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i need you to add some information the part in the paer saying high- income countries and middle and law i need more information about these countries from here about the environmental laws in a particular country, there are lots of groups that write reports describing and ranking countries. See, for example, this one: https://epi.envirocenter.yale.edu/Or:https://www.google.com/search?q=country+environmental+rankings&oq=country+environmental+rankingsthe part about qatar add some more information to it like why is that country have high income , what kind of busins does this country have , where these number come from . the part about united arab emartites add some information to it do the same .the part about us add infomration why is this country has missle income do more resrch uk the same the part about somila and kenya why these country have that number of income where does this number come from
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Dai mogharbil
Rough draft 2
April 4, 2018
Air Pollution
My research question: is why some do poor countries do not protect their air is it because of the
government or because of people?
Units: are the different countries that I am going to compare, the high – income countries are
(Singapore, Qatar, Norway and the United Arab Emirates), middle –income are (US, India,
Germany, and France), The low-income countries will include( Nigeria, Kenya, and Uganda).
The testing of the hypothesis is going to be done by comparing different countries from different
classes.
The independent variable: is how rich the country is, by comparing different countries that have
different levels of income.
The dependent variable: is going to be the amount of pollution in the country.
The research shows that the three is that the production and changes in the urban industrial
pollution are the main sources of economic growth, but they are also accompanied by air
pollution, (Welsch, 2006). The high-income countries are capable of controlling the air pollution
by ensuring that the mitigation measures are put in place. In the middle class, the industrial
revolution is very high such that the measures put in place make the buffering rate to be very
low, thus more greenhouse gases being released into the atmosphere. In low-income countries,
Air Pollution
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the industries are not very many, thus the low greenhouse gases release. The hypothesis is, rich
countries have cleaner air in comparison to poor countries, Middle-class countries have more
pollution. The research question is
Literature Review
According to the WHO (2016), the new air quality model shows that around 92% of the
world’s populace survives in places that have poor worlds. According to the research that is done
to compare the relationship between the pollution and social, economic status of different
countries shows that the poor countries tend to pollute the environment more than the middleclass countries. Moreover, the urban air pollution levels are very low than in highest income
countries, and lower levels most prevalent, western Pacific region, the Americas and Europe.
The air pollution that is brought up by the small particles and fine particles in the major
environmental risk that leads to health deterioration. The middle class and low-class countries
are capable of utilizing the mitigating measure to reduce the air pollution, but not as good as the
case of high -income countries. The measures that can be utilized to ensure the quality of air is
improved is to reduce the industrial smokestack emissions and increase use of renewable energy
such as solar and wind instead of using firewood and charcoal burning a source of fuel. The
policymakers should also ensure that the transport vehicles use only the pollution free or less
pollutant fuel. The other strategies that can be made include prioritizing rapid transit, reusing and
recycling pollutants among others. When the air pollution reduces the cost of catering for the
diseases brought up by the pollution reduces, (Welsch, 2006).
Nevertheless, the worthiness is measured by ensuring that the air that we breathe is very
safe and doesn’t lead to spread disease and some other lungs. The WHO report in the year 2016,
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started that the unhealthy breath air is totaling almost 98%, causing more than million deaths per
year- deaths being related to pulmonary cardiovascular and among other noncommunicable
diseases. The number of people who are at risk of being affected by such diseases has increased
by a very high percentage in the entire world.
The hypothesis being the educated guess
The hypothesis: Rich countries have cleaner air in comparison to developing countries,
Middle-class countries have more pollution.
There are many reasons as to why it is true that the rich countries have cleaner air than
the poor countries, with middle class having more pollution, (Welsch, 2006). Firstly, the rich
countries are capable of putting have measures to reduce or evade the polluting the air. The
policymakers in more developed countries are capable of investing enough amount of financial
resources in researching on the kind of mitigation measures that should be adhered to to reduce
the issue of air pollution. Secondly, the developing countries have more polluted air because
they are not capable of controlling it. The deforestation is high in the developing countries due to
high ignorance. Firewoods are the main source of energy in such countries. Thirdly, the middleclass countries have highest air pollution because the number of vehicles is high,
industrialization is developing, and they don’t have financial resources within their companies
that they can use to do away with the air pollution.
