A Wrinkle in Time

Based on the movie A Wrinkle in Time write an essay-review Review TimeWrite your individual critique and rate your film. You must discuss each of the following categories:Genre:What genre does this film fit into? Is it an Action film? Drama? Western? Comedy? Romantic Comedy? Did it conform to the norms of this genre?Actors and Actresses: Figure out who was part of the leading cast and the supporting one. Who were the most memorable characters? What did you think about his or her performance? Was this a role they have played before or something new? Direction and Camera Work:In your opinion, what were the most meaningful elements of style used to convey the narrative/meaning of the film: the camera (angles and movement), lighting (high-key, low-key, star), sound, editing (cut, fade, dissolve, iris-in, iris-out, point of view, 180-rule, narrative rule)? Or a combination of two?*Be sure to have a firm grasp of these definitions from Chapter 3 (attachments in file) and defend your opinion. Writing:What did you think of the plot? Was the narrative formulaic or did it stretch your opinion of what could fit into this genre?Production: Was this film a safe bet for the studio? Take into account what the genre was, who the actors and were, the director, the studio, and the writers. If you want to do some more research about what other films they were in a great resource is the Internet Movie Database (www.imdb.com). What did you think of the film? Have you seen any other films with these actors? With this director? Do you think there was any underlying symbolism?Theater:What did you think of the theater? Was it a big multi-plex or a smaller independent one? Was it crowded? Did people vocally interact with the film?Hollywood typecast :Why do you think your film fits into this genre? What characteristics/techniques does it use to fit this style? Think back to your reading and our previous discussions.Helpful questions:before you go to theater: Make a list of your preconceived notions of the film before you see it. Have you seen any other films with these actors or actresses? This director? This producer or production company? Do you typically like their work?During or right after:ot down a few notes about important scenes, elements of style or the story line. Also what is the theater like? Did this environment positively or negatively affect your experience?Taking into account everything you have just outlined and describe your evaluation in a 350–400 words review incorporating each of the categories outlined above (ie. genre, actors and actresses…) Write an additional 200 words to complete this assignment: Pick from the following list of newspapers and film journals to find 2 additional reviews of your film. Summarize what the other critic thought of your film and weave this into your discussion. Has this changed your own star-rated evaluation?www.rogerebert.suntimes.comwww.suntimes.comwww.nytimes.comwww.chicagoreader.com/movieswww.bbc.co.uk/filmswww.villagevoice.com/filmwww.film.guardian.co.ukwww.latimes.comwww.npr.org
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AmericAn cinemA / AmericAn culture looks at the interplay between American cinema and mass culture from
the 1890s to 2011. It begins with an examination of the basic narrative and stylistic features of classical Hollywood
cinema. It studies the genres of silent melodrama, the musical, American comedy, the war/combat ?lm, ?lm noir, the
western, and the horror and science ?ction ?lm; investigating the ways in which movies shape and are shaped by the
larger cultural concerns of the nation as a whole. The book concludes with a discussion of post–World War II Hollywood,
and separate coverage of the e?ects of the Cold War, 3-D, television, the counterculture of the 1960s, directors from the
?lm school generation, and the cultural concerns of Hollywood from the 1970s through 2011.
Ideal for introduction to American cinema courses, American ?lm history courses, and introductory ?lm appreciation
courses, this text provides a cultural overview of the phenomenon of the American moviegoing experience.
Features oF the Fourth edition
• An expanded treatment of digital cinema—new sections on the technology and aesthetics of digital 3-D
cinema, and an analysis of Avatar as a fantasy ?lm in 3-D are part of the extensive revisions in Chapter 17, “Into the
Twenty-First Century.”
• The changing landscape of ?lms about the war in Iraq is examined in a new study of Kathryn Bigelow’s The Hurt
Locker in Chapter 9, “War and Cinema.”
• A new segmentation and discussion of David Fincher’s the Social network is included in Chapter 2, “Classical
Hollywood Cinema: Narration.”
• A new section on recent comedies including The Hangover and Easy A is now included in Chapter 8, “American
Comedy.”
• A discussion of Joel and Ethan Coen’s true Grit is included in Chapter 11, “The Making of the West.”
hallmark Features
• Cultural Focus. A re?ection on the cultural history of American ?lm, focusing primarily on topics and issues rather
than on what happened when.
• Scholarship. Basic concepts are presented in a manner that encourages discussion, not so much of individual
?lms, but of ?lms in general.
