3-4 page research paper

I have a 20-page bibliography paper for the whole semester. The topic is Which Rehabilitation Programs Reduce Recidivism in sex offenders.it will be turned in four parts which are Paper Cover & Introduction(1), Literature Review(2), Reporting Research Results(3), Results/conclusion (4). Now we”ll need to finish the fourth parts Results/conclusion please help finish it.All papers must be typed, double-spaced, using a12-point font (Arial, Times New Roman, Helvetica); use standard marginsPaper must be written in an essay format (e.g., full sentences); do not insert extra line breaks between paragraphs or manipulate margins to lengthen your paperAPA format.I hope you will help me do the rest part of the paper in the future if you help me with this part. I want the paper to be done by the same person from the beginning to the end.Instruction:The final stage of the paper should discuss the source material and what discussion and conclusions can be made. Final results/conclusion must be based on the literature presented, not a personal opinion or bias. Is there a conclusive answer to your topic question? Is it inconclusive? Is more research necessary? If so, what would you ask? What would your study or research design look like?3-4 pages. What are the findings in relation to your topic question? The answer must be based on the information discussed in the Literature Review and Methodology Sections. Is more research necessary? If so, how could it be done? I already attached the very detailed instruction with a powerpoint file below. Please follow carefully with the instruction. Also, the first three parts of the essay (Paper Cover & Introduction) and (Literature Review) and the (method section) which are done are also attached. Please try to connect this part (Results/conclusion)with the first three parts (Paper Cover & Introduction) and (Literature Review) and (method section)which I already attached as to make it seems like the essay is written by the same person.I will tip you if the work is good.
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Running head: REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
1
Which Rehabilitation Programs Reduce Recidivism in Sex Offenders
Abstract
The law of any state always prioritizes the wellbeing of each citizen. The essence of a
government is to ensure that every citizen of their country enjoys their rights without infringing
on other people’s rights. This is the basis of amicability in a society. When an individual breaks
the law, they can be incarcerated, put on rehabilitation or both. This usually depends on the magnitude of the crime and the mental state (sanity) of the offender. Other factors such as age (juvenile or adult) may also be considered. However, despite elaborate rehabilitation and incarceration
programs, some of the offenders who got through such systems tend to incline back to their old
ways once they are released from the respective programs. This is called recidivism. Sex violation is a common crime. While there may be different reasons why different individuals engage
in such crimes, the element of recidivism is often recurrent. However, there is a huge attribution
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
2
of the offense to psychology. Therefore, many sex offenders are slotted into rehabilitation programs rather than incarceration. It is also important to note that some sex offenders are also incarcerated, depending on the circumstances surrounding the case or incident. Different rehabilitation programs usually have different outcomes. The programs work differently depending on
the offense and the offender. As much as some programs may work for some individuals, they
may as well not work for others. This means that there is no particular program that has the exclusiveness of 100% efficiency on all sex offenders.
Which Rehabilitation Programs Reduce Recidivism in Sex Offenders
Introduction
Before choosing an appropriate program to enroll an offender, there are several things
that have to be considered. These things are key to ensuring that the sex offender is rehabilitated
effectively with minimal chances of recidivism. One important thing is the mental state or sanity
of the offender during and after the commitment of the offense. Normally, the sex offenders with
mental instability are enrolled for treatment and later rehabilitation or therapy. Therefore, when
such offenders are directly put into normal rehabilitation programs, they may not get help and
recidivism is almost guaranteed. The correct choice of a relevant rehabilitation program is, therefore, one of the key aspects of reducing recidivism.
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
3
Another important consideration is the record or history of an offender. The rehabilitation
program that a first-time offender will be enrolled for is not the same as that a multiple offender
will be enrolled. The significance of this is to ensure that the problem/cause is identified and
solved. Normally, when an offender is recurrently put on the same program, it means that the
real problem is not identified, hence drafting an accurate rehabilitation strategy for them is difficult. Therefore, instead of enrolling an offender in any rehabilitation program, it is important to
check the programs that they may have undergone before then draft a way forward. This is very
important in reducing recidivism rates.
