3 Articles Given- Summarize- Argument Points of View

Hi, the Assignment is based on 3 given articles (same topic: media violence) and it is divided in two parts. PART A. First part it is needed to answer some questions from text 1.LENGTH: 1 PAGEPART B. Second part is need it to summarize the articles then write about point of views.LENGTH: 3 SHORT PARAGRAPHS- ABOUT 200-300 WORDS EACH (notice each paragraph has specifications)DETAILED EXPLANATION IS ATTACHED IN A WORD DOC.
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assignment_2.2_2.3.docx

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PART A
Read Gerard Jones’s article “Violent Media Is Good for Kids” (pages 64-67) and answer the
following questions:
1. What is Jones’s claim? Restate it in your own words.
2. What reasons does Jones use to support and explain his claim? Formulate reasons as
statements that logically support or explain his claim.
3. What kind of information does Jones use as evidence to back up the reasons?
4. What arguments against his position does Jones identify? How does he refute them?
5. Point out an example of logos used in the article. Where does Jones rely on logical
reasoning/ rational thinking?
6. Point out an example of pathos used in the article. Where does Jones appeal to the
readers’ emotions? What emotions does he appeal to?
7. Do you consider Gerard Jones a credible arguer (strong ethos) or not (weak ethos) and
why?
PART B
Instructions:
In this assignment, you will research and summarize two articles on media violence: one
that you think your opponent would find most convincing; and another that you
personally find most convincing. You’ll also get to explore whether you have an easier
time being neutral when you agree or disagree with what you are summarizing.
You will get a chance to respond to both articles, but it is important that you separate
your summary from your response: In other words, you need to represent both articles
fairly and neutrally before you respond to them.
Finally, for this assignment you will practice in-text citations, signal phrases, and create
Works Cited page entries.
Length: three paragraphs of approximately 600 words total.
To do this assignment, complete the following steps:
1. Identify a likely opponent.
2. Use the article on violence in media that represents a position of your
opponent.
3. Summarize the article.
Remember that a summary needs to be objective, so, even though the article
you are summarizing disagrees with your own opinion, you still need to explain
what it says in a neutral, unbiased way. Don’t forget to include signal
phrases (“Miley writes that…” or “Macklin defends the view that…”) to make it
clear to readers that you are giving an author’s opinion, not your own. Follow
the worksheet to get you started and then develop your summary to 7-10
sentences.
4. Use the article that represents your own point of view on media violence and
summarize it in a second well-developed paragraph. Again, stay objective.
5. In the third paragraph, explain which of the two articles in your opinion has more
effective argumentation and why.
Be wary of your bias – we tend to find the argument we agree with more
convincing than an argument defending a position we disagree with. Is your
opinion of the article effectiveness influenced by your bias, or do you find the
argumentation (structure, evidence, appeals, etc) objectively stronger? You can
also comment on the weaknesses of another article that explain why you did not
find it effective. In the same paragraph, briefly explain which of the two
articles you had a harder time writing objectively about.
6. For the two articles you summarized, create a Works Cited page
Video Games Are Responsible for Increased Youth
Violence
Articles
PART A: VIOLENT MEDIA IS GOOD FOR KIDS
PART B: opponent point of view Exposure to Media Violence Increases Aggressive and
Violent Behavior.
Personally point of view Video Games Are Responsible for Increased Youth Violence
Exposure to Media Violence Increases Aggressive and
Violent Behavior
The extent to which media violence causes youth aggression and violence has
been hotly debated for more than fifty years. Despite many reports that exposure to
violent media is a causal risk factor, the U.S. public remains largely unaware of
these risks, and youth exposure to violent media remains extremely high. Among
the public advisories that have been generally ignored are congressional hearings
in 1954, U.S. surgeon general reports in 1972 and 2001, a National Institute
of Mental Health report in 1982, and a Federal Trade Commission report in 2000.
In addition to government studies, reports have been issued by scientific
organizations such as the American Psychological Association (in 1994, 2000, and
2005), the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry, the American Medical Association, the American Academy
of Family Physicians, and the American Psychiatric Association.