• Accessibility. Methods and discoveries are appropriate for an introductory level course surveying American cinema.
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A M E R I C A N C I N E M A /A M E R I C A N C U L T U R E
Fourth Edition
John Belton
Rutgers University
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AMERICAN CINEMA/AMERICAN CULTURE, FOURTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue
of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009, 2005, and 1994. Printed in the United States of
America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any
means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic
storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers
outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
ISBN 978-0-07-353509-8
MHID 0-07-353509-5
Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Michael Ryan
Vice President & Director of Specialized Publishing: Janice M. Roerig-Blong
Publisher: Christopher Freitag
Sponsoring Editor: Jessica Cannavo
Marketing Coordinator: Angela R. FitzPatrick
Project Manager: Erin Melloy
Design Coordinator: Margarite Reynolds
Cover Designer: Mary-Presley Adams
Cover Image: (c) Columbia Pictures/Courtesy Everett Collection
Buyer: Susan K. Culbertson
Media Project Manager: Sridevi Palani
Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited
Typeface: 10/12 PalatinoLTStd
Printer: R.R. Donnelley, Crawfordsville
All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the
copyright page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Belton, John.
American cinema/American culture / John Belton.—4th ed.
p. cm.
Includes filmographies and index.
ISBN 978-0-07-353509-8 (alk. paper)
1. Motion pictures—United States—History. 2. Motion picture industry—United States—
History. 3. Motion pictures—Social aspects—United States. 4. Popular culture—United
States—History—20th century. 5. Culture in motion pictures. I. Title.
PN1993.5.U6B365 2012
791.430973—dc23
2011044045
www.mhhe.com
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To Mike Moore, a teacher of teachers
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CONTENTS
Preface xv
Introduction xxi
P AR T 1
T HE M ODE OF P R O D U CTION
CHAPTER 1
THE EMERGENCE OF THE CINEMA AS AN INSTITUTION
3
“The Cathedral of the Motion Picture” 3
Developing Systems: Society and Technology 4
Edison and the Kinetoscope 6
Capturing Time 6
Peepshows versus Projectors 7
Mass Production, Mass Consumption 9
A Public Spectacle 9
Middle-Class Amusements 9
The Nickelodeon: A Collective Experience 10
Cleaning Up: The Benefits of Respectability 12
Spectacle and Storytelling: From Porter to Griffith 13
The Camera as Recorder 13
The Camera as Narrator 14
The “Feature” Film 15
Presenting . . . the Movie Palace 16
“Gardens of Dreams” 16
The Great Showmen 16
An Evolving Institution 19
Select Filmography 20
CHAPTER 2
CLASSICAL HOLLYWOOD CINEMA: NARRATION
21
A National Style 21
“The Temper of an Age . . .” 21
A Narrative Machine 22
Equilibrium and Disruption 23
iv
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v
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Characters and Goals 24
Problem Solving 24
Through Time and Space 25
High Artifice, Invisible Art 27
Denial and Recognition 27
Underlying Patterns 28
Analyzing Film Narratives: Segmentation 28
A Circular Pattern: Chaplin’s The Gold Rush 30
Symmetry 31
At the Center: Imagination 32
Journey to a New Place: Some Like It Hot 32
Flight and Pursuit 32
Narrative Structure and Sexuality 34
Resolution/Irresolution 35
Modernist Narration: Citizen Kane 35
Unresolved Questions 35
Segmentation of Citizen Kane 36
Artifice Exposed 36
The Social Network: “The Citizen Kane of John Hughes Movies”
Multiple Points of View 39
Collective Authorship of an Idea 40
A Moral Tale 41
Other Nontraditional Narratives 42
Select Filmography 43
CHAPTER 3
CLASSICAL HOLLYWOOD CINEMA: STYLE
44
Film Form and Character Development 44
Classical Economy: The Opening Sequence of Shadow
of a Doubt 44
The Art of Details 46
Mise-en-Scène 46
The Camera 47
Meaning through Context: Camera Angle and Distance
Systematic Meaning: Some Definitions 49
Camera Movement 50
Lighting 52
Three-Point Lighting 52
High-Key/Low-Key Lighting 53
Star Lighting 54
