5 page research paper

I have a 20-page bibliography paper for the whole semester. The topic is Which Rehabilitation Programs Reduce Recidivism in sex offenders.it will be turned in four parts which are Paper Cover & Introduction(1), Literature Review(2), Reporting Research Results(3), Results/conclusion (4). Now we”ll need to finish the second parts Method section please help finish it.All papers must be typed, double-spaced, using a12-point font (Arial, Times New Roman, Helvetica); use standard marginsPaper must be written in an essay format (e.g., full sentences); do not insert extra line breaks between paragraphs or manipulate margins to lengthen your paperAPA format.I hope you will help me do the rest part of the paper in the future if you help me with this part. I want the paper to be done by the same person from the beginning to the end.See Methods Section slides. In two parts: First describe (in third person) how research was started- library, sites, keywords and phrases, how data chosen? Date range consideration, trusted sites, peer reviewed, etc.Next take a critical examination of what methods were used in the individual papers or studies: Type of investigation, type of study: questionnaire, interviews, observation, trials, longitudinal, crime mapping, quantitative, qualitative, etc.I already attached the very detailed instruction with a powerpoint file below. Please follow carefully with the instruction. Also, the first two parts of the essay (Paper Cover & Introduction) and (Literature Review) which are done are also attached. Please try to connect this part (Method section )with the first two parts (Paper Cover & Introduction) and (Literature Review) which I already attached as to make it seems like the essay is written by the same person.I will tip you if the work is good.
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Chapter 7
Research Designs &
Methods Section
The Research Design (1 of 2)
• Feasible plan or blueprint
• Five W’s and H: who, what, where,
when, why, how
• Must match design to desired outcomes
The Research Design (2 of 2)
• Purpose of
research
• Prior research
• Theoretical
orientation
• Concept definition
• Research
hypotheses
• Unit of analysis
• Data-collection
techniques
• Sampling
procedures
• Instruments used
• Analytic
techniques
• Time frame
• Ethical issues
Common Forms of Research
Designs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Historical
Descriptive
Developmental or Time Series
Case Studies
Correlational
Causal-Comparative
Other Research Designs
Historical
• Systematically and objectively
reconstruct the past
• Collection, evaluation, verification, and
synthesis of information
• Reach defensible conclusion
• Economically efficient research method
• Scope is limited to documents
Descriptive
• Facts and characteristics of a population,
issue, policy, or any area of interest
• Secondary or records data
• Provide insights not recognized in previously
published research
• Inferential study: applies findings to the
population
• Not always reliable or accurate
• Cost-effective and logistically easy to conduct
• May be time-sensitive
Developmental or Time Series
• Investigate patterns and events, growth, or
change over a specified time
• Costly and time-consuming
• Time series designs
–
–
–
–
–
Cross-sectional studies
Longitudinal studies
Trend studies
Cohort studies
Panel studies
Case Studies
• Intensive study of an issue, policy, or group in
its social context at one point in time
• Scrutiny of background, status, relationships
• Longitudinal
• Three basic features
– Describe variable over extended period of time
– Context for observing changes in variables
– Develop measuring instruments and test their
reliability over time
• Costly and time-prohibitive
Correlational
• Investigate how one factor may affect
another factor
• Variations in one variable correspond to
variations of other variables
• Correlational coefficients
Causal-Comparative
• Examine relationships from a causeand-effect perspective
• Observing an existing outcome or
consequence and searching back
through the data for causal factors
Variable
Is something we want to measure.
As described, it can vary over time and or
attitudes: Religion, socio-economic status,
self-esteem scale, attitudes or opinions,
etc.
Other Research Designs
• True or Classical Experimental
–
–
–
–
–
Independent and dependent variables
Experimental and control groups
Pre- and post testing
Expensive and logistically difficult
Consent and control issues
• Quasi-Experimental
– No control of relevant variables
– Result interpretation issues
Summary
• Choose a
research design.
– Survey
– Historical
– Descriptive
– Developmental
– Case
– Correlational
– CausalComparative
– True
Experimental
– Quasiexperimental
Methodology for your paper:
• Open with an Introduction
• What were you looking for?
• What key words and phrases did you
input in your search?
• How did you validate your sources?
• Why did you pick some over others?
• Were resources lacking?
