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1 essay, 5–6 pages, single spaced, 100 points possibleDuring this course we’ve covered quite a range of topics that relate to the topic of the interconnections among human rights, law, war, and peace. As we discussed in Lesson 9, we cannot think of these topics as separate and distinct, because they combine to affect the realization of human rights in practice. For this final paper, pick an issue that pertains to human rights and/or peace and do the following:Write about the way the topics we have covered (citizenship, the state, the environment, and so forth) are interrelated in the issue you chose. Propose a solution to the issue you chose that (a) displays your understanding of the interrelation of the topics we have covered and (b) would, in your opinion, lead to a greater realization of human rights and/or peace. If you are finding it difficult to propose a solution, don’t panic. Issues regarding human rights and peace are immensely complicated, and any potential solution to such issues will themselves be complicated. Just take your time, think through the issue, and apply what we have covered during this course, and you will be fine. Focus on thinking about the interconnections among the topics we have covered and how accounting for these interconnections allows you to think more in depth about the issue. Your final paper will be assessed according to the Scoring Rubric” section below.Scoring Rubric for Lesson 9 Final EssayFormat5 to 6 pages single spaced, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, 1″ margins; 1 point deducted for each 1/3 page too long or too short.5 pointsConcepts The issue is related to human rights.10 points The essay shows evidence that the student read, understands, and notes how solutions identified in the assigned reading by Stiglitz (2013) could be improved by utilizing ideas presented during the course.10 pointsThe essay summarizes the issue. 10 pointsThe essay applies at least 3 topics from the course to the issue. 10 pointsThe essay details how these 3 topics are interrelated and how they affect the realization of rights/peace in relation to the issue. 10 pointsThe essay proposes a policy to solve the issue.15 pointsThe essay details how this policy accounts for the interrelation of topics covered during the course and promotes human rights/peace. 10 pointsSourcesThe essay utilizes 3 sources that were not assigned readings.10 pointsThe essay utilizes 3 sources that were assigned readings. 10 points deducted if no reference page included. (Any standard reference style is acceptable.)10 pointsTotal points possible100 points

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Through a focus on the intimate interconnections among human rights, law, war, and
peace, we have covered a tremendous range of topics in this course. After a discussion
of the elements included in human rights, we discussed how such rights are realized in
practice. We examined citizenship, the state, capitalism, globalization, intersectionality,
the environment, and surveillance and considered how they relate to the realization of
human rights and peace. In this lesson, drawing from your assigned reading by Julia
Preston (2013), we’ll examine one case that combines points from these various
lessons and shows how they complicate the ability of individuals to realize their rights in
practice. While we approached each lesson as a self-contained unit, in practice, the
issues and ideas covered in each lesson combine to affect the ability of individuals to
realize their rights in practice.
To conclude, we’ll briefly discuss your reading from Stiglitz (2013) as a launching pad
for your final paper, in which you will design a policy to promote the realization of human
rights and/or peace in practice. For your final paper, you’ll be asked to do the following:
Pick a contemporary human rights issue to write about to apply what we’ve
covered in the course, thinking critically about the issue
Propose a potential solution based on what we have covered
Globalization, Citizenship, and Intersectionality: A Complicated Case
Marriage equality is one of the most visible social issues in the United States today. In
the first months of 2013, the Supreme Court began considering two cases that signaled
whether it would support or oppose gay marriage. In June of that year the Supreme
Court issued rulings on two highly-anticipated cases on gay marriage. By 5-4, it ruled
the federal Defense of Marriage Act, which defines marriage as a union between one
man and one woman, is unconstitutional.
In a separate ruling, it declined to take on the broader issue of gay marriage. The court
decided that supporters of Proposition 8, a 2008 ballot measure that had outlawed
same-sex marriages in the California, did not have standing to bring the case to the
At this writing same-sex marriages are recognized by the United States federal
government and granted by 35 states; the District of Columbia; select local jurisdictions
in Missouri; and 11 Native American tribal jurisdictions. In addition, Missouri recognizes
same-sex marriages established in other jurisdictions. Several hundred marriage
licenses were issued to same-sex couples in Michigan and Arkansas between the time
their bans were struck down by federal or state courts and when those rulings were
stayed. Most Americans live in a jurisdiction where same-sex couples can legally
While it’s clear that the ability of non-heterosexual couples to marry is a human rights
issue in and of itself—because Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
explicitly notes that people have the right to marry consensually—it is also critical to
note that gay and lesbian couples face other barriers to realizing their human rights in
Through an analysis of one such issue—specifically, routes to citizenship for noncitizen
partners in same-sex couples—we’ll see how various topics we’ve touched on in this
course combine to affect the ability of individuals to realize their rights in practice. In
particular, the case will show the importance of the state, citizenship, globalization,
intersectionality, and surveillance for the realization of rights in practice.
