problems with school-based substance abuse
and violence prevention research which he calls
scientific nonsense.
Julia Littell (2010) of the Campbell Coalition
documents dozens of ways that sloppy science is
being used to elevate specific treatments to evidence based status. Here are just a few of these
research flaws:
Allegiance Effect:
Studies produced by advocates of a particular
method are positively biased.
File Cabinet Effect:
Studies showing failure or no effects are tucked
away and not submitted for publication.
Pollyanna Publishing Effect:
Professional journals are much more likely to publish
studies that show positive effects and reject those that
do not.
Replication by Repetition Effect:
Reviewers rely heavily on recycling findings cited
by others, confusing rumor and repetition with
replication.
Silence the Messenger Effect:
Those who raise questions about the scientific base
of studies are met with hostility and ad hominem
attacks.
When researchers account for such biases, a clear
pattern emerges. Widely touted evidence-based treatments turn out to be no better or no worse than other approaches. Solid science speaks—success does not lie
in the specific method but in common factors, the
most important being the helping relationship.
expertise to target client characteristics including
problems, strengths, culture, and motivation
(APA, 2006). Research and evaluation measure
progress and provide feedback on the quality of the
therapeutic alliance (Duncan, Miller, Wampold, &
Hubble, 2010).
Instead of the study of
treatments, the child now
takes center stage.
Re-ED is rooted in practice-based evidence. It taps
a rich tradition of research, provides tools for direct work with youth, and tailors interventions to
the individual child in an ecosystem (Cantrell &
Cantrell, 2007; Freado, 2010). Fifty years after they
were developed by Nicholas Hobbs and colleagues,
the Re-ED principles offer a still-current map for
meeting modern challenges. Re-ED does not impose a narrowly prescribed regimen of treatment,
but uses human relationships to change the world
one child at a time.
Larry K. Brendtro, PhD, is Dean of the Starr Institute for Training and co-editor of this journal with
Martin L. Mitchell, EdD, President and CEO of
Starr Commonwealth, Albion, Michigan. They can be
contacted via email at courage@reclaiming.com
James Doncaster, MA, is the senior director of organizational development at Pressley Ridge in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, and is guest editor of this special issue
on the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Re-ED. He
may be contacted at jdoncaster@pressleyridge.org
Re-ED uses human relationships
to change the world
one child at a time.
Our field is in ferment as the focus of research is
shifting. Instead of the study of treatments, the
child now takes center stage. The practice-based
model focuses on the nature and needs of an individual in an ecology (Brendtro & Mitchell, 2010).
Effective interventions use research and practice
6 | reclaiming children and youth www.reclaimingjournal.com
References
APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice.
(2006). Evidence-based practice in psychology. American Psychologist, 61(4), 271-285.
Brendtro, L., & Mitchell, M. (2010). Weighing the evidence:
From chaos to consilience. Reclaiming Children and
Youth, 19(2), 3-9.
Cantrell, R., & Cantrell, M. (2007). Helping troubled children
and youth. Memphis, TN: American Re-Education Association.
Chan, A., Hróbjartsson, A., Haahr, M., Gøtzsche, P., & Altman, D. (2004). Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: Comparison of
protocols to published articles. JAMA, 291, 2457-2465.
Duncan, B., Miller, S., Wampold, B., & Hubble, M, (Eds.).
(2010). The heart and soul of change, second edition: Delivering what works in therapy. Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.
Freado, M. (2010). Measuring the impact of Re-ED. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 19(2), 28-31.
Goodheart, C. (2010). The education you need to know.
Monitor on Psychology, 41(7), 9.
Gorman, D. (2008), Science, pseudoscience, and the need
for practical knowledge. Addiction, 103, 1752–1753.
Littell, J. (2010). Evidence-based practice: Evidence or orthodoxy. In B. Duncan, S. Miller, B. Wampold, & M. Hubble
(Eds.), The heart and soul of change, second edition: Delivering what works in therapy. Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.
PRINCIPLES OF RE-ED
Trust between a child and adult is essential, the foundation on which all other principles rest.
Life is to be lived now, not in the past, and lived in the future only as a present challenge.
Competence makes a difference, and children should be good at something, especially at school.
Time is an ally, working on the side of growth in a period of development.
Self-control can be taught and children and adolescents helped to manage their behavior.
Intelligence can be taught to cope with challenges of family, school and community.
Feelings should be nurtured, controlled when necessary, explored with trusted others.
The group is very important to young people, and it can be a major source of instruction in growing up.
Ceremony and ritual give order, stability, and confidence to troubled children and adolescence.
The body is the armature of the self, around which the psychological self is constructed.
Communities are important so youth can participate and learn to serve.
A child should know some joy in each day.
Hobbs, N. (1982). The troubled and troubling child. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
winter 2011 volume 19, number 4 | 7
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