Sound 55
Miking and Mixing 55
The Musical Score 56
Sound and Continuity 56
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Contents
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Editing from Scene to Scene 57
Transitions 57
Editing and Narrative Structure
Editing within Scenes 59
Matches 60
Point-of-View Editing 61
The 180-Degree Rule 61
Select Filmography 63
CHAPTER 4
THE STUDIO SYSTEM
58
64
Manufacturing Dreams 64
Movies and Mass Production 64
Intangible Goods 66
The Majors and the Minors 67
Origins 67
Vertical Integration 68
Block Booking, Blind Bidding, and Runs, Zones, and Clearances
Studio Production: From Story Idea to Ad Campaign 70
Under Contract 70
A Self-Contained World 71
The Chain of Command 72
Studio Style 74
M-G-M and Paramount 76
Warner Bros. 77
20th Century-Fox 77
RKO 80
Columbia Pictures 80
Universal Pictures 81
Poverty Row 81
Collapse: The End of the Studio Era 82
Divestment, Independent Production, and a Changing
Marketplace 82
Starting from Scratch: The New “Studios” 83
Select Filmography: From Four Sample Studios 85
CHAPTER 5
THE STAR SYSTEM
87
The Mechanics of Stardom 87
Making Stars 87
Star Power 90
Persona 94
Stardom and Mass Culture: From Persona to Star
Stars, the System, and the Public 99
Stars and Culture: A Historical Survey 101
The Early Years 101
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Contents
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Exoticism, Eroticism, and Modern Morality: Stars of the 1920s
Depression/Repression: The 1930s 108
World War II and Its Aftermath 111
Stars and Anti-Stars 113
Different Faces: The Rise of Black Stars 116
Economics and Contemporary Stardom 119
Select Filmography 121
P AR T 2
104
GENRE AND T HE GENR E SYSTEM
CHAPTER 6
SILENT FILM MELODRAMA
125
The Origins of Melodrama 125
Types of Melodrama 127
The Melodramatic Mode 127
A Moral Phenomenon 128
Democratic Virtue 129
A Social Vision 130
Melodrama as a Tool of Reform 130
Politics and Melodrama 132
Two Film Melodramatists: Griffith and Vidor 133
An Agrarian Past 133
History as Melodrama: The Birth of a Nation 134
Everyman/No Man: The Crowd 136
Escape and Transcendence 138
Home as “Seventh Heaven” 138
The Lure of the City: Sunrise 139
Sound and Melodrama 140
Select Filmography 141
CHAPTER 7
THE MUSICAL
142
From Narrative to Musical Number 142
Setting the Stage 142
Narrative Reality 143
Musical Reality 143
Shifts in Register 145
Chicago 145
Nine 146
Narrative and Musical Number: Degrees of Integration
Musical Forms 148
Backstage Musicals 148
Busby Berkeley Musicals 148
Moulin Rouge 149
Showpeople 150
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Contents
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Transformation of Space: Performer, Props, Audience
Performer 151
Props 151
Audience 153
Stylistic Registers 153
From Black-and-White to Color 153
From Noise to Music 153
The Operetta 154
The Astaire–Rogers Musical 155
The Integrated Musical 157
The Freed Unit 157
Singin’ in the Rain 157
Ideology and the Musical 159
The End of an Era 160
A New Era Begins 161
Select Filmography 162
CHAPTER 8
AMERICAN COMEDY
150
163
Laughter and Culture 163
Comedy, Repression, and Cultural Dreamwork 163
From Racism to Social Integration 164
Comic Disintegration and Disorder 168
Containing Chaos 170
Comedy, Class, and Democracy 172
A Short History of American Screen Comedy 173
Silent Comedy 173
Early Sound Comedy 177
Screwball Comedy 179
After the Screwball 184
Alienation and Self-Reflection: The 1960s and Beyond 188
From Animal Comedies to Ironic Romantic Comedies 190
Geek Comedy 191
Serious Jokes 194
Select Filmography 194
CHAPTER 9
WAR AND CINEMA
195
A World of Extremes 195
Breaking Rules 196
A Suspension of Morality 196
Deviant Narratives: From Individual to Group Goals
Sexual Combat: Masculinity in the War Film 199
Oedipal Battles 199
Conventional Homoeroticism 199
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Contents
ix
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
Masculine/Feminine 200
Back from the Front 202
Crossovers: War and Genre 203
The Battle for Public Opinion: Propaganda and the Combat Film
Preaching War and Peace 205
Mass Conversion: The Politics of Sergeant York 206
Why We Fight: Education and the War Film 207
