3D concrete printing

please just write an introduction about 3d printing i’ve attached info that can be used in the paper, the 3D printing report is just an example


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California State University Fullerton
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
EGCE 534 Advance Construction Methods and Techniques
Project Description
Proposal Due on 2/22/2018
What is this project all about?
As a graduate student you should select any advance construction technology that you are
interested to explore. The advance construction technology should be very new.
What is expected from students?
? Students will have to select a team of 3 to 4 members.
? The team will have to select a topic and then write a brief abstract about it.
? I will review the abstract and ask for details (if needed). Once approved you can work on
the project.
? You will present an informal statement (verbal or a 2-3 slide problem) to the mentors to
get further details/helps/resources.
? At the end of the semester the team will prepare and submit a 10 page report about the
? The report will be due on the day of presentation mentioned in the syllabus.
? External judges will be present during the presentation and they will evaluate the project
presentation only. The external evaluators will give points on the following criterion:
Evaluation Sheet
(slides and
by Team
Depth of
Will you
Give Your
to this
Max 10
Max 10
Max 10
Max 10
Max 10
Max 10
Max 10
The external judges’ evaluation will not be considered for any grades going to your
gradebook. The grades will be allocated by your instructor only. Your instructor will
assess all the project details by going through your report and the presentation.
What are the components of an abstract (maximum 500 words)?
Your abstract must have the following components
1 to 2 statements introducing (opening statement) about the topic
1 to 2 statements indicating how the new technique could improve cost, time and/or quality
1 to 2 statements describing what you will do to justify the new technique
1 to 2 statements about the overall expected results from your work.
What are the components of the final report?
The Final report is DUE on May 10th 2018, beginning of the presentation.
The final report must include the following
a. An abstract (which will be coming from your approved project proposal; 1-2 paragraphs, less
than 300 words)
b. Introduction (Introduction to the construction site and the advanced technology; 2-3
c. Impact of your technology to the construction industry/owner/contractor/users/others (1 to
2 paragraphs)
d. Theoretical explanation of the technology used for the project (Note: All the calculations
must be included in the Appendices)
e. Comparison between traditional approach and the advanced methods you have selected
f. Detailed explanation of your analysis that proves that the advanced method is different
from the traditional method (assume that you are convincing you boss to adopt a new
g. Limitations for your work (include all the assumptions/ limitations of the work
h. Conclusion
Presentation (DUE on May 10th 2018,, beginning of the presentation.)
The group will have to present the work in front of experts and faculty members. It must include
all the sections of the final report so that the experts and faculty members know what you have
done during the semester. Everyone has to present. The dress code is Business Dress (that must
have tie, coat, and trousers (no jeans)).
Wish you a very best of luck!
Advanced Construction Methods &
Prof. M. HANNA
Bullet Points:
Ways to make 3D Models
Why 3D-Printing
Constructing by 3D-Printing
3D-Printers Development
3D-Printing Applications & Development
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
• 3D Printing :
“is the process for making a physical object
from a three-dimensional model.”
• Sculpting
• Fabricating
• Printing
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
• Sculpting
• Sculpting by 3D-Printing
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
• Fabricating
• Fabricating by 3D-Printing
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
• 3D-Printing
• 3D-Printing
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
• 3D-Printing
• 3D-Printing

EGCE-534 3D-Printing
Why 3D-Printing:
• The high demand
• It’s cheap
• Fast
• Less waste
• Environmental Sustainability
• Advancement in robotics
Why 3D-Printing:
• The Concept

EGCE-534 3D-Printing
Constructing by 3D-Printing
Constructing by 3D-Printing
1. Contour method
• Load baring/regular walls
• Reinforcement
• Usually modular
2. Skeleton method
• Requires extra finishing materials
• Biodegradable materials
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
3D-Printing (Structural System)
• Load baring walls
3D-Printing (Structural System)
• Adding Reinforcement
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
3D-Printing (Structural System)
• Modular build Method
3D-Printing (Structural System)
• Skelton method
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
3D-Printing (Structural System)
• Mesh (Weaving) Method
3D-Printing (Structural System)
• Mesh (Weaving) Method
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
3D-Printers Development:
• The House Printer
3D-Printers Development:
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
3D-Printers Development:
• The Crane Printer
3D-Printers Development:
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
3D-Printers Development:
• The Tower Printer
3D-Printers Development:
• The Arm Printers
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
3D-Printing Applications & Development:
• Designing & Planning

