abstract

Before starting this assignment, please review the following learning materials:Lebrun, J. L. (2011). Scientific writing 2.0: A reader and writer’s guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.[PDF, file size 54.36KB] [ebook]. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. (Chapter 11: Abstract: The Heart of Your Paper)Weinberger, C. J., Evans, J. A., & Allesina, S. (2015). Ten simple (empirical) rules for writing science (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. PLoS Computational Biology, 11(4), 1-6. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004205Whiteside, J. D. (2009). How to write a technical paper (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. AACE International Transactions, 1(1).In this assignment, you will create an abstract that can serve as a pitch for a scientific or technical article for publication. The goal of this assignment is to convince a publication editor to choose your proposal, so you can develop your article. Your abstract must be clear, concise, comprehensive, and persuasive. This activity allows you to practice three of the module outcomes:MO2. Apply appropriate rhetorical appeals to write a concise, yet comprehensive, informational abstract.MO3. Identify potential periodicals or conferences for specific current issues in science and technology.MO4. Demonstrate strong revising and editing skills by preparing an abstract for submission to a periodical or conference.Instructions to Learners In Module 4, you wrote a brief proposal on a specific issue in one of the following categories:Alternative Energy SourcesFor this assignment, you will continue with the topic you used in Module 4, but you will be pitching your idea to write an article for a magazine or a journal. In M5D2, you identified various publications that would be appropriate for your pitch, and now you will write the abstract to send to the magazine or journal editor for review and acceptance.Your abstract should be at least 150 words, but it should not exceed 250. The document should be formatted using standard APA conventions for style and citation, including a title page, appropriate in-text citations, and a references page.Follow this naming convention for your file before submitting it. The file should be Word or txt (No PDF): LastnameFirstinitialAssignmentLetterNumberLetterNumber. For example: HoneaSM5A1. To be accepted, the file must be Word or txtand must be in the above naming convention.Compose your work in a .doc or .docx file type using a word processor (such as Microsoft Word, etc.) and save it frequently to your computer. For those assignments that are not written essays and require uploading images or PowerPoint slides, please follow uploading guidelines provided by your instructor.Check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors. When you are ready to submit your work, click “Upload Submission.” Enter the submission title and then click on “Select a file to upload.” Browse your computer, and select your file. Click “Open” and verify the correct file name has appeared next to Submission File. Click on “Continue.” Confirm submission is correct and then click on “Accept Submission & Save.”Please do not submit your assignment to Turnitin.com.
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Promoting Alternative Energy Sources in Third World Countries
Dr. Mason Terry
Director
Oregon Renewable Energy Center (OREC) at
The Oregon Institute of Technology
Prepared by
Amanda Bloudek
Student
Excelsior College
31st March 2018
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Introduction
The Renewable Energy Project (REP) proposes a partnership with the Oregon Renewable
Energy Center (OREC) to promote the adoption of renewable energy sources in Third World
Countries. This proposal is in line with the institute’s mission to promote the conservation of
energy in the world through education, applied research, and provision of practical information.
REP was established in the year 2016 with the aim to enhance alternative energy sources for
developing countries. The project is based in New York and has worked on similar projects
within the US such as the Vegas Sunshine and Tidgen Power.
Purpose
The Renewable Energy Project (REP) is to ascertain safe and sustainable access to clean
energy for third world countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause damage to global
climates. REP aims to fulfill the objectives listed below:
1. Create awareness on the need to adopt alternative energy sources to reduce carbon
emissions.
2. Promote personal and environmental health and reduce deaths caused by nonrenewable energy sources.
3. Identify and develop sustainable energy sources in Third World countries.
4. Lobby for government policies and regulations that promote the adoption of alternative
energy sources.
Significance
The REP project is significant because it involves the promotion of alternative sources of energy
among developing nations, a sector that is of utmost importance to all leaders of the world. The
use of nonrenewable sources so far has had far-reaching repercussions also affecting countries
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that use renewable sources. We share the same air and sky. It is, therefore, essential that all
countries, developed or developing, join the renewable energy transition movement to enable us
to reach the common of clean energy for all and better climate.
Background
Statistics by The World Energy Council (WEC) (2016) show that coal still provides
about 40% of the world’s energy followed by natural gas at 22%. Neither developed nor
developing nations can reproduce or generate these non-renewable sources (Twidell & Weir,
2015). The report by WEC goes further to explain that the world witnessed the most significant
decline in coal levels between 2014 at 0.6% to 2016 at 2.8%. These changes have caused
significant concerns about the sustainability of the energy sector because, at the rate in which
human beings are harnessing the resources, they are sure to get depleted (Twidell & Weir, 2015).
