These are instructions from the professor about the paper And i did a case study paper for this class also i need you to follow the same topic and research question: you can see the attached to get some information from my previous research. my research question is why do some rich countries have strict air pollution than others ?my hypothesis is that rich countries have more environmental lawunits are the countries the i am going to choose 2 poor countries and 2 rich countries to compare my independent variable( is how rich is the country )the depandant varible is how small is the environmental laws.Initial draft. Your paper must include, in this order:research questionthesis statementexplanation of previous researchstatement of hypothesisat least 4 cases, each with complete descriptions of a dependent variable and independent variablecomparison of casesconclusionI will not accept any paper that does not have properly-formatted, complete citations.At least 4000 words, using at least 10 sources. Papers include a thesis statement, facts and logic that support the thesis, and a reference section. The thesis must be a non-normative, falsifiable statement with one dependent variable and at least one independent variable. You must cite at least 10 sources related to the research topic, including at least 3 scholarly scientific articles. Papers will be evaluated based on the the clarity of the question and thesis and based on the appropriate use of evidence, as well as on clarity of writing.explanationHere is a suggestion: https://epi.envirocenter.yale.edu/ – this is a group that ranks and describes how well countries are doing on environmental laws and policy. It would also be easy to use this to compare across cases as well.
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April 6, 2018
CASE STUDY: Evaluating Environmental Laws in Japan and China
Statement of Hypothesis
In their research on environmental law for deve loping countries, the writers Bell and
Rusell (2000) record that although many developing nations have established laws and structures
in response to their severe environmental issues; very few have managed to alleviate the
problems successfully. This situation is because the kind of environmental laws and policies that
a country enacts depends on their socio-economic priorities. There is, therefore, an urgency to
assign specific consideration, relative to the capacities of nations and socio-economic
circumstances, to the various goals and adjectives the world sets for different countries (Bell &
Rusell, 2000). It is expected that emerging nations will have challenges in implementing
environmental laws because of other pressing problems of meeting their populations basic needs
for decent housing, access to healthcare, and adequate food. Thus rich countries have more
environmental laws as the hypothesis for this case study asserts.
The units are countries which I am going to comparing many different countries poor,
rich and middle class. In this paper I am going to compare japan as a rich country and china as a
poor or developing country
The independent variable in this study is how rich a country is. This case study will
conduct a comparison between the rich country Japan and the developing country China. The
author will establish the measure to determine the real wealth of Japan relative to its existing
environmental laws. The author intends to measure the wealth using the United Nations (UN)
(2012) metrics for establishing how rich a country is. This index uses three significant assets;
physical capital which includes manufacturing capacity and infrastructure; human capital which
touches on the populations education levels and skills; and natural capital which consists of
land, minerals, and forests. These are highly placed in measuring the actual measure of wealth in
comparison with relying on the gross domestic product (GDP) which fails to factor in
transactions that happen without involving money.
The dependent variable in this study is how strong is the environmental law ,the existing
environmental laws. The case study will discuss the available environmental regulations, how
long they have been in operation, and how successful the rules are in alleviating the problems for
which they were enacted. The two Countries, Japan and China that is, have made considerable
steps towards a green environment but Japan has had more success owing to better economic
conditions. In fact, Japan is considered a global leader in environmental issues according to
Introduction of Case Study
This case study evaluates the steps that Japan has made towards environmental
conservation putting in mind the excellent economic standing in comparison to China, a country
whose economic circumstances have hindered progress in environmental issues. Japan has a
successful history of environmental conservation coupled with environmental technology while
simultaneously enjoying great economic progress (Schreurs, 2004). The laws and regulations
governing the use of the environment are yet to eliminate associated problems successfully.
Developing countries are known to follow development strategies that rely heavily on their
natural resources to the disadvantage of the environment as evidenced by China (Bell & Rusell,
2000). These countries too may consider environmental concerns as problems for rich countries
and environmental regulation as an obstruction to their development agenda while some
countries may be of the opinion that economic growth is impossible without affecting the
environment (Slater, 2015).
Measurement of the Independent Variable
The independent variable for this case study, as discussed above is the measure of how
rich a country is. In this regard, the author has voted to use the metrics used by the UN during the
compilations of the Inclusive Wealth Report in the year 2012. The primary objective of this
report was to conduct a detailed analysis of various wealth determining elements by country and
their role in economic development. The indexes used in the report as stated above are physical,
human, and natural resources. The chart below shows the position of Japan concerning human
capital. The country was ahead of China at position two (Inclusive wealth report, 2012).
Data on physical capital is presented in the form of buildings, equipment, and machines
that contribute to the production process. These measures include the estimated value of housing,
consumer goods, and financial assets owned by households (Inclusive wealth report, 2012). The
physical capital in Japan grew significantly over the period of study relative to China whose
physical capital increased but with a lower percentage (Inclusive wealth report, 2012). The report
further explains that Japan was the only country, out of the 70 that were involved in the study,
which maintained its natural capital reserves for the period between 1990 and 2008. These
natural resources are fuels, timber, and nickel which can be priced as opposed to water and air
that can neither be owned nor priced. Japan was found to be accumulating wealth while
simultaneously increasing natural wealth, this situation was explained by the relatively slow
growth in population in comparison with other countries like China whose natural wealth
reduced due to high population growth as shown in the table below (Inclusive wealth report,
Measurement of the Dependent Variable
Japan has enacted several environmental laws to address the country’s environmental
issues on air, water, and soil including The Basic Environment Law and the Basic Environment
Plan in 1994 that outlined the long-term objectives for environment conservation by recognizing
that the environment is a vital support system for future developments. Next followed the Air
Pollution Control Act whose aim was to regulate smoke and soot emissions from factories. The
Water Pollution Control Act regulates the disposal of waste into water bodies by factories and
other businesses. Other laws include the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law, The
Offensive Odour Control Law, and the Vibration Regulation Laws.
Such laws as found in Japan are alien to many countries, and although China continually
improves on environmental conservation, it is yet to reach the standards set by Japan. Even
though China passed the environmental protection law in 1989, breaches in the law and failure to
fully implement it has seen a majority of its cities covered in smog decades later. The first
amendment to the law was made in 2014 when parliament set the amended act as one of the
countrys primary policies. As the article in The Guardian, written by Kaiman (2014) states, no
matter how good regulations are on paper, its value can only be felt when authorities enforce it.
The article also affirms that 60% of Chinas underground water is contaminated. New strategies
in China are to punish offending factories with hefty fines since the ones in the current laws are
so little such that factories opt to pay the penalties rather than incur costs investing in physical
capital that will help in long-term environmental conservation (Kaiman, 2014).
Bell, R. G., & Rusell, C. (2000). Environmental Policy for Developing Countries. Nashville:
(2012). Inclusive wealth report. New York: United Nations.
Kaiman, J. (2014, April 25). Pollution: China strengthens environmental laws. Retrieved April
5, 2018, from The Guardian:
Schreurs, M. A. (2004). Assessing Japan’s Role as a Global Environmental Leader. Policy and
Slater, P. (2015). Environmental Law in Third World Countries: Can it be Enforced by Other
Countries?. LSA Journal of International & Comparative Law.
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