• The Use of Natural materials

• The independency of the human assists
• The imperfection of the finished product
• The cost of adopting the technology
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
• Minimizing site injuries
• Speed in delivery
• Less materials
• Less waste
• Cost of building
The Triumph Arch of Palmyra
in London:

EGCE-534 3D-Printing
Future 3D-Printed Projects:
Future 3D-Printed Projects:
EGCE-534 3D-Printing
Spring 2016
EGCE 532 Adv. Construction Methods & techniques
3D-Printing Report
Prof. Melad Hanna
ID – 893-55-9443
On the frontier of the third millennia construction methods are experiencing a new era
in building techniques, one of which is called 3D-Printing. 3D-Printing is the process of
making a physical object of a three-dimensional model. Anyways, 3D printing is a term
that can be miss used. Usually, people use it to describe the production of any three- dimensional model. Still, if an object being carved to form a specific model it should be
called 3D-Sculpting. Moreover, if a shape being assembled to form a premium object thin
it should be called modular, though it may use 3D printing technology. However, 3D
printing should be used to describe a structure being built by injecting a material in an
empty space to form a full three-dimensional object. In this report I will explain why such
method is needed, what deferent methods is being used, how it is being developed, and
how it can be used in deferent situations.
Why 3D-Printing:
It’s not a secret that construction has become more expensive than ever. With the cost
of labor, materials and regulations, building the dream house is far-fetched. It is one of
the failures of the building industry, to coop with the demand. Fortunately, 3D printing
can help a lot in that dilemma with its speed in production and its ability to work with
minimum use of materials and labor. Based on recent studies, it is expected that by the
year 2050 A.D. population will exceed 9.2 billion worldwide, not to mention that most of
them will fail to have a roof over their heads. This new technology is aimed to meet that
demand with its speed in producing a full house in just a day or two. In addition, the fact
that it will use minimum resources and labor, it will be cheap and available to everyone.
And, even with global worming issue, 3D printing can be developed so it can use biodegradable materials, an environmental sustainable feature. Moreover, in the age of internet
and microchips, such technology is needed to advance in robotics and help the construction industry. Such advancement is going to open the door for the human race into other
frontiers, one of which is building space colonies in the moon, that explains why NASA
has being helping developing 3D printing.
Construction by 3D-Printing:
A civil engineer would jump to ask, how? What about loads stresses and so on? That
is the fine line between reality and dreams, can it be actually done? As 3D printing is still
being developed, conventional and new methods are being thrown. Some are working
with load baring methods by using contour way of pilling layers over layers. Some prefers to use the normal reinforcing methods, by using steel bars, mesh sheets and hook
bolts to glue the building parts together. That being said, for the time being, most of 3D
printed structures are built using modular way. On the other hand, some engineers are
working on 3D printers that builds skeleton frames and covering it by finishing materials.
This method are, allegedly, will open the door to use biodegradable materials.
1- Contour method:
a- Load baring/regular walls:
Load baring walls can hold stress on top of it depending on how wide that
wall section is. On this system, the outer walls will have double the width of inner
walls. By using the contour technique on the walls boarders and zigzagging in the
inside, made layer over layer.
b- Reinforcement:
Concrete reinforcement has being used for over a century. It is expected
that it is the first option to be considered. However, it still requires the same
amount of concrete as the load baring method.
c- Usually modular:
Due to the lack of an actual 3D printer, except few, that can be moved
from site to another and able to print a full size building, 3D printed buildings are
usually constructed in a modular way. These modular parts are being printed in a
factory and then transported into the site. By using cranes, wires and hooks, part
by part the building is constructed. Even though, the goal is to print a full size
structure in the site of a project.
2- Skeleton method:
a- It requires extra finishing materials:
While the contour method builds a full wall, that should be covered by
painting materials, the skeleton method builds, only, the structural part of the
wall, which should be covered to prevent the outside from the inside. In this
method, the printers, for an example, prints steel bars in a grid like system. By injecting and welding the materials to form the shape.
b- May uses biodegradable materials in the future:
In some universities, printers are being developed to be able to inject soil
based materials extracted from a nearby site mixed with lime stone. This technique if done right will produce an environmental friendly structure, however, it’s
using the contour method. In a recent research engineers are looking into integrating that method with the skeleton system. By weaving the small parts by each