In any case, there are much all the more squeezing natural dangers for the normal
individual in a poor nation — dangers that specifically affect human health and prosperity in the
here and now. Take the lead, a known neurotoxin. High lead introduction in little youngsters has
been connected to the entire chaos of difficulties sometime down the road, including lower IQ,
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hyperactivity, behavioral issues and learning inabilities. Overwhelmingly a turmoil of the poor
— who live in the swarmed urban apartments and close harmful modern destinations where the
lead introduction is excessively normal — lead tainting can adjust the course of whole lives and
possibly change the texture of social orders, for the more terrible, (Francis et al., 2015).
In the after-war time, lead pollution was regular even in a rich nation like the U.S., on
account of the far-reaching utilization of leaded fuel, which wasn’t eliminated until the point that
the 1970s, and additionally lead paint and lead in soil. Little children who ingested large amounts
of lead in the 1940s and ’50s will probably wind up rough lawbreakers as grown-ups in the 1970s
and ’80s — and when they were supplanted in the 1990s by youngsters who had never been
presented to such abnormal amounts of lead, vicious wrongdoing quickly melted away.
Testing the hypothesis
The testing of the hypothesis is going to be done by comparing different countries from
different classes. What is the relationship between the dependent variables and independent
variable are going is going to be tested. The dependent variable is going to be the amount of
pollution. The independent variable is going to be how richest the country is. The countries that
are going to be compared include the china, Korea, Canada, Germany, US, UK, and Australia.
The low-income countries will include Nigeria, Kenya, and Uganda.
Research question: why do some poor countries do not protect their air is it because of
the government or because of people?
Research
High-income counties
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The research on the shows that the rich countries are capable of controlling the
environmental pollution. The pollution emissions are also very low compared to other countries.
The rich countries such as Singapore, Qatar, Norway and the United Arab Emirates are most
developed countries. Air pollution control enactment in high-income countries prompts a
diminishment of outflows from an assortment of sources. People can lessen their energy use and
additionally put resources into productive energy advancements, for example, high proficiency
apparatuses and lights. Concentrating on sustainable wellsprings of energy, for example, wind,
solar energy, and hydroelectric power will likewise diminish our utilization of petroleum
products for power and farthest point emanations of pollutants into the air.
Vehicles have additionally turned out to be more proficient with an end goal to control air
pollution. Are half and half vehicles winding up more mainstream, as well as standard burning
vehicles now improve gas mileage than any time in recent memory. Urban communities are
additionally winding up more bicycle benevolent and are enhancing open transportation. Global
controls have likewise decreased air pollution from created countries.
In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was produced to legitimately order the marking countries to
decrease discharges of ozone-depleting substances from 2008-12. In the year 2012, it was
changed to incorporate another diminishment target time of 2013-2020. This arrangement was
intended to guarantee responsibility regarding diminish air pollution from created countries, who
are the main makers of such pollution. Regardless of being one of the worlds most mechanically
created countries, the U.S. isn’t a piece of this assertion.
The middle -class income countries
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The main driver of pollution is development, especially the industrial revolution. There
are different measures that are set in place to control pollution in different countries. The
countries such as US, India, Germany, and France. The development in such middle-class
countries tends to produce high greenhouse gases and putting less control. In most of these
countries, the policymakers and the government put weak strategy to mitigate the problem of air
pollution.