The most recent [2003] thorough review of the research on media violence, by an
expert panel convened by the U.S. surgeon general, concluded, “Research on
violent television and films, video games, and music reveals unequivocal evidence
that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in
both immediate and long-term contexts.” Hundreds of original empirical studies of
the link between media violence and aggression have been conducted, and
numerous reviews of those studies—both narrative and statistical—have come to
the same conclusion. Indeed, one analysis found clear evidence that exposure to
media violence increases aggressive behavior as early as 1975.
The newest form of media violence—violent video games played on computers,
video game consoles, handheld systems, the Internet, and even cell phones—also
is the fastest growing. Although most youth still spend more time each week
watching TV, including movies, than playing video games, the time they spend with
video games is increasing rapidly, and a growing share of youth is spending many
hours playing video games. For example, about 90 percent of U.S. youth aged
eight to eighteen play video games, with boys averaging about nineteen hours a
week. Annual surveys of college freshmen over time reveal that as twelfth graders
they spend ever-increasing amounts of time playing video games. The finding is
especially true for boys….
We review evidence on the link between youth violence and violence on television
and film and on video games. We could find no studies on the effects of violence in
advertising on aggressive or violent behavior, but the effects of such violent
content are likely to be similar.
Television and Movie Violence and Violent Behavior
Television and movie violence are the most extensively researched forms of media
violence. Studies using all three major research designs have all reached the same
conclusion—exposure to television and movie violence increases aggression and
violence.
Experimental studies [studies in which the researcher controls all the risk factors]
have shown that even a single exposure increases aggression in the immediate
situation. For example, Kaj Bjorkqvist randomly assigned one group of five- to sixyear-old Finnish children to watch violent movies, another to watch nonviolent
ones. Raters who did not know which type of movie the children had seen then
observed them playing together in a room. Children who had just watched the
violent movie were rated much higher on physical assault and other types of
aggression. Other experiments have shown that exposure to media violence can
increase aggressive thinking, aggressive emotions, and tolerance for aggression,
all known risk factors for later aggressive and violent behavior.
The most popular video games played by youth contain violence. Even children’s
games … are likely to contain violence.
Many cross-sectional studies [studies that look at a group at one point in time]
have examined whether people who view many violent TV shows and movies also
tend to behave more aggressively. Such studies generally find significant positive
correlations. For example, one group of researchers studied the links between
“aggressive behavioral delinquency,” such as fighting and hitting, and TV violence
viewing in samples of Wisconsin and Maryland high school and junior high school
students. They found significant positive links between TV violence exposure and
aggression for both boys and girls. Another research team reported 49 percent
more violent acts in the past six months by heavy viewers of TV violence than by
light viewers.
Researchers also have used longitudinal studies [studies over a period of time] to
investigate television violence effects, using time periods that range from less than
one year to fifteen years. One research team studied a group of six- to ten-yearolds over fifteen years. They found that both boys and girls who viewed television
violence committed more aggression (physical, verbal, and indirect) during young
adulthood. The study found the same link when the outcome examined was
outright physical violence, such as punching, beating, choking, threatening, or
attacking with a knife or gun. This media violence study is one of the few to include
measures of violent crime. Because it is a well-conducted longitudinal study, it
lends considerable strength to the view of media violence as a causal risk factor for
aggression, violence, and violent crime. Interestingly, although frequent exposure
to TV violence during childhood was linked to high levels of adulthood aggression,
high aggressiveness during childhood did not lead to frequent viewing of television
violence in adulthood.
Violent Video Games and Violent Behavior
The most popular video games played by youth contain violence. Even children’s
games (as designated by the industry-sponsored Entertainment Software Ratings
Board) are likely to contain violence. More than 30 percent of games rated “E”
(suitable for everyone) contain a violence descriptor; more than 90 percent of
“E10+” games (suitable for those ten years and older) contain a violence
descriptor. About 70 percent of fourth to twelfth graders report playing “Mature”-
rated games (suitable for those seventeen and older), which contain the most
graphic violence of all.