Methodology (continued)
• What measures were used in your
source materials? Quantitative?
Qualitative? Scales? Surveys?
• Were measures valid?
• How may they have been influenced or
skewed?
• Confirmation Bias? (see next slide)
Confirmation Bias
“It is the peculiar and perpetual error of the human
understanding to be more moved and excited by
affirmatives than by negatives.” –Francis Bacon
(True, as long the affirmatives support your beliefs about
anything but yourself or people you don’t like and the
negatives oppose your beliefs about anything but yourself
or people you don’t like. When it comes to the self or
people we don’t like, we seem to be much more affected
by negative views than positive views. See the entry on
negativity bias.)
http://skepdic.com/confirmbias.html
Part 1 of the Methods Section
Research on successful rehabilitation of sex offenders began by
determining descriptions of sex offenders. For the purposes of this paper,
a sex offender is one listed on the Megan’s Law Directory of offenses.
They are: xxxx, xxxxx, xxxx, xxx (citation).
Next, rehabilitation programs would be determined to be
successful if they decreased repeat offenses by 40% or more. Repeat
offenses are described as a new offense that falls in the categories listed
in the Megan’s Law Directory. Violations of parole or probation conditions
would not be considered a new offense.
Research started at the San Francisco State University Library
and various data bases such as EBSCO, Google Scholar and xxxxxx. Key
words and phrases included: sex offender, sex crimes, rehabilitation for
sex offenders, sexual offender programs, Megan’s Law rehabilitation,
successful programs for sex offenders, and best practices in sex offender
programs. Several returns of studies contained new words and phrases
such as ,,,,,,,,
Methods Section Part 1 continued
Research studies and articles were chosen based on their
relevance to the subject matter. Data that was within 5 years of
publication was given preference although some older articles and
studies contained valuable information that was not found
elsewhere. Preference was given to articles and studies from valid
sources such as peer reviewed articles and studies, papers from
educational institutions and government websites.
Abstracts were read to determine bias, neutrality, study size,
relevance to the paper topic and for content. Once chosen, the
articles were reviewed for the methods used in creating them.
Methods Section Part 2
There was a sense of bias in a study that involved opinions
that there were too many females on the sex offender registry
(citation). The study revealed that less than xx% of those on the list
were females. The definitions were the same for male offenders
and yet the study called for females to be removed from the list.
Further investigation led to the fact that the study was coosponsored by a women’s prisoner advocate group, which may
account for the female bias (citation).
A study of chemical castration as a form of rehabilitation did
not reach the 40% rehabilitation rate that was established for the
purpose of this paper. In this process, only a 25% success rate was
determined to be the percentage of “rehabilitated” offenders
(citation).
Methods Section Summary
Continue to cite from articles and studies that you
researched for your paper. Continue to write in the
third-person narrative and continue to cite your
sources.
If you cited the source previously, cite the page(s)
number along with the new citation [i.e-](Walsh,
2017, pages 23-34).
Summarize to wrap it up. “Of the articles presented,
the majority were current and well- researched.”
Running head: REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
1
Which Rehabilitation Programs Reduce Recidivism in Sex Offenders
Abstract
The law of any state always prioritizes the wellbeing of each citizen. The essence of a
government is to ensure that every citizen of their country enjoys their rights without infringing
on other people’s rights. This is the basis of amicability in a society. When an individual breaks
the law, they can be incarcerated, put on rehabilitation or both. This usually depends on the magnitude of the crime and the mental state (sanity) of the offender. Other factors such as age (juvenile or adult) may also be considered. However, despite elaborate rehabilitation and incarceration
programs, some of the offenders who got through such systems tend to incline back to their old
ways once they are released from the respective programs. This is called recidivism. Sex violation is a common crime. While there may be different reasons why different individuals engage
in such crimes, the element of recidivism is often recurrent. However, there is a huge attribution
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
2
of the offense to psychology. Therefore, many sex offenders are slotted into rehabilitation programs rather than incarceration. It is also important to note that some sex offenders are also incarcerated, depending on the circumstances surrounding the case or incident. Different rehabilitation programs usually have different outcomes. The programs work differently depending on
the offense and the offender. As much as some programs may work for some individuals, they
may as well not work for others. This means that there is no particular program that has the exclusiveness of 100% efficiency on all sex offenders.