other it will form a strong fabric of a structural system. This is expected to produce strong walls to resist vertical and lateral loading, and will minimize the use
of concrete as a raw material.
Development of 3D-printers:
1- The House Printer:
In the University of Sothern California (USC) a new concept is being
worked on, called the house printer. It got that name because it was intended to
build houses. The idea is to work on 3 axis (X, Y, Z). This printer is equipped
with a nozzle and a crane on its Z axis. The Y axis controls the height of the
printer. On the X axis you will find the concrete hose, also it controls the coordinates of the printer along the project.
2- The Crane Printer:
My personal favorite, as it seems more efficient in construction. It covers
all 3 axis, as it can change its height (Z axis) by a hydraulic leg in the middle. For
the X and Y axis the printer head is able to rotate on itself. In addition, there is an
arm that stretches if needed with the nozzle equipped on it. This arm controls the
position of the nozzle, in addition to the rotation, to coop with much complicated
designs. Furthermore, this printer is much easier to assemble than the house
printer, it is also easier to transport from one site, story level, to another.
3- The Tower Printer:
The tower printer has being developed the cover height more than area. Its
design is similar to that of the house printer but it focuses more on height. The
prototype of it consist of four, or more, steel columns on each corner. Using pulleys and wires, it is able to cover high altitudes, based on the number of stories.
4- The Arm Printers:
Being developed in a small company, MX3D, in Hollande, Netherlands, it
is the breakthrough, anticipated, in the technology of 3D printing. Instead of using
the conventional way of injecting concrete through a nozzle, it spreads a layer of
metallic powder and laser to weld a bar, inch by inch. What is fascinating about it,
is that it’s not limited to steel as a material. In addition, it’s able to move with the
structure, whether in height or length. Because it’s developed to construct a steel
bridge, engineers had to come up with a way to make the printer move along the
span. With a moving base, and arms moving freely in every direction possible,
hence I choose to give it that name.
Other applications for 3D-printers:
Surly, 3D printing is a new helping technology, not limited to construction, but it
helps with designing, planning and fabricating. Some, but not all, of these advantages
a- Faster architectural designing process:
Usually, architects, uses more than their drawings and 3D modeling technology and try to model the project by using paper materials and adhesive,
which consumes time. However, with the 3D printing technology, the time
needed to finish the model will be reduced. In addition, the quality of the finish product will increase significantly. In contrast, the traditional way was to
do it by hand, and usually the client won’t care much about it, except for the
fact that it’s there to be seen. Another advantage, is that, a much accurate
model will give better results to form design analysis on it, such as wind resistance analysis for long structures.
b- Illustration of some structural complexities:
In the 21st century, and with every new mega project, engineers tend to design new structural systems. Due to the advancement, and demand, of new designs, especially with the aid of designing software, contractors are unable to
keep up with all new structural systems. Fortunately, 3D printed detailed replicas can form a better connection between the designer and the contractor.
c- Illustration of mechanical systems:
In addition, complex structural systems requires complex mechanical systems, for example, piping systems. Mechanical engineers can work on –up to
scale models, to coop with the project in hand, with much detail as needed.
d- Helpfulness in planning phase for contractors:
As in every major project, contractors must plan for a different approach
to deliver it successfully, by using 3D drone’s technique and up to date 3D
models, it helps better with the execution approach.
e- Faster industrial production:
In general, not limited, but not excluding the construction industry, manufactures can produce much complicated parts, such as car parts, with the same
quality faster than the usual sculpting technique. For example, steel parts can
be created by injecting steel powder to form a full shapes, without the need to
waste much material and recycling it over and over.
To summaries, 3D printing, for sure, is a gate to new age for the construction industry. Not to be biased, but there are some disadvantages to this technology that
wasn’t covered above, some of which, is the major layout of human assets, imperfection of the printed product, and the cost of adopting and using such methods. In defense, 3D printing will minimize site injures and will require technicians to operate
the machinery. Furthermore, after the building completion, the finishing process, conducted by the human agent, will produce an appealing product. Plus, engineers are developing nozzles that can meet the required designs. However, on the cost argument,
there isn’t a precise figure to present, but using less material, faster delivery, and producing a significantly less amount of wastage is one of the key cost reduction factors
in the building and manufacturing industry.

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