In fact, WEC predicts that the nonrenewable sources may not be available for use in the next 50
years. This projection is a crisis in waiting and, the world needs to establish mechanisms to
utilize renewable energy sources (Twidell & Weir, 2015).
Current Situation
Third World Countries are most affected. Over 1.6 billion people in the world do not
have access to electricity (World Energy Council, 2016). This figure represents about a fourth of
the total world population found in developing countries. Third world economies thus face
double-edged energy problems in the 21st Century: Fulfilling the needs of millions of people who
require access to essential, modern energy resources while at the same time participating in the
massive universal transition to clean, sustainable energy systems. These goals are in line with the
United Nations (UN) new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which outline the various
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objectives the UN member states are expected to reach by the year 2030. Among them is the
need to ensure reliable, affordable, and sustainable energy for all people. With these objectives in
mind, developing countries have the motivation to improve alternative energy systems that can
sustain their social-economic strategies. Renewable sources of energy include harnessing solar
energy, geothermal, wind power, and biogas (Twidell & Weir, 2015).
Causes of the Problem
As outlined above, the primary issue that this proposal looks to solve is the elimination of
nonrenewable energy use in third world countries. The main reason that the problem exists is that
citizens in these countries do not have choices (Okonkwo, 2014). By this, the author means that
they use charcoal and wood because they are the only options they have. They cannot survive
without kerosene lamps and diesel generators because those are the only things that they know
(Okonkwo, 2014). The REP program will fill in the by making sure they are aware of other
options they can use and also learn how to access them.
Effects of the Problem
The persistent use of non-renewable sources of energy all over the world has devastating
effects. To begin with, the high levels of pollution kill over 19000 people daily (World Energy
Council, 2016). The burning of coal releases sulfur, mercury, and nitrogen compounds that cause
health problems to humans, plants, and animals. These components affect the respiratory,
cardiovascular, and nervous systems in humans causing heart diseases and cancers. Natural gas
leaks are known to cause fatigue, headaches, and nausea due to the fact it reduces oxygen levels.
Secondly, we have seen the disastrous effects that oil leaks have created in countries like
Nigeria, Africa’s leading oil producer and the 6th largest oil exporter in the World. Research has
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indicated that the amount of crude oil spilled in Nigeria annually is well over 220,000 barrels
(Okonkwo, 2014). These figures are worrying.
The oil spills cause enormous damage that touches on economic and social activities,
with rivers covered in black liquid, and living organisms in water and soil cannot breathe.
Thousands of infants have lost their lives because of proximity to oil spill areas (Okonkwo,
2014). The economic impacts of fossil fuels leaks and spills comprise of environmental cleanups, and irreversible damage to the fishery, agricultural lands and wildlife (Okonkwo, 2014). The
writer further explains that violence and community conflicts emanating from the spills and leaks
may lead to loss of revenue in the tourism and hospitality industries.
The process of manufacturing fossil fuels emits greenhouse gases into the air. The gases
interfere with the ozone layer which protects the world against harmful radiation from the sun.
These issues add to the burden of health on developing countries which are unable to cater
adequately to their population’s health needs.; not to mention the adverse effects of acid rains
destroying the ozone layer (Twidell & Weir, 2015). The concern regarding greenhouse gas
emissions and changes in climate cuts across many areas because, despite the fact that it causes
high temperatures and unpredictable weather patterns in the form of prolonged dry seasons and
floods, it also influences ecosystems. The ecosystems are unable to adapt to sudden climate
changes hence cannot support biodiversity on which people’s lives depend.
Project Plan
This section of the proposal outlines the steps and deliverables that the project intends to
employ in the developments and implementation of the project. The result will be more third
world countries forming policies to support renewable energy use and initiating plans for the
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same. The section also shows the strategic alignment to the specific goals and objectives
indicated earlier in the paper. These are achievable steps for the project provided with the right
resources and funding.
Steps in the Process
The establishment of Smart Grids and Smart Meters in the distribution cycle of clean
energy is critical. It enables power providers to efficiently transmit energy to the people
(Vandaele & Porter, 2015). With the uptake of renewable energy, the existing grids and power
lines must be restructured to support energy from authoritative sources like photovoltaic cells
and wind power stations. These technologically advanced meters diminish damage on the power
lines and increase general energy effectiveness as written by Cook et al. (2002).