Research on video game violence is less extensive than that on TV and film
violence, but the findings are essentially the same. Experimental studies in field
and laboratory settings generally find that brief exposure to violent video games
increases aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior. For example, one
laboratory study assigned children and college students randomly to play either a
children’s video game that involved shooting cartoon-like characters or a nonviolent
children’s video game. Later, all participants completed a standard laboratory task
that measures physical aggression. Those who had played the violent children’s
game displayed a 40 percent higher aggression rate than those who had played a
nonviolent game. The effect was the same for both elementary school children and
college students. In a field experiment, children were randomly assigned to play
either a violent or nonviolent video game and then were observed by trained
coders during a free-play period. The children who had played the violent game
displayed significantly more physical aggression than those who had played a
nonviolent game.
Media violence exposure has a larger effect on later violent behavior than does
substance abuse, abusive parents, poverty, living in a broken home, or having a
low IQ.
To date, the only published longitudinal study that clearly delineates the
possible influence of violent video games used a relatively short time span of six
months. The researchers conducting the study assessed the media habits and
aggressive tendencies of elementary school children, as well as a host of control
variables, twice within a school year. The children who were heavily exposed to
video game violence early in the school year became relatively more physically
aggressive by the end of the year, as measured by peers, teachers, and selfreports. Cross-sectional studies have also found positive correlations between
exposure to violent video games and various forms of aggression, including violent
behavior and violent crimes.
All three types of studies have also linked violent video games to a host of
additional aggression-related cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes.
Outcomes include more positive attitudes toward violence, increased use of
aggressive words or solutions to hypothetical problems, quicker recognition of
facial anger, increased self-perception as being aggressive, increased feelings of
anger and revenge motives, decreased sensitivity to scenes and images of real
violence, and changes in brain function associated with lower executive control and
heightened emotion.
Media Violence Is a Risk Factor for Violent Behavior
The research evidence shows clearly that media violence is a causal risk factor for
aggressive and violent behavior. There is considerably less evidence concerning
violent crimes, but the few cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that included
violent crime measures also found similar links with media violence. The size of the
media violence effect is as large as or larger than that of many factors commonly
accepted by public policymakers and the general public as valid risk factors for
violent behavior…. [Several] studies have directly compared video game and TV
violence using the same participants and the same measures; they generally find a
somewhat larger effect for video games. Thus, we expect that the effect of violent
video games on long-term violence will be larger than that of TV violence and
smaller than that of gang membership. Furthermore, it is likely that overall media
violence exposure has a somewhat larger effect than any individual type of media
violence. In any case, the figure makes clear that media violence exposure has a
larger effect on later violent behavior than does substance use, abusive parents,
poverty, living in a broken home, or having low IQ.
MLA
Anderson, Craig A., and Soledad Liliana Escobar-Chaves. “Exposure to Media
Violence Increases Aggressive and Violent Behavior.” Violence in the Media,
edited by Dedria Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2014. Current
Controversies. Opposing Viewpoints In
Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010069229/OVIC?u=rock77357&si
d=OVIC&xid=276a4f60. Accessed 25 Apr. 2018. Originally published as “Media
Violence and Risky Behaviors,” The Future of Children, vol. 18, no. 1, Spring 2008.
It was 2005, but I remember it like it was yesterday. Jauhar Abraham, who cofounded Peaceoholics with me, and I were headed to Oak Hill Youth juvenile
detention facility to conduct group sessions with troubled youths. When we walked
into the facility, we found the teenagers glued to the TV playing “Grand Theft Auto,”
a video game in which players steal cars and otherwise commit murder and
mayhem in huge amounts. Many of these youths wound up where they were for
committing crimes very like the ones they were committing in the video game.
Needless to say, we were outraged.
Video Games Are Responsible for Increased Youth
Violence
The Impact of Violent Media
To find out what kind of impact such games had on them, we held focus groups
with the youths. I recall one of them telling me that, before he started playing the
games, he would have never gotten into a stolen car, a step which led to stealing
cars later on and eventually to violent carjackings—just like in the game. Then one
youth I will never forget said that playing the games put him “in a zone” to do what
he had to do to survive. This young man would later be killed, and after his death
several murders would be attributed to him.
