5 page paper on the topic “Can we know anything for sure about the world around us?”

It is a 5 page paper, double spaced (size 12 font, times new roman). It is based on the prospectus you helped me with 2 weeks ago. I will attach the rubric and the prospectus below.


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PHL 210 Final Project Essay Guidelines and Rubric
At the end of Module Seven, you will submit a critical thinking and argumentation essay on a specific topic as your final project. Milestones have been set up for
you in the course to help manage your time to complete this project. Refer back to the Course Introduction and your Module One and Two overviews for
guidance in approaching your topic.
Three Simple Steps
1. Select one of the topics below as the focus of your essay. Use the Shapiro Library and the course resources to assist you in exploring your topic:
In Crito, Socrates gives three arguments for remaining in jail and allowing Athens to put him to death. One of the arguments is based on what later
became known as social contract theory. Analyze Socrates’ use of social contract theory and compare and contrast it with the versions of one of the
following writers: Rousseau, Hobbes, or Locke.
One of the major intellectual objections to belief in God in the Western tradition is the problem of evil. After discussing how the problem of evil arises
and what it consists of, explain a defense against the problems of moral and natural evil as presented by a writer of your choice, and present and defend
your position on the issue.
Is there such a thing as a “soul”? Is it something different from the brain? Does it survive after our physical death? Show the relationship between these
three questions and address each of them, reaching an answer to each of them that you defend in your essay.
Do we have free will, or is everything we do traceable to a complex series of causes and effects over which we have no control? In your essay, show how
the problem arises, discuss the three major theories about free will, and support one of them with your own argument.
Can we know anything for sure about the world around us? Write an essay in which you show how this question arises and in which you present and
defend your position based on the work of at least two writers.
Why should we be moral? Write an essay in which you show why this question makes sense, and provide at least one answer. You must provide an
argument showing why your position is correct and defend it against at least two criticisms.
2. Post a brief overview of your topic in the Topic Choice Posting workshop topic in Module Three. Approach your topic from a single angle so that you begin
with a precise, focused argument. The more specific your thesis statement, the easier it will be for you to avoid generalizations and produce an insightful
analysis. As you develop your analysis, think about how the answers to these questions are representative of the bigger picture you will paint in your
introduction and conclusion. Your citations should use at least three major philosophers’ beliefs/arguments to support your argument or serve as evidence
for the counterargument.
3. Complete your Final Project Prospectus assignment, due at the end of Module Five. Refer to the separate Final Project Prospectus instructions on the Final
Project landing page to assist you.
Guidelines for Submission: Four to five pages, double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, and at least three citations. Citations must use
APA or MLA format; refer to your Course Resources area for citation resources and tools. Click here for additional guidelines to assist you in developing your
Critical Elements
Exemplary (100%)
Summarizes all pertinent
philosophical views and
concepts, fully explaining major
philosophical terms
Proficient (85%)
Summarizes all pertinent
philosophical views, concepts,
and terms
Needs Improvement (55%)
Summarizes some major
philosophical views, concepts,
and terms
Not Evident (0%)
Does not summarize major
philosophical views, concepts,
and terms
Fully explains the historical
importance of philosophical
views and concepts to one’s
own topic in clear and concise
Explains the historical
importance of philosophical
views and concepts to one’s
own topic with appropriate
Explains the historical
importance of philosophical
views and concepts, but with
gaps in detail that would be
necessary in demonstrating
relevance to one’s own topic
Does not explain the historical
importance of philosophical
views and concepts to one’s
own topic
Evidence of Critical
Thinking (Student
Student’s own position is
distinctively represented in a
clear thesis statement
supported by strong evidence
and argumentation
Student’s own position is
represented in a clear thesis
statement supported by clear
evidence and argumentation
Student’s own position is
represented in a thesis
statement, but it requires
additional relevant evidence or
organization of argument for
Student’s own position is not
represented by thesis statement
or is unsupported with
appropriate evidence and
Evidence of Critical
Presents a clear
counterargument to thesis,
which is responded to
throughout essay
Meets “Proficient” criteria and
includes all necessary detail
organized to logically and
concisely proceed through the
entire paper
Presents a clear
counterargument to thesis,
which is responded to at key
points in essay
Body flows logically with clear
transitions organizing
components of the argument
and counterargument
throughout the paper
Presents a counterargument to
thesis, but it is not clearly
responded to within the
structure of the essay
Body of the paper presents
components of a logical
argument and
counterargument, but with gaps
in logic and/or transitions that
require additional organization
Does not present a clear
counterargument to thesis
Body of the paper requires
additional organization and/or
additional relevant examples
and facts to support argument
and counterargument
Structure of
Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
concisely paraphrases and
quotes, integrating source
evidence effectively with all
citations in accurate format
Adheres to the conventions of
grammar, punctuation, spelling,
mechanics, and usage with no
Integrates source evidence
effectively with all citations in
accurate format
Integrates paraphrases and
quotes, with most citations in
accurate format
Does not integrate paraphrases
and quotes and/or does not use
accurate format for citations
Adheres to the conventions of
grammar, punctuation,
mechanics, and usage with few
Adheres to the conventions of
grammar, punctuation,
mechanics, and usage with
some errors
Grammar, punctuation,
mechanics, and usage have
many errors
Earned Total
Guidelines for Writing Your Paper
Clarity is extremely important. Clear, logical, organized writing helps your reader understand your meaning. Avoid inflated diction and using “to be” and passive
verbs. You will strategically organize your paper to put together a highly effective response to your topic and present the following:
Title: A title alerts your reader to what you will be addressing and should therefore be both descriptive and specific.