The Vietnam Reversal 209
Race, Ethnicity, and the War Film 210
Conflicted: The Psychic Violence of War 211
The Enemy Is Us 211
The Aftermath 212
The 1991 Gulf War and World War II Redux 214
The Gulf War 214
World War II 214
The Iraq War 217
Mediation and Representation 219
Select Filmography 220
CHAPTER 10
FILM NOIR: SOMEWHERE IN THE NIGHT
205
221
Made in the USA 221
Film Noir: Genre, Series, or Mode? 223
Noir as Genre: A Set of Conventions 223
Noir as Series: A Certain Style 224
Noir as Mode: An Uneasy Feeling 225
Noir Aesthetics, Themes, and Character Types 226
Noir Stylistics: A Shift in Perspective 228
American Expressionism 228
From Disturbing Conventions to Conventional Disturbances
Noir and the Production Code 230
Forbidden Subjects, Twisted Treatments 230
The End of Censorship, the End of Noir? 231
Innocence Lost: The Literary Origins of Film Noir 231
Hard-Boiled Fiction 232
The Detective Hero 233
Noir and Verbal Wit 234
Women in Film Noir 235
Women as Social Menace 235
Women as Psychological Terror 236
A Critique of Populism 238
New Culture, Old Myths 238
Capra and Film Noir 239
Film Noir: An Undercurrent in the Mainstream 241
Select Filmography 241
229
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Contents
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CHAPTER 11
THE MAKING OF THE WEST
243
The American Film Genre par Excellence 243
Frontiers: History and Cinema 244
Frederick Jackson Turner and the 1890s 244
“. . . Print the Legend” 245
The Literary West 247
Dime Novels and Pulp Magazines 247
From Natty Bumppo to Shane 248
Bundles of Oppositions 249
Adaptation: When East Meets West 250
Bowlers to Bucksins 250
Feminine Transformations 250
Teaching a Tenderfoot 251
Women, Civilization, and Nature 252
On Native Ground: Landscape and Conflict 254
A Struggle for National Identity 254
From Wilderness to Garden 255
A Clash of Cultures: Cowboys and Indians 256
Native Images, White Values 257
Out of Time Anti-Heroes 258
Contemporary Visions, Enduring Myths 260
Back to the Garden 261
Unforgiven 262
Dead Man 263
True Grit 265
Periods of Popularity 266
Ambivalence: Land, Technology, and Utopia 267
Space: The Final Frontier 268
Select Filmography 271
CHAPTER 12
HORROR AND SCIENCE FICTION
272
Horror versus Science Fiction 272
The Two Things; Alien versus Aliens 272
“What If?” or “Oh No!” 273
What It Means to Be Human 273
Human versus Animal; Human versus Machine
Borderline Figures 274
Human versus Nonhuman 274
A Search for Knowledge 276
The Horror Film 276
The Science Fiction Film 276
Self and Other 277
The Return of the Repressed 277
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¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
The Threat of the Other 278
Emotions and the Other 278
Human Takeover 279
How We Became Posthuman 279
Sources of Cultural Anxieties 280
Horror and Class 280
The Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution 281
Genres of Science Fiction 281
Extrapolative versus Speculative 281
Utopian versus Dystopian 282
A Brief History of Horror 283
Classic Horror 283
Modern Horror 284
Modern Horror and the American Family 286
Modern Horror and Gender 287
A Case Study in Modern Horror: Carrie 288
A Brief History of Science Fiction 289
1930s Science Fiction 289
1950s Science Fiction 289
1970s Science Fiction: Lucas and Spielberg 290
Posthuman Science Fiction 292
A Case Study in Posthuman Science Fiction: Blade Runner
The Posthuman as Affirmation of the Human 295
Select Filmography 295
P AR T 3
293
A POST W AR HI STO R Y
CHAPTER 13
HOLLYWOOD AND THE COLD WAR
299
Origins: Communism, Hollywood, and the American Way 299
Revolution and Repercussion 299
In the Red: The Depression Era 301
Antifascists, Populists, and “Dupes” 302
World War II and Government Policy 304
Inquisition: HUAC, McCarthy, and the Hollywood Ten 305
Friends and Foes 305
“Are You Now or Have You Ever Been . . .?” 306
Blacklisting 308
Alger Hiss, the Rosenbergs, and Senator McCarthy 308
Naming Names 309
The Cold War Onscreen 310
Pro-Soviet Wartime Films 310
The Anti-Commie Cycle 311
Us versus Them: Science Fiction and Paranoia 312
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God and Country 313
Subversions 313
Chaplin in Exile 316
