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What is Racism?
? Based on belief of race superiority .
? Discrimination is based on skin color
? Victims suffer antagonism , prejudice, and discrimination.
? Belief that races have unique attributes
? Its the racial superiority-inferiority complex
Types of Racism
Garner, Steve(2009). Racisms: An Introduction. Sage .
? Expressed in may indirect ways.
? Its an unclear form of racial discrimination.
? It can be attributed to the subconscious influence.
? Its attributed to sharing common history background.
? Example is the negative perceptions of black people.
? It opposes the affirmative action.
? Practiced by conservative individuals.
? They exercise power and authority over the minority.
? Characterized by hostility and indifference.
? Based on the prejudice of racial superiority.
Cashmore, Ellis, ed. (2004) Reverse racism/discrimination. Encyclopedia of race
and ethnic studies . Routledge. p.373
? Racist attitudes towards members of their own ethnic group.
? Include belief in stereotypes relating to their own group.
? Doesnt take color blind approach to racism.
? Victims feel inferior to other ethnic groups.
? Example more privileges for lighter skinned black people.
Documentary, studies renew debate about skin colors impact- Pittsburgh post- Gazette postgazette.com 2006-12-26
? Discrimination based on skin color
? Lighter skins are seen as preferables
? Divide is between light and dark skin.
? Skin color assign race to individuals
? Can occur in members of same race
Colored people comprise of mixed races
skin deep: dying to be white
? Actions of individuals which support racism
? occur at conscious and subconscious levels
? Can be active or passive
? Argue that the opinion is personal
? Ideologies connect to broader systemic racism
Practiced in social, and political institutions.
Governed by norms which support racism.
Characterized by weights, and incomes disparities.
Attracts less public condemnation.
Minority ethnic community are mostly affected.
Institutional. Oxford English Dictionary Oxford
University Press. 2009 ISBN 978-0-19-956383-8
Causes of Racism
Example on what happened after 911
Outsiders being underestimated
? Pressure of uniformity
The black community
? Feeling of vulnerability
? Low self- esteem
? Pressure on the anti-racists
Alison, L., & Canter, D. (2006), Professional legal and ethical issues in offender profiling p.403
Effects of Racism
? Destroys the self esteem of victims
? Creates enmity within the society
? Causes withdrawal from the society
? Causes anger and revenge emotions.
? Causes negative physical and mental condition
Factors Promoting Racism
Environment and upbringing
Individuals are less open minded.
Being unfamiliar with other races.
Bad life experiences especially racist encounters.
Fear of loss and replacement
Individuals ignore anti-racism ideologies
History of Racism
? Racism existed before slavery in 1555
? It lead to slavery; Continued after the slavery
? Common type of racism is racial segregation
? Segregation was legal in the constitution
? Victims denied access to facilities and services
Strategies to overcome racism
? Educate and keep yourself informed
? Keep an open mind on racism; Speak out against racism
? Create conversation between all people
? Intervene when encountered with racism situation
? Document and share racist videos
How Does Racism Affect Mental Health ?
? Causes chronic emotional stress.
? High stress level causes posttraumatic
stress disorder .
? Causes depression and mood disorders.
? Anxiety; Causes drug and substance abuse
? Some may be micro aggressive
Working towards racism free society
? Understanding each persons culture.
? Sensitization on racial equality.
? Provision of clinical assessment on victims.
? Preaching cohesion and forgiveness.
? Empowering the marginalized communities.
Countering racism in schools
? Promote respect for cultural, religious diversity.
? Shun prejudiced attitudes and ideologies.
? Punish racist behaviors; Formulating zero racism tolerance policies.
? Teaching culturally inclusive programs.
? Provide professional services to racism victims.
How to counter racism in children
? Encourage racial discussion in children.
? Encourage them to make friends.
? Educate them on racial matters.
? Advocate for inter racial clubs at schools.
? Encourage them to report about racism
Racism In Sports
? African- Americans are more common victims.
? Racial abuse is active in international sports.
? African-Americans were banned from National Association Of Baseball
? Tiger Woods faced ridicule after winning master tournament.
? Donald Steling was banned from NBA following racist remarks.
Alison, L., & Canter, D. (2006), Professional legal and ethical issues in
offender profiling p.403
Cashmore, Ellis, ed. (2004) Reverse racism/discrimination.
Encyclopedia of race and ethnic studies . Routledge. p.373
Institutional. Oxford English Dictionary Oxford University Press.
2009 ISBN 978-0-19-956383-8
Lapchick, Richard E. The Tide of Racism in Sports Still Flowed
Strongly in 2015. ESPN, ESPN Internet Ventures, 19 Jan. 2016,
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