Finally, before enrolling an offender for a particular rehabilitation program, age, gender,
and family background are also important aspects to consider in the bid to reduce the rate of recidivism. As outlined earlier, not single rehabilitation program that achieves 100% efficiency
with all the offenders. Statistically, most sex offenders are males. There are very few female sex
offenders. Therefore, the program that some male offenders may be enrolled for may not work
for the female offenders. If either of the two is put in an inappropriate program, there is a higher
chance of recidivism. The American justice system is usually sensitive in ensuring that there is a
vivid line that is drawn between juveniles and adults when it comes to the ‘eyes of the law.’
Many juveniles are usually ‘fragile’ and ‘volatile’ hence their programs ought to be special to reduce recidivism. The family background also matters. Offenders that from troubled families or
those that have experienced abuse should be considered for certain programs as opposed to generalization.
Rehabilitation programs for sex offenders are many. As we have seen, there is no specific
program that can exclusively be recommended for every sex offender since it has 0% recidivism.
However, research findings reveal that there is lower recidivism in the offenders who enroll for
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
4
rehabilitation or treatment programs as compared to those who don’t. According to a study coordinated by the Crime and Justice department, ‘On average, there is a significant reduction in recidivism rates in the treated groups. The odds to sexually re-offend were 1.41 lower for treated
compared to control groups. This equals a sexual recidivism rate of 10.1% for treated offenders
compared to 13.7% without treatment’ (Schmucker & Loesel, 2017). This means that as much as
some rehabilitation programs for sex offenders may not have high rates of reducing recidivism,
there is a higher guarantee of behavior change for offenders who enroll for rehabilitation programs as compared to those who don’t.
Rehabilitation programs are mainly divided into two broad categories: Pharmacological
and non-pharmacological rehabilitation programs. These programs are based on the medical state
and condition of the offender. The medic or therapist involved with a certain offender is usually
responsible for recommending the appropriate program. The recommendation of an appropriate
program is very important and should be based on the factors stated earlier in the paper. Pharmacological programs mainly involve the administration of medication. This often applies to the
mentally ill or disturbed patients who may have committed the offense due to a certain illness or
condition. Non-pharmacological programs mainly involve therapy sessions, group talks, guidance, and counseling. Non-pharmacological programs are mainly based on invoking character
and behavior change. One thing is, however, common in the two categories of rehabilitation programs – monitoring. Close and frequent monitoring, assessment, and evaluation of offender’s
progress is key in the bid to reduce recidivism (Bertrand & Friedman, 2015).
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
5
References
Bertrand, N. & Friedman, L. F. (2015). The Scary Truth About Sex Offender ‘Rehabilitation’ Programs. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/sex-offender-rehabilitation-programs-2015-1?IR=T.
Schmucker, M. & Loesel, F. (2017). Sexual offender treatment for reducing recidivism among
convicted sex offenders. Retrieved from https://www.campbellcollaboration.org/library/sexual-offender-treatment.html.
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
Rehabilitation Programs And Recidivism
Rehabilitation Programs And Recidivism
1
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
2
While the core purpose of the criminal justice system is to punish wrongdoers of their
convicted crimes, deter others from committing the same offense, give the convicts just dessert
for their actions, and show the disapproval of society; we must always remember that rehabilitation is the major reason that there are prisons and other interventions in the first place. The point
of custodial or non-custodial sentences at the end of criminal cases is to rehabilitate the offender,
especially if it is likely that the person will go free after serving their sentence. That is what this
literature review will look into. There are many ways of reducing recidivism, and this literature
will aim to give the reader a good idea of the general flow of scholarship on recidivism.
It is essential to point out even at this early stage of the paper that there cannot be such a
thing as a one hundred percent reduction in recidivism. Human beings have free will, and that
comes with an autonomy that everyone who is free can exercise. It does not matter whether a
past sex offender lives with permanent restrictions of who they live near, or where they. A free
sexual predator can as well violate the terms of their release and go back to committing the same
offense again. So it is essential to consider the fact that there is only so much that efforts at recidivism can achieve. But that is not to mean that rehabilitation and other therapeutic methods are
ineffective, there are already many institutional incentives to reduce the rates, such as cash rewards to those prisons reporting the lowest recidivism rates (Neller & Petris, 2013). This literature review will move across the subject matter using themes as guiding points. They are indicated using the subheadings spread out all through the paper.