In Defense of the Informers: On the Waterfront
Aftermath 317
The Fight Continues 317
Win, Lose, or Draw? 319
Select Filmography 321
CHAPTER 14
317
HOLLYWOOD IN THE AGE OF TELEVISION
322
The Big Decline: Hollywood Loses Its Audience 322
At Leisure: Recreation in Postwar America 323
The Role of Television 323
Do Something! Passive Entertainment versus Action 324
The House, the Car . . . 325
. . . The Drive-In 325
Fewer, Bigger, Wider, Deeper 327
This Is Cinerama 327
The 3-D Assault 328
CinemaScope 329
Todd-AO and the Theatrical Experience 331
War with Television, Peace with Its Revenues 333
From Villain to Partner 333
Panning and Scanning: Making CinemaScope Fit on TV 334
DVDs and Widescreen TV 335
Movie-“Going” 336
Spectacles 337
Big Event Pictures 337
Digital Cinema and Digital 3-D 338
Select Filmography 340
CHAPTER 15
THE 1960S: THE COUNTERCULTURE STRIKES BACK
Youth and Challenge 341
The Kennedy Era 342
“The New Frontier” 342
The Civil Rights Movement 343
Against the War 344
Liberation: The Women’s Movement 345
Projections: Women on the Screen 346
Youth Films: Activism as Lifestyle 348
“Solving” the Race Problem 350
On the Offensive: Money, Films, and Changing Morality
Controversy and Conservatism 351
A New Vocabulary 352
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¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
Live Fast, Die Young: Bonnie and Clyde 352
Sex, Violence, and Ratings 353
The Great Teen Pic: Easy Rider 355
Transformation: The Counterculture Goes Mainstream 356
Blaxploitation and Beyond 357
An Emerging Black Audience 357
A Revolutionary Film: Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song 358
Outlaws or Role Models? 359
Split Screen: The Two 1960s 360
Rejuvenation 362
Select Filmography 363
CHAPTER 16 THE FILM SCHOOL GENERATION 364
The New Wave 364
The Auteur Theory: Directors as Stars 365
Cahiers du cinéma and Andrew Sarris 365
Retrospective: America Discovers Its Cinematic Past 366
The Critic as Filmmaker 367
Training Ground: The Rise of Film Schools 368
The Color of Money: Young Directors and the Box Office 369
Youth Films and Economics 369
The Roger Corman School 369
Exploitation on a Grand Scale 370
References, Meaning, and Postmodernism 371
The Art of Allusion 371
De Palma and Hitchcock 372
“The Failure of the New” 373
Schizophrenia and Incoherence 374
A Postmodern Case Study: Taxi Driver 376
Reassurance: Comfort, Comics, and Nostalgia 377
A Return to Innocence 377
Opposing Visions 378
Back in Time 379
Contradictory Impulses 381
The Brat Pack 382
The Reagan Years 383
“This Time Do We Get to Win?” 383
Physical Culture: Biology as Destiny 384
Another Generation 384
Select Filmography 386
CHAPTER 17 INTO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 387
Contradictions: From the Gipper to Blue Velvet 387
Reaganite Cinema: “Morning in America” 389
Regeneration 389
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Nostalgia: Coming of Age in the Past 390
Paradise Lost/Paradise Regained 391
Striking Back 393
Castles in the Air: Reimagining Traditional Institutions 393
Having It Both Ways 393
Being All That You Can Be 394
Oedipus with a Happy Ending: The Return of the Father 396
Parents and Babies: A Wide Spectrum 398
Countercurrents 400
Martin Scorsese: Against the Grain 400
The Gay New Wave 403
Spike Lee: Into the Mainstream 405
Jim Jarmusch and Julie Dash: On the Fringe 408
Independent Cinema 410
Into the Twenty-First Century 412
Hollywood in the Information Age: Game Logic 412
Computers and Boolean Logic 413
Fantasy Films 414
The Digitization of the Cinema 416
Digitization and Fantasy 417
Digital 3-D: Avatar 418
Seeing through Fantasy 419
Select Filmography 421
Glossary of Technical and Other Terms
Index 431
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PREFACE
This book introduces the reader to basic issues related to the phenomenon of
American cinema. It looks at American film history from the 1890s through the
spring of 2011, but it does not always explore this history in a purely chronological way. In fact, it is not (strickly speaking) a history. Rather, it is a cultural
history, which focuses more on topics and issues than on what happened when.
It begins with a profile of cl …
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