Improving the grid system comes with the advantage of enabling integration of electricity
from solar panels, turbines, and geothermal productions plants. The use of these decentralized
electricity sources called Distributed Generations (DG) lessens pressure on the centralized
system and is a quick back up during emergencies (Vandaele & Porter, 2015). These DGs mean
that rural communities with their sources will have access to clean energy without necessarily
requiring a connection to the main grid. The use of hydrogen batteries allows countries to store
energy during times of excess supply for use when the amount is low (Cook, et al., 2012).
The project intends to promote the use of such batteries. The power from the renewable
sources is converted into hydrogen for storage and is later transformed to energy through
electrolysis when sources such as wind and sunlight are low. The project will also work toward
the energy efficiency in developing countries through encouraging behavioral changes in the
population. This accomplishment is possible when individuals through the employment of
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household energy reduction techniques such as using energy saver bulbs and purchasing energyefficient appliances.
Deliverables
Deliverables in a project of this nature according to Okonkwo (2014) should be tangible
products that can deliver expected results once the plan takes effect. The REP program has a
well-established team that has developed several deliverables that will be instrumental in
implementing the program. They are in the form of:
1. A report- REP has produced a report detailing the various activities that
governments in developing countries are involved in to enhance renewable energy
use and made recommendations of what they can do differently for useful results
2. An application: the team has with the help of outsourced programmers developed
an app that will be used as an interface between the various governments and the
project offices to track progress and collect feedback.
3. Assessment of results: after the full m=implementation of the REP program, a
team of experts will be available to turn through all feedback and come up with a
comprehensive report with effect to the success of the program
Conclusion
The purpose of this project is to achieve renewable energy sources for populations in the
third world countries. These energy sources can be used for eternity if used sustainably. The
feasibility of the sources demands mainly on the individual countries landscape, geology, and
climate, for instance, on the one hand, the Sahara Desert in Kenya provides ideal geography for
production of solar energy while on the other hand, the Rift Valley gives geothermal energy.
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Benefits
Wind power energy is a significant source of renewable energy that is clean and
sustainable. The REP project hopes to sensitize developing countries about the importance of
harnessing wind power energy to support economic growth. Countries like Kenya have been at
the forefront in championing the use of wind energy through the Lake Turkana Wind Power
Project and the Ngong Hills Wind Farm (Vandaele & Porter, 2015). Such projects will be
supported and encouraged. The REP program hopes to partner with United Nations to provide
oversight and funding towards such projects so that other countries can take up the trend.
The cost of putting up and sustaining geothermal power stations is extremely high and
most developing countries are unable to meet these costs. The REP project in partnership with
the Oregon Institute of Technology intends to lobby so the World Bank can provide funds to
developing countries to fund such projects (Vandaele & Porter, 2015). The government in
developing countries should formulate policies and regulation that support the transition to
renewable energy sources (Vandaele & Porter, 2015). There is evidence that most governments
are yet to embrace this strategy. The project will also employ technology to advance its goals of
attaining access to clean energy for all stakeholders in developing countries. It is vital that these
countries avoid energy sources that will be followed by massive pollutions like oils, coal and
natural gases.
Importance of the Project
Renewable energy from sources like the wind, water and, sun was the first to be used by
humankind. The renewable sources provided him with light and heat for hundreds of years
before the invention of various technologies led to a shift to coal, wood, and natural gas. These
events show that change is inevitable. It is in the same spirit that countries in this day and time
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should rise against nonrenewable sources whose use produces more harm than good. This project
comes at the right juncture in history because third world nations are now awakening to this new
paradigm shift. REP is available to shed light where there is none, and as well construct bridges
when countries are unable to progress. This project will ensure the attainment of the seventh
SDG championing access to clean energy for all within the remaining 12 years.
Contact Information
The REP team would like to express how grateful we are for your time reading through
this proposal. We truly appreciate your invaluable support and expertise throughout the process.
The Renewable Energy Project contacts details are as listed below.
Name: Renewable Energy Project
Point of Contact: Amanda Bloudek
Phone: (760) 608-2119
E-mail: Amanda.bloudek@gmail.com
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References
Cook, J, Guzzano., Z, Gunay., L, Hiller., S, Mahajan., A, Taskan., et al. (2012). The smart meter
and-a smarter consumer: Quantifying the benefits of-smart meter implementation in-the
United. New York: Chemistry Journal.
Okonkwo, E. C. (2014). Oil Spills in Nigeria: Are there Social-Economic Impacts? Oil Spills
Conference. Abuja: International Oil Spill Conference (IOSC).
Twidell, J., & Weir, T. (2015). Renewable Energy Resources. New York: Routledge.
Vandaele, N., & Porter, W. (2015). Renewable Energy in Developing-and Developed Nations:
Outlooks for 2040. Florida: University of Florida.
(2016). World Energy Council. World Energy Resources.

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