The subheadings in the paper will guide the discussion in a way that determines the most
important parameters that the paper will look into. The entire batch of information that comes
with the paper will show that an individual can have the most significant outcomes in an environment that is specifically tailored to have a more significant impact on the individual than in an
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
3
unmalleable form of treatment of convicted offenders. The eventual objective of the entire paper
is to show that there is a clear incentive for the authorities to incentivize appropriate treatment so
as to reduce recidivism in a population.
A Background of Sexual Predation Recidivism in the USA
There is an established way of measuring recidivism among minor in sexual offenses in
the USA. That gives rise to terms that should be common to someone studying this field in criminal justice. They are used mainly in drafting policies to deal with the teenager and pre-teen offenders in the United States of America. Mark Chaffin identifies them to be: specialness, homogeneity, intransigence, and high risk. All four understandings of the teenage offender have the
backing of scientific facts and long history in law enforcement. And just like is the case with
very many policies, Chaffin notes that even though they are well-intentioned but eventually become dated (2008). The fact that these outmoded conceptions of the teenager continue to drive
policy-making at both federal and state level means that there is a possibility that the increasing
rates of recidivism in the country are a direct result of that failure (Mingus & Burchfield, 2012).
As individuals that have problems with the law because of sexual offenses grow older,
they have to deal with the justice system as adults. Often, that means that they have to deal with
the harsher penalties, but then the overriding question always remains to be whether those sentences help the people to change and avoid relapses once they get back into society. Christopher
Mallett et al. published an illuminating study on the things that make youthful offenders go back
to commit crimes after they are released from their detention (Mallett, Fukushima, Stoddard-
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
4
Dare & Quinn, 2012). The authors note that the reason that policymakers are opting more for rehabilitative approaches when dealing with young offenders is that it has been found out that rehabilitating the offenders right when they are young goes a very long way in preventing their relapse into the bad behavior (Mallett, Fukushima, Stoddard-Dare & Quinn, 2012).
The Link between Criminal Records and Recidivism
A criminal record has a major impact on the life of a person after they have finished serving their sentences. There are very many places that the issue comes up, one of the most visible
ones is in employment. Ex-convicts or young adults that have juvenile sentences find it harder to
get employment since every employer has the right to ask whether they have ever been convicted
of a crime before, and it is a federal offense to lie about a previous offense in an employment application (Denver, Siwach & Bushway, 2017). A past conviction comes with prejudice, and that
is why such people find it very difficult to get a job after they have been released. The authors
point out that this is a very unfair thing to do. Rejecting ex-convicts from re-entry only pushes
them more into recidivism. If not, some people are forced into taking low-paying jobs since their
convictions make employers afraid of putting them in positions of trust, especially when there
are other candidates who have clean records.
The National Institute of Justice has also done a comprehensive, and fairly recent study
on the impact of criminal records on the re-entry of convicts into society, and employment in
particular. The scope of the study restricted itself to Michigan, where there was ready access to
the information of from the Michigan state prisons. David Harding and Jeffrey Morenoff were
the two researchers that published this paper, using the University of Michigan as their publisher
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
5
(Morenoff & Harding, 2011). They studied the relationship between the context of an ex-convict’s neighborhood and their possible recidivism based on the socio-economic area of their release as a factor that caused recidivism. They found that going back to an impoverished neighborhood after release made the people more prone to recidivism (Morenoff & Harding, 2011);
with these individuals being more likely to abscond and get sent back to prison for even minor
and apparently technical violations.