As your assigned reading by Preston (2013) shows, unlike U.S. citizens in heterosexual
relationships, U.S. citizens with same-sex partners or spouses who are not U.S. citizens
have no legal avenue to obtain legal residency for their partners or spouses in the
United States. Combined with the details of the case considered in the Preston article
(2013), this inability to obtain citizenship is insightful for a number of reasons.
First, the case very clearly shows that globalization, the state, and citizenship are
deeply tangled issues that have dramatic impact on the ability of people to realize
their rights today. As we discussed in a previous lesson on citizenship, both legal
citizenship and full recognition as being worthy of rights are integrally important
to the realization of human rights in practice. Without either legal citizenship or
full citizenship, individuals have an immensely difficult time realizing their rights in
practice. Importantly, in an age in which countries are increasingly
interconnected and more people move around the globe, the ability of immigrants
to obtain citizenship will have a tremendous impact on the ability of people to
realize their rights in practice. Rights, then, are affected by the interplay of
globalization, citizenship, and the way states regulate access to citizenship.
Second, the case shows that intersectionality, the state, and citizenship combine
to affect the realization of human rights in practice. In fact, the case is a perfect
example showing why people cannot be thought of in generalized terms and that
instead they should be thought of in a way that acknowledges and accounts for
the different difficulties they face in realizing their rights in practice. Specifically,
Preston’s article (2013) shows that a group of people is being systematically and
purposely singled out by the state in an effort to deny them the ability to obtain
citizenship. Consequently, individuals in homosexual relationships have a more
difficult time realizing their rights in practice. This is, of course, not a difficulty
faced by heterosexual individuals. In order to account for this difference, it is
necessary to conceptualize people as intersectional subjects and account for the
differences between them that cause people to face differential difficulties in
realizing their rights. In this case, an ability to obtain citizenship (and the rights
therein) is made more difficult for individuals in homosexual relationships
precisely because of the way the state has structured access to citizenship. The
state, citizenship, and intersectionality, then, are intertwined in affecting the
ability of a particular type of noncitizen to gain the legal recognition necessary to
achieve their human rights in practice.
Finally, the case shows how the state, citizenship, and surveillance combine to
affect the realization of human rights in practice. Importantly, without systematic
state surveillance of individuals’ gender and sexuality, it would not be possible to
discriminate against people based on their gender and sexuality—primarily
because it would not be possible for the state to make distinctions between
people based on their gender and sexuality in the first place. Importantly,
because the state does collect information on individuals’ gender and sexuality, it
is able to make distinctions between them based on their gender and sexuality
and to grant citizenship status accordingly. The state, citizenship, and
surveillance, then, combine and interact in a way that allows the state to use
surveillance as a means to deny select people access to citizenship.
Overall, what we see from Preston’s article (2013) is that the realization of human rights
is affected by and contingent on the interaction of various topics we have covered in this
course. Specifically, this article shows how the state, citizenship, globalization,
intersectionality, and surveillance combine to affect the ability of individuals to realize
their human rights in practice.
The State, Economy, and Citizenship: A Jumping Off Point
By contrast, Joseph Stiglitz (2013) primarily focuses on the interactions among the
state, capitalism, and citizenship. As should be evident from your assigned readings,
Stiglitz (2013) believes that current manifestations of inequality—economic inequality in
particular—can be fixed with the correct policies. Again highlighting the relationship
between state regulations and economic outcomes, Stiglitz (2013) proposes a number
of regulatory changes that could alleviate the current level of class inequality in the
United States. To be sure, as we have discussed previously, inequality is tied to the
realization of rights in practice, a point Stiglitz makes explicit.
The realization of human rights, in other words, is ultimately contingent on how the state
chooses to regulate the economy and the level of inequality produced therein. This level
of inequality is both structured by and works to structure the meaning of citizenship
Stiglitz’s (2013) proposed solutions are insightful, because they highlight the
interconnections among the state, economy, and citizenship and the way such
interconnections work to affect the realization of human rights in practice. However, his
proposed solutions aren’t flawless. I would like you to think about how his proposed
solutions could be improved. Specifically, think about what Stiglitz doesn’t account for or
what he overlooks that we have discussed during this course. For example, how does
Stiglitz deal with globalization? You will address such issues in the final paper you write
for this lesson.
There is a link for the other reading

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