Which Rehabilitation Programs Reduce Recidivism in Sex Offenders
Introduction
Before choosing an appropriate program to enroll an offender, there are several things
that have to be considered. These things are key to ensuring that the sex offender is rehabilitated
effectively with minimal chances of recidivism. One important thing is the mental state or sanity
of the offender during and after the commitment of the offense. Normally, the sex offenders with
mental instability are enrolled for treatment and later rehabilitation or therapy. Therefore, when
such offenders are directly put into normal rehabilitation programs, they may not get help and
recidivism is almost guaranteed. The correct choice of a relevant rehabilitation program is, therefore, one of the key aspects of reducing recidivism.
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
3
Another important consideration is the record or history of an offender. The rehabilitation
program that a first-time offender will be enrolled for is not the same as that a multiple offender
will be enrolled. The significance of this is to ensure that the problem/cause is identified and
solved. Normally, when an offender is recurrently put on the same program, it means that the
real problem is not identified, hence drafting an accurate rehabilitation strategy for them is difficult. Therefore, instead of enrolling an offender in any rehabilitation program, it is important to
check the programs that they may have undergone before then draft a way forward. This is very
important in reducing recidivism rates.
Finally, before enrolling an offender for a particular rehabilitation program, age, gender,
and family background are also important aspects to consider in the bid to reduce the rate of recidivism. As outlined earlier, not single rehabilitation program that achieves 100% efficiency
with all the offenders. Statistically, most sex offenders are males. There are very few female sex
offenders. Therefore, the program that some male offenders may be enrolled for may not work
for the female offenders. If either of the two is put in an inappropriate program, there is a higher
chance of recidivism. The American justice system is usually sensitive in ensuring that there is a
vivid line that is drawn between juveniles and adults when it comes to the ‘eyes of the law.’
Many juveniles are usually ‘fragile’ and ‘volatile’ hence their programs ought to be special to reduce recidivism. The family background also matters. Offenders that from troubled families or
those that have experienced abuse should be considered for certain programs as opposed to generalization.
Rehabilitation programs for sex offenders are many. As we have seen, there is no specific
program that can exclusively be recommended for every sex offender since it has 0% recidivism.
However, research findings reveal that there is lower recidivism in the offenders who enroll for
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
4
rehabilitation or treatment programs as compared to those who don’t. According to a study coordinated by the Crime and Justice department, ‘On average, there is a significant reduction in recidivism rates in the treated groups. The odds to sexually re-offend were 1.41 lower for treated
compared to control groups. This equals a sexual recidivism rate of 10.1% for treated offenders
compared to 13.7% without treatment’ (Schmucker & Loesel, 2017). This means that as much as
some rehabilitation programs for sex offenders may not have high rates of reducing recidivism,
there is a higher guarantee of behavior change for offenders who enroll for rehabilitation programs as compared to those who don’t.
Rehabilitation programs are mainly divided into two broad categories: Pharmacological
and non-pharmacological rehabilitation programs. These programs are based on the medical state
and condition of the offender. The medic or therapist involved with a certain offender is usually
responsible for recommending the appropriate program. The recommendation of an appropriate
program is very important and should be based on the factors stated earlier in the paper. Pharmacological programs mainly involve the administration of medication. This often applies to the
mentally ill or disturbed patients who may have committed the offense due to a certain illness or
condition. Non-pharmacological programs mainly involve therapy sessions, group talks, guidance, and counseling. Non-pharmacological programs are mainly based on invoking character
and behavior change. One thing is, however, common in the two categories of rehabilitation programs – monitoring. Close and frequent monitoring, assessment, and evaluation of offender’s
progress is key in the bid to reduce recidivism (Bertrand & Friedman, 2015).
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
5
References
Bertrand, N. & Friedman, L. F. (2015). The Scary Truth About Sex Offender ‘Rehabilitation’ Programs. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/sex-offender-rehabilitation-programs-2015-1?IR=T.
Schmucker, M. & Loesel, F. (2017). Sexual offender treatment for reducing recidivism among
convicted sex offenders. Retrieved from https://www.campbellcollaboration.org/library/sexual-offender-treatment.html.
