About Language contact, complete 4 questions

Please go through the attachment, bid only if you understand and be able to make it. There’re some knowledge about Tok Pisin, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.

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Linguistics 1150
1. Consider the following twelve food-related words of English:
(1) bagel
(5) curry
(9) pecan
(2) cereal
(6) guacamole
(10) seltzer
(3) chocolate
(7) juice
(11) squash
(4) coffee
(8) mango
(12) tofu
a. Using the Oxford English Dictionary (http://www.oed.com.ezproxy.neu.edu),
investigate the etymology of these words, identifying for each both the language that
English most recently borrowed it from (the most recent source language), and the
word in this language that was borrowed (the most recent source form). If a source
form isn’t given, you can assume it is identical to the English form.
Note the etymology section of a word’s entry in the OED is generally arranged
chronologically, with the most recent source language and form provided first, and
successively earlier source languages and forms provided in order thereafter. To clarify
further, the arrow “<” you might come across in these etymologies can be read as “developed from,” and likewise “>” can be read as “developed into.”
b. Briefly comment on at least 3 of your findings (2-3 sentences should suffice). You might
consider addressing questions such as the following:
i) Did a word’s source language surprise you?
ii) Did you think a word had a particular source language, but you discovered otherwise?
iii) Does the meaning and/or pronunciation of the form in the source language appear to
be consistent with the word as it is used and sounds in English?
iv) Is the word a more recent or more distant borrowing than you thought? (Take a look
at a word’s citations to get a sense of how long it’s been used in English.)
c. A number of the words in (1)-(12) have histories richer than what you will find to address
part a. above. For up to five of these, identify their ultimate source
language and source form, that is, the earliest attested language and form
from which they derived.
2. Consider the following four sentences of the English-based creole Tok Pisin, each of which is
accompanied by word-for-word glossing and an overall translation into English. (Data from
Mihalicek and Wilson 2011.)
Linguistics 1150
i waitpela
‘The fingernail is white / The fingernails are white’
‘We can speak Tok Pisin’
‘I want/would like to buy some fish’
‘I drink a little water’
Identify at least one common feature of pidgins (and creoles) exemplified by these data in
each of the following areas: phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
Cite specific linguistic material in the sentences to illustrate your observations, and make sure
that the connections between your Tok Pisin-specific findings and the broader patterns of
creoles (and pidgins) are clear (1-2 sentences should suffice for your discussion of each
Note you should treat the data in (1)-(4) as a single set – in other words, you don’t have to
come up with 16 features total, but with a minimum of 4.
3. Consider the following four expressions of Tok Pisin, each of which is accompanied by a
translation into English. (Data from Mihalicek and Wilson 2011.)
Tok Pisin
English Translation
(1) taim bilong kol
(2) taim bilong san
Linguistics 1150
(3) man bilong wokim gaden
(4) kamap
(5) tasol
(6) haus sik
(7) haus mani
(8) olgeta
(9) sapos
(10) solwara
(11) kukim long paia
(12) handet yia
(13) hamas krismas ya gat
‘How old are you?’
(14) hangre long dring
(15) pinga bilong fut
For each expression, identify the specific English word(s) that it is derived from. (It may help
to read the expressions out loud.)
Be sure to provide all and only the English words that you think are the source material for the
given Tok Pisin expressions; that is, you shouldn’t provide any additional words, in the
interests of, say, making a grammatical phrase of English.
4. Following is a passage written in the English-based Belize Creole language; it is the beginning
of a story involving two characters, Anansi and Tiger. (Data from Mihalicek and Wilson 2011.)
Wans apan a taim dier waz bra hanasi an bra taiga. So nou, ina kriol yu want a tel yu? Ina
kriol? So nou de…wa maami tri mi de klos di haus. So nou…wan de…bra hanansi, yu no
Linguistics 1150
hou him triki aredi…i tel bra taiga mek dem go pik…maami. So nou bra taiga se “oke den
les go,” so…den gaan.
a. Briefly discuss (1-2 sentences should suffice) how much of the text you can understand. (It
may help to read it out loud.)
b. Give at least two similarities and two differences between the Belize Creole text and
English. Each similarity and difference you identify should fall within one of the following
areas: phonology, morphology, syntax, and/or semantics.
The choice is yours how you distribute your observations within and across these linguistic
areas; but whichever area(s) you choose to focus on, you should be sure to cite specific
linguistic material from the passage to illustrate your observations (1-2 sentences should
suffice for each similarity/difference you identify).

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