About linguistic, please complete the 4 questions relating to language changes

Please finish the following questions in 12 hours, bid only if you can finish them.There are some knowledges about genetic classification , phonological derivations
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Linguistics 1150
Online
1. Consider the following set of core vocabulary items from four languages of the world, and
answer the questions that follow (2-3 sentences each should suffice; be sure to cite specific
pieces of data to support your claims).
Language A
Language B
Language C
Language D
Gloss
(1)
frate
bra´thair
sedulur
brawd
‘brother’
(2)
mama?
ma´thair
ibu
mam
‘mother’
(3)
picior
cos
sikil
coes
‘leg’
(4)
zece
deich
sepuluh
deg
‘ten’
(5)
trei
tri´
telu
tri
‘three’
(6)
ureche
cluas
kuping
clust
‘ear’
(7)
genunchi
glu´in
dhengkul
glin
‘knee’
a. Which two languages seem to be very closely related? How can you tell?
b. Which third language seems to be at least distantly related to the two languages you
identified in part a.? How can you tell?
c. Which language is not related to the other three? How can you tell?
d. Identify the languages present in the data, and their genetic classification (language family
/ families).
2. Consider the data below, showing the development of five words from Proto-Slavic into one
of its daughter languages, Bulgarian (Indo-European), and complete the activities that follow.
Forms are transcribed according to standard IPA conventions. (Data adapted from Mihalicek
and Wilson 2011.)
Proto-Slavic
Bulgarian
Gloss
(1)
*[gladuka]
[glatk?]
‘smooth’
(2)
*[kratuka]
[kratk?]
‘short’
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Linguistics 1150
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(3)
*[blizuka]
[blisk?]
‘near’
(4)
*[?e?ika]
[?e?k?]
‘scorching’
(5)
*[lovuka]
[lofk?]
‘near’
a. Identify the specific sound changes which have taken place between these Proto-Slavic
and Bulgarian forms, referencing relevant data points that exemplify these changes.
b. Using natural classes, account for the changes you identified in part a. by proposing
diachronic phonological rule(s). Your rule(s) should be written in both formal notation
and prose, and named. Additionally, explicitly note whether each rule you posit is
conditioned or unconditioned.
Hint: To ensure a phonetically natural system, one of your rules should be a case of
assimilation.
c. Provide diachronic phonological derivations from Proto-Slavic into Bulgarian for all five
words.
d. Briefly explain any crucial ordering(s) involving your sound change rules (1-2 sentences
should suffice); use comparative derivations to highlight problem(s) with incorrect
ordering(s). (Note that not every rule you identify will necessarily need to be crucially
ordered with respect to the other rules.)
Hint: see the attactments
3. Below are four translations of the Lord’s Prayer, produced at four different times in the history
of English.
(1) Old English (text ca. 1000 CE)
Faeder u¯re þu¯ þe eart on heofonum, si¯ þi¯n nama geha¯lgod. To¯ becume þi¯n ri¯ce. Gewurðe
þi¯n willa on eorðan swa¯ swa¯ on heofonum. U¯rne gedæghwamli¯can hla¯f syle u¯s to¯ dæg. And
forgyf u¯s u¯re gyltas, swa¯ swa¯ we¯ forgyfaþ u¯rum gyltendum. And ne gelæ¯d þu¯ u¯s on
costnunge ac a¯ly¯s u¯s of yfele. So¯ ðli¯ce.
Note that the letter <þ>, called thorn, is used here to represent the voiceless interdental
fricative [?], while the letter <ð>, called eth, is used to represent the voiced interdental
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Linguistics 1150
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fricative [ð]. (In fact, these two symbols could be used interchangeably in Old English
writing, to represent the interdental fricatives.) Additionally, a macron < ¯ > over a vowel
symbol indicates it is long (compare IPA [?]).
(2) Middle English (text ca. 1400 CE)
Oure fadir that art in heuenes, halwid be thi name; thi kingdom cumme to; be thi wille don
as in heuen and in erthe; gif to vs this day oure breed ouer other substaunce; and forgeue
to vs oure dettis, as we forgeue to oure dettours; and leede vs nat in to temptacioun, but
delyuere vs fro yuel. Amen.
(3) Early Modern English (text 1611 CE)
Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdome come. Thy will be
done, in earth, as it is in heauen. Giue vs this day our daily bread. And forgiue vs our debts,
as we forgiue our debters. And lead vs not into temptation, but deliuer vs from euill. Amen.
(4) Present Day English (text 2017 CE)
Our Father, who is in heaven, may your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come into
being. May your will be followed on earth, just as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily
food. And forgive us our offenses, just as we forgive those who have offended us. And do
not lead us into temptation, but free us from evil. Amen.
(Instructions begin on the next page.)
Identify 1 example each of morphological change and syntactic change holding between
each of the three earlier periods of English (Old English, Middle English, Early Modern
English), as compared with Present Day English. (So you should identify 3 examples of each
type of change, for 6 examples of change overall.)
Use the Present Day English translation as a basis of comparison for identifying your 6
changes. Explain your findings (1-2 sentences each should suffice).
Some phenomena you might pay attention to across these periods of English include inflection,
inversion, and negation.
4. Consider the following six words of English:
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Linguistics 1150
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(1) acorn
(4) jeopardy
(2) fond
(adjective)
(5) luxury
(3) gossip
(noun)
(6) trend
(noun)
(noun)
First, using the Oxford English Dictionary (OED; http://www.oed.com.ezproxy.neu.edu/),
identify the earlier meaning of each of these words.
Then, identify the type(s) of semantic change that have occurred in each word’s development
over time. Explain your findings (1-2 sentences per word should suffice).
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