Social Support Structures and Recidivism
The rehabilitation processes that go on in prison and juvenile institutions are made in
such a way that they make it easy for a person leaving to rejoin society, and the normal human
interactions in society. That means that the society has a crucial role to play in helping individuals readjust to normal life. Cobbina, Huebner, and Berg point out that recidivism is a response of
the former prisoner upon rejection when they re-enter society (2010). Their study goes further to
point out that there are more men than women showing recidivism because their research showed
different attitudes towards ex-convicts based on their gender. That came from the social bonds
that people form due to their gender. The research by Cobbina, Huebner, and Berg find that the
normal social history of males and females makes the social structures around women more accepting of their re-entry. For men, most of the time, they are social denigrates that had very little
social contact. That meant that the lessons in prison do not help avoid recidivism much since
they barely had any meaningful relationships prior to going to their custodial sentences. Recidivism, therefore, means them going back to the only life that they knew.
The Impact of Rehabilitation Programs on Recidivism
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
6
Rehabilitation in prisons and juvenile institutions have a direct impact on the rates of recidivism in a population. The rehabilitative efforts of all corrective institutions look to make it
easier for the people in custody to comply with the social contract in the open society as they
move out of the custodial process. Rehabilitation in both custodial and non-custodial sentences
have the ability change of the mindset of the convict. Recidivism is the major indicator of the
failure of the rehabilitation processes. Recidivism has a cost implication, and the there are studies
to show that these costs are quantifiable. For instance, the Office of the Inspector of Custodial
Services (in Australia) quantifies recidivism. The Inspector reports that it costs a hundred and
twenty thousand Australian dollars to keep one individual imprisoned for a year. Therefore, extrapolating that value up to ten prisoners sees the total cost implications of staying out of prison
can see savings go up to a million Australian dollars.
If one were to take that example and to the United States of America, then it is possible to
understand that the value of the avoided prisoners as being one that provides a real boost to the
economy of the country or state. The Inspector’s report showed that there is a clear indication
that using the most sustainable methods of rehabilitation can reduce the burden of prison populations on the government budget.
The Impact of Interventions on Recidivism
Interventions in crime take two forms; pharmacological and non-pharmacological. The
former is a treatment regime reserved for those individuals that have a mental issue at the time of
committing the action. There is already a sufficiently wide range of interventions for individuals
suffering from psychosis at the time of offending. Perry presents a study of 2647 participants in
the selection pool. It was found that the most common drugs used in the matter were naltrexone,
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
7
buprenorphine, and methadone. They are treatments that are specifically suited to the candidates
that have clear-cut psychological disturbances. Therefore, the authorities can make it possible to
first rehabilitate a convict before embarking on the non-pharmacological treatments such as
counseling. It is essential that a proper process is followed since Perry notes that jumping to the
more cost-effective non-pharmacological methods will result in recidivism since the root cause
of the initial perpetration will not have been addressed (2015).
Perry goes a step further to identify the fact that the people in a correctional system find
rehabilitation as an additional means of preparation for life back in the society. One example in
the typical correctional system can be seen the treatment of individuals that have symptoms of
psychosis at the time of making te case in the place. The criminal justice system works in terms
of identifying the act and intention of an individual in court. The courts will never convict a person unless both of the parameters (the act and intention) are proven beyond reasonable doubt in
the court. The fact that an individual may have mental problems means that the intention aspect
of the crime cannot be proven in court since the prosecution may not be able to establish the
mens rea beyond reasonable doubt in a specific parameter in the particular case. That is why
Perry holds that the people in a situation that involve a criminal situation cannot stand trial unless
than the individual in the matter can understand the charges of the court in the matter. Perry
points out that the individuals in correctional facilities will achieve less recidivism rates if the interventions that they receive address the psychological hormonal imbalances in their physiology
before other behavioral elements such as counselling can come into force.
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
8
Conclusion
In conclusion, one will note that recidivism is one of the most significant indicators of the
effectiveness of the criminal justice system of a country. There have been various forays into the
concept that have built the substance of this literature review. An institutional perspective of the
approaches that institutions have taken in the United States and abroad shows that well-calculated interventions will always lead to a greatly reduced proportion of recidivism in the offender
population. The principle objective of the literature review has been to show the current scholarship on the subject has covered the basic parameters of recidivism in American prisons. The initial premise of the paper was that recidivism is an important indicator of the people in a prison
population. The paper then evolved to the discussion of the propensities of an individual to exhibit recidivism. The paper then went on to show the differences that pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions can have o …
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