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
Rehabilitation Programs And Recidivism
Rehabilitation Programs And Recidivism
1
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
2
While the core purpose of the criminal justice system is to punish wrongdoers of their
convicted crimes, deter others from committing the same offense, give the convicts just dessert
for their actions, and show the disapproval of society; we must always remember that rehabilitation is the major reason that there are prisons and other interventions in the first place. The point
of custodial or non-custodial sentences at the end of criminal cases is to rehabilitate the offender,
especially if it is likely that the person will go free after serving their sentence. That is what this
literature review will look into. There are many ways of reducing recidivism, and this literature
will aim to give the reader a good idea of the general flow of scholarship on recidivism.
It is essential to point out even at this early stage of the paper that there cannot be such a
thing as a one hundred percent reduction in recidivism. Human beings have free will, and that
comes with an autonomy that everyone who is free can exercise. It does not matter whether a
past sex offender lives with permanent restrictions of who they live near, or where they. A free
sexual predator can as well violate the terms of their release and go back to committing the same
offense again. So it is essential to consider the fact that there is only so much that efforts at recidivism can achieve. But that is not to mean that rehabilitation and other therapeutic methods are
ineffective, there are already many institutional incentives to reduce the rates, such as cash rewards to those prisons reporting the lowest recidivism rates (Neller & Petris, 2013). This literature review will move across the subject matter using themes as guiding points. They are indicated using the subheadings spread out all through the paper.
The subheadings in the paper will guide the discussion in a way that determines the most
important parameters that the paper will look into. The entire batch of information that comes
with the paper will show that an individual can have the most significant outcomes in an environment that is specifically tailored to have a more significant impact on the individual than in an
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
3
unmalleable form of treatment of convicted offenders. The eventual objective of the entire paper
is to show that there is a clear incentive for the authorities to incentivize appropriate treatment so
as to reduce recidivism in a population.
A Background of Sexual Predation Recidivism in the USA
There is an established way of measuring recidivism among minor in sexual offenses in
the USA. That gives rise to terms that should be common to someone studying this field in criminal justice. They are used mainly in drafting policies to deal with the teenager and pre-teen offenders in the United States of America. Mark Chaffin identifies them to be: specialness, homogeneity, intransigence, and high risk. All four understandings of the teenage offender have the
backing of scientific facts and long history in law enforcement. And just like is the case with
very many policies, Chaffin notes that even though they are well-intentioned but eventually become dated (2008). The fact that these outmoded conceptions of the teenager continue to drive
policy-making at both federal and state level means that there is a possibility that the increasing
rates of recidivism in the country are a direct result of that failure (Mingus & Burchfield, 2012).
As individuals that have problems with the law because of sexual offenses grow older,
they have to deal with the justice system as adults. Often, that means that they have to deal with
the harsher penalties, but then the overriding question always remains to be whether those sentences help the people to change and avoid relapses once they get back into society. Christopher
Mallett et al. published an illuminating study on the things that make youthful offenders go back
to commit crimes after they are released from their detention (Mallett, Fukushima, Stoddard-
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS AND RECIDIVISM
4
Dare & Quinn, 2012). The authors note that the reason that policymakers are opting more for rehabilitative approaches when dealing with young offenders is that it has been found out that rehabilitating the offenders right when they are young goes a very long way in preventing their relapse into the bad behavior (Mallett, Fukushima, Stoddard-Dare & Quinn, 2012).
The Link between Criminal Records and Recidivism
A criminal record has a major impact on the life of a person after they have finished serving their sentences. There are very many places that the issue comes up, one of the most visible
ones is in employment. Ex-convicts or young adults that have juvenile sentences find it harder to
get employment since every employer has the right to ask whether they have ever been convicted
of a crime before, and it is a federal offense to lie about a previous offense in an employment application (Denver, Siwach & Bushway, 2017). A past conviction comes with prejudice, and that
is why such people find it very difficult to get a job after they have been released. The authors
point out that this is a very unfair thing to do. Rejecting ex-convicts from re-entry only pushes
them more into recidivism. If not, some people are forced into taking low-paying jobs since their
convictions make employers afraid of putting them in positions of trust, especially when there
are other candidates who have clean records.
The National Institute of Justice has also done a comprehensive, and fairly recent study
on the impact of criminal records on the re-entry of convicts into society, and employment in
particular. The scope of the study restricted itself to Michigan, where there was ready access to
the information of from the Michigan stat …
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