It was obvious that the violent games desensitized these youths to violence. But I
didn’t really need them to tell me this. The focus groups brought back memories of
when I was growing up. I was just as easily influenced by the entertainment
industry. Many of my friends either wanted to be like [basketball player] Michael
Jordan—or Scarface [a drug lord in a well-known violent film of the same name].
Did we idolize Jordan because he was the most exciting basketball player of all
time? Or could it have been because he showed up in pretty much every other
commercial on television? Scarface was a different story. Tony Montana—Al
Pacino’s character in the movie of that name—was admired for how he rose in the
drug game. I saw the influence firsthand when some of my friends began saying,
“Say hello to my little friend”—Montana’s famous line—before committing acts of
violence similar to what they saw glorified in the film.
Thousands have fallen victim to assaults, stab wounds and gunshots—all of which
our childrenact out daily in video games that grow more violent all the time.
Abraham and I knew we had to do something with what we were learning about the
negative impact of violent media. With the support of civil rights activists, we set
out to train youths who were once members of rival gangs to become activists.
During our sessions with them, we discussed the impact of violent video games.
They came to see themselves as change agents with the power to stop this poison
from reaching their peers.
We had some successes with our work and started attracting media attention.
Adrian Fenty and Jim Graham took the lead on D.C. Council legislation aimed at
stopping violent and sexually explicit games from getting into the hands of minors.
But once the powerful lobbyists from the video game industry got involved, it all
went nowhere.
Now we have seen the horrific massacre in Newtown, Conn. [in which twenty-six
people, mostly children, were killed inside a school in December 2012], and we’re
having the same conversation all over again. For District [Washington, DC]
residents, the violence displayed in Newtown is all too familiar. In 2010, five young
people were killed and nine wounded in the South Capitol Street massacre, only a
few miles from where our president resides. Data show that murder is down in the
District, but this is misleading to some degree. Since 2005, thousands have fallen
victim to assaults, stab wounds and gunshots—all of which our children act out
daily in video games that grow more violent all the time.
Time for Legislation
And yet some continue to argue that our violence-infested entertainment cannot
possibly influence an individual to commit acts of terror. They are wrong.
It’s time for the District’s legislators to bring back the bill ensuring that parents and
merchants are obligated to keep these games out of the hands—and minds—of
our children. Additionally, we must ensure that every child in America who
needs mental health services gets them, while also stopping them from selfmedicating through violent games. Remember, hurt people hurt people. Let’s all be
responsible and act before the next massacre.
MLA
Moten, Ron. “Video Games Are Responsible for Increased Youth Violence.” Has
Child Behavior Worsened?, edited by Amy Francis, Greenhaven Press, 2014. At
Issue. Opposing Viewpoints In
Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010885209/OVIC?u=rock77357&si
d=OVIC&xid=0c038a04. Accessed 25 Apr. 2018. Originally published as “Violence
on the Screen, Violence in the Streets,” Washington Post, 28 Dec. 2012.
PART A
Read Gerard Jones’s article “Violent Media Is Good for Kids” (pages 64-67) and answer the
following questions:
1. What is Jones’s claim? Restate it in your own words.
2. What reasons does Jones use to support and explain his claim? Formulate reasons as
statements that logically support or explain his claim.
3. What kind of information does Jones use as evidence to back up the reasons?
4. What arguments against his position does Jones identify? How does he refute them?
5. Point out an example of logos used in the article. Where does Jones rely on logical
reasoning/ rational thinking?
6. Point out an example of pathos used in the article. Where does Jones appeal to the
readers’ emotions? What emotions does he appeal to?
7. Do you consider Gerard Jones a credible arguer (strong ethos) or not (weak ethos) and
why?
PART B
Instructions:
In this assignment, you will research and summarize two articles on media violence: one
that you think your opponent would find most convincing; and another that you
personally find most convinci …
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