With the monetary improvement of China, air poisons are likewise developing quickly in
late decades, particularly in huge urban communities of the nation. To comprehend the
connection between the financial condition and air poisons in enormous urban communities, we
broke down the financial indicators such as Gross Regional Product per capita, the grouping of
air pollutants, and the air pollution file from 2003 to 2012 of every 31 commonplace capitals of
territory China. The three principle ventures had a quadratic connection with Nitrogen gases, yet
a negative association with PM10 and Sulphur gas, (O’Neill et al., 2015). The grouping of air
pollutants per ten thousand yuan diminished with the increasing of GRP in the provincial urban
areas. The convergence of air contaminations and API in the commonplace capital urban areas
demonstrated a declining pattern or upset U incline with the ascent of GRP per capita, which
gave a solid proof to the Environmental Kuznets Curve, that the ecological quality first decays,
at that point enhances, with the wage development. The aftereffects of this examination
enhanced our comprehension of the modification of air quality with the expansion of the social
economy and exhibited the possibility of practical advancement for China, (Welsch, 2006).
In the US, the air pollution is mainly caused by smoke emitted by cars and burning of
fossil fuels. Natural sources of the air pollution in the United States incorporates wind erosion,
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evaporation of organic compounds, forest fires and natural radioactivity. The main cause of air
pollution in the country is human-related caused by the Fossil fuel. There are some strategies that
are set in place to reduce air pollution, but still, the pollution is high.
Low-income countries
The effect of pollution is more extreme in developing countries, prompting sick
wellbeing, passing, and handicaps of a huge number of individuals yearly. Created countries
have the assets and innovations to battle pollution. Because of the wellbeing dangers and the
potential effect of the environmental change, there have been endeavors to lessen pollution. Be
that as it may, while this might be simple for created countries, stopping environmental pollution
may undermine financial development and intensity of developing countries whose economies
rely upon normal assets, (Wilkinson, 1997). Created countries have accomplished generous
financial development and improvement and can stand to center around natural objectives since
fundamental living necessities have been accomplished.
At each point and in each level of advancement, countries need to settle on decisions
between regularly clashing objectives. Developing countries want to guarantee energy at all at a
focused cost to accomplish and manage monetary development and destitution diminishment.
The energy neediness experienced in these areas has been connected with the abnormal state of
pay and non-salary destitution in the locales. In their want to create and enhance the ways of life
of their subjects, these countries will select the objectives of monetary development and shabby
energy for all. This may prompt ecological pollution and debasement. All the more in this way,
energy gets to, and at a lower cost, is important to make the ventures in developing countries
focused and add to monetary development, work creation, and advancement. Guaranteeing
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energy access to the populace and upgrading the aggressiveness of nearby ventures may require
giving energy at bringing down costs through energy sponsorships. This will empower energy
over-utilization, waste and wastefulness and furthermore fuel ecological pollution.
The world Carbon dioxide emissions by different sectors analysis are as follows
The industrial emission of CO2 analysis is shown by pie-chart below
Discussion
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The research shows that the there is that the production and changes in the urban
industrial pollution are the main sources of economic growth, but they are also accompanied by
air pollution. The high-income countries are capable of controlling the air pollution by ensuring
that the mitigation measures are put in place. In the middle class, the industrial revolution is very
high such that the measures put in place make the buffering rate to be very low, thus more
greenhouse gases being released into the atmosphere. In low-income countries, the industries are
not very many, thus the low greenhouse gases release, (Bruce et al, 2000).
The research shows that the relationship between environmental pollution and the
economic growth. Despite the industries causing high development, there is high environmental
pollution which is caused by irrational economic activities. Economic growth isn’t practical
because of the exhaustibility of critical assets and the restricted limit of condition to assimilate
squander, (Bickerstaff, 2004). Different researchers can’t help contradicting this conclusion
because under the market system, the expanding cost of panic assets will urge individuals to
utilize elective assets. Accordingly, the breaking points of growth can be kept away from.
Subsequently, the aftereffect of the civil argument helped specialists swing to concentrate
ecological pollution issues from debilitating assets.
Over the countries inspected, a littler center pays level flags an all the more economically
partitioned populace. Among these countries, the U.S. has not just the littlest offer of grown-ups
living in center pay family units, yet also the biggest offers of grown-ups in lower-and uppersalary families. By correlation, the lower-and upper-salary levels in Denmark, the Netherlands
and Norway are of humble size. The measure of the white-collar class in a nation additionally
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flags the level of wage imbalance there: Countries with littler working classes have larger
amounts of wage disparity.