A Compelling Introduction: This introduction will identify the topic, clearly outlining the structure of the argument and the counterargument, define key terms,
and clearly state the thesis.
1. Hook: Your first sentence is designed to “hook” your reader, inducing him or her to continue reading. Yet while you should introduce your material in a
general way before moving to a specific thesis, avoid overwhelming generalizations such as “Throughout history…” or “Since the beginning of time…” And
while the hook should perhaps be the most general sentence in your essay, it should still be directly related to your essay’s topic.
2. Context: The bulk of your introduction should provide context for your reader. This is the appropriate place to include summary. But it is a careful balancing
act—you will likely need to reread and revise your introduction multiple times to strike the right balance of summary: not too much, and not too little.
Provide the essential information so your reader can follow your train of thought, without including irrelevant details. Topics for summary may include:
Philosophers and works you are analyzing (directly relevant to your thesis; others can be addressed as examples within the body)
Historical context (only include details relevant to your thesis)
Ideas that provide the foundation for understanding your thesis
3. Thesis: The thesis should be located at the end of the introduction. The thesis statement specifies what will be argued in the paper. Therefore, it should
contain a subject (what is my topic?), argument (what am I claiming?), and why/how (what is my reasoning?). Consider the thesis statement a contract
between the writer and the reader, and make sure that the rest of the essay upholds the thesis statement’s proposed argument. The thesis statement
establishes the tone for the essay; therefore, it should use specific and active language and avoid clichés, questions, and overgeneralizations. It is the most
important and thus should arguably be the best written sentence in the entire essay
An Organized Body: Follow through on developing your thesis in the body of your paper. Ensure that you use effective transitions for every component of your
argument as well as your counterargument. The body of your paper should flow logically, arguing the thesis from your introduction with highly effective examples
reflecting insights from your own critical thinking process, not summarizing. The examples and facts from the philosophers and works you have examined will
support your thesis, and the significance of each insight your critical thinking process reveals will be fully explained. The body will also include at least three
scholarly sources and respond to each source in the form of highly relevant quotations and concise paraphrasing.
Body Paragraph: Remember to put your paragraphs in a logical order in the paper as a whole.
Transitions: Provide a sentence at the end of one paragraph and/or at the beginning of another paragraph indicating how one idea is connected to the
next. A transition may be implied if the logic is clear enough.
A Powerful Conclusion: This is where you pull it all together. Your conclusion will not only effectively restate your thesis, but it will pull all your claims together.
Your conclusion should clearly relate how the issue represented by the thesis is important and what bigger question it raises, and identify possibilities and
implications for applying philosophical inquiry to everyday situations. Remind your reader what you have set out to prove and how you have done it (without
using the exact same words, of course). In other words, take the first few sentences of your conclusion to review your most important points. This is actually a
rather straightforward process: Review your topic sentences, which should specify your main arguments, and reiterate their main ideas for the reader. Finally,
move beyond summary to your “big idea.” Conclude something about your argument (Ask yourself, “What has my essay revealed about the topic?” or “Why has
it been worth talking about?”).
It is certainly a challenging process to think up an abstract, meaningful, and impressive idea to conclude your essay with. Let it “simmer” for a while. Think about
your essay while you go about your day, driving, exercising, cooking, showering, and so on. You might just have an “aha!” moment of insight when you least
expect it. If you save your conclusion until right before the paper is due, it is less likely you will be able to think of a perceptive idea with which to conclude your
Running head: WORLD AROUND US
Can we know anything for sure about the world around us?
Institution Affiliation
Instructor’s Name
Course Code
Can we know anything for sure about the world around us?
Question 1
Knowing anything about the world around us can be analyzed into idealism,
phenomenalism as well as naïve realism. In relation to idealism, we know the world around us
since it is comprised of our ideas. Moreover, according to phenomenalism, it is true that physical
objects are knowable. However, according to naïve realism, we cannot perceive ideas. The main
issues surrounding the topic is that the existence of the world relies on the false sense of reality.
Additionally, there is the lack of trust on the material objects around the world (Gettier, 2003).
Question 2
The relevant philosophers to be involved in analyzing how we know anything about the
world around us include Edmund Gettier, Thomas Nagel as well as George Berkeley. Edmund
Gettier in the field of epistemology analysis the account of knowledge by comprehending
justification, truth, and belief in meeting a given claim about the world around us. Additionally,
Thomas Nagel analysis what is it to be like something while advocating on the idea that
consciousness and subjective experience about the world around us. Moreover, there is George
Berkeley who analysis that what we perceive remains to be the real world, however, things we
perceive are our own ideas (Johnston, 2004).
Question 3
My position on the topic is that we know things across the world since they are
permanent possibilities of sensation. Therefore, we can refute that things are knowable because
they are phenomena.
Question 4
My objection is that things globally do not exist because they are experienced, but they
are experienced because they exist. Its significance is that things appear in the world under
certain conditions.
Question 5
We know things across the world since they are permanent possibilities of sensation
ensuring that they are experienced because they exist. Therefore, it is true that what we perceive
in the world seems to be our own ideas. Therefore, through describing the position and objection
on the topic, it is true that we have a clear understanding of the world due to its existence (Nagel,
Gettier, E. L. (2003). Is justified true belief knowledge?. Analysis, 23(6), 121-123.
Johnston, G. A. (2004). The development of Berkeley’s philosophy.
Nagel, T. (2004). What is it like to be a bat?. The philosophical review, 83(4), 435-450.

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