The vast majority of the countries inspected in this report encountered an extending of
economic divisions since 1991. There was a common propensity in the dominant part of
countries for the white-collar class to shrivel and the lower-and upper-pay levels to grow from
the year 1991 to 2010.These movements were most articulated in Germany and Finland. Be that
as it may, Netherlands, Ireland, France, and the UK speak to critical exemptions to this pattern as
the offers of grown-ups who are center wage in these countries expanded, for the most part by
lifting individuals out of the lower-salary level.
The decline in the offer of center pay populaces in many countries was not all terrible
news. Except for Luxembourg and Spain, there was the moderately greater development of
individuals at the upper-wage level than into the lower-salary level in all countries. The net
outcome was a general change in the economic status of individuals in the chose Western
European countries and the U.S.
The exchange is another pointer that is relied upon to be persuasive on modern air
pollutant emission, since most modern creation is achievable on account of imports and fares of
different merchandise. On the off chance that ventures import dirtying inputs (crude materials,
middle of the road products, and so forth.) to utilize amid their creation forms, this has an
immediate or aberrant effect on the measure of CO2 discharges. Also, if enterprises are for the
most part send out situated and deliver contaminating products to offer abroad, the results are
again negative for the local condition. Unnecessary to state, what is important is the basic piece
and also the generation innovation of the two imports and fares of a nation. At last, shifting
Air Pollution
11
levels of per capita energy utilize are relied upon to shoulder distinctive results in the wording of
modern discharges. It would be much more proper to inspect what wellsprings of energy are used
and which areas utilize more energy, (Neidell, 2004).
Conclusion
The research has shown clearly that there is a close relationship between the economic
development and the air pollution. The results show that the three is that the production and
changes in the urban industrial pollution are the main sources of economic growth, but they are
also accompanied by air pollution. The high-income countries are capable of controlling the air
pollution by ensuring that the mitigation measures are put in place. In the middle class, the
industrial revolution is very high such that the measures put in place make the buffering rate to
be very low, thus more greenhouse gases being released into the atmosphere. In low-income
countries, the industries are not very many, thus the low greenhouse gases release. What the
relationship between the dependent variables and independent variable are going is going to be
tested. The dependent variable is going to be the rich countries. The independent variable was
the amount of pollution in the country. The research question is then
Air Pollution
12
References
Bickerstaff, K. (2004). Risk perception research: socio-cultural perspectives on the public experience of
air pollution. Environment international, 30(6), 827-840.
Bruce, N., Perez-Padilla, R., & Albalak, R. (2000). Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major
environmental and public health challenge. Bulletin of the World Health organization, 78(9), 10781092.
Francis, G., Edinger, R., & Becker, K. (2005, February). A concept for simultaneous wasteland
reclamation, fuel production, and socio-economic development in degraded areas in India: Need,
potential and perspectives of Jatropha plantations. In Natural Resources Forum (Vol. 29, No. 1,
pp. 12-24). Blackwell Publishing, Ltd..
Francis, G., Edinger, R., & Becker, K. (2005, February). A concept for simultaneous wasteland
reclamation, fuel production, and socio-economic development in degraded areas in India: Need,
potential and perspectives of Jatropha plantations. In Natural Resources Forum (Vol. 29, No. 1,
pp. 12-24). Blackwell Publishing, Ltd..
Neidell, M. J. (2004). Air pollution, health, and socio-economic status: the effect of outdoor air quality on
childhood asthma. Journal of health economics, 23(6), 1209-1236.
O’Neill, M. S., Jerrett, M., Kawachi, I., Levy, J. I., Cohen, A. J., Gouveia, N., … & Schwartz, J. (2003).
Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods. Environmental health
perspectives, 111(16), 1861.
Welsch, H. (2006). Environment and happiness: Valuation of air pollution using life satisfaction
data. Ecological economics, 58(4), 801-813.
Wilkinson, R. G. (1997). Socioeconomic determinants of health: Health inequalities: relative or absolute
material standards?. Bmj, 314(7080), 591.

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