please watch this video:http://www.wwnorton.com/college/polisci/american-p… To complete assignments please do not get online google resources you will need follow lecture summary and video I attached….Visit Website:www.whitehouse.govLecture Summary:The Presidency is the most powerful office in the world. The Framers of the Constitution gave less written substance to the office, just a few paragraphs in the Constitution than Congress. Much of what we experience of the Presidency is a product of the 20th Century. As America developed into first a world power, and then a superpower, the office became more important.The Presidency is much more complex than when John Adams grazed cows on the White House lawn in 1800. The President has public expectations to deal with. He/she has complex roles to fulfill. Finally, the President brings their personality, life experiences, and beliefs to the office. The public expects the chief executive to be a combination Clint Eastwood/Mother Teresa all at the same time. They expect a leader to be tough, deliberate, and omnipotent- George Bush Sr.- “this will not stand”. At the same time they expect a president to be kind, caring, and considerate- Bill Clinton- “I feel your pain”.Each leader has five major roles to execute: chief of state, chief executive, chief legislator, chief diplomat, and chief bureaucrat. The chief of state role is one of ceremonial importance. The president acts as a symbol of the state. There is no real political power exercised here. Formal dinners, ship launchings, and the giving of awards are some of the functions within the role. Queen Elizabeth of the United Kingdom or Emperor Akahito of Japan are examples of chiefs of state in other countries.The chief executive role is one of real political power. The president in this situation is a political, partisan, and military leader. The chief executive makes political decisions and formulates public policy. In a nutshell, the chief executive is the head of government. Examples of chief executives elsewhere include prime ministers David Cameron in the UK and Naito Kan in Japan.The chief legislator role involves the president formulating, writing, and pressuring Congress for specific legislation such as the national budget or educational policy. In the United States, the presidency proposes most major legislation.The chief diplomat is the fourth role of the American president. This role involves the creation and administration of foreign policy. The Constitution assigns this responsibility to the ExecutiveBranch. The final role of the president is chief bureaucrat. In this role, he/she is the titular head of the bureaucracy. He/she is the sole elected administrator, responsible to the electorate.James David Barber, in his 1992 work, Presidential Personality: Predicting Performance, theorized that chief executives are affected by their personalities and life experiences. Barber created a matrix with two axes, active/passive and positive/negative.Active Positive Passive-Positiveloves job easy goingLoves a challenge affableOne the go personality likes people—————————————————————————————-Active Negative Passive Negativecompulsively active motivated by duty life is a struggle burdened by responsibilityPerceives enemies everywhere low self esteemThe active positive president is active, loves challenges, and loves their job. Theodore Roosevelt, Jimmy Carter, and Bill Clinton are examples of the active positive personality. Roosevelt, despite being legally blind and asthmatic, became the youngest president ever to take office. He saw his office as “a bully pulpit”. One can refer to the active positive personality as the president that “takes a licking and keeps on ticking”. The passive positive president loves people and likes to be admired. To the passive positive personality, every new person is like a friend they haven’t met before. Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan are examples of these personalities. Both were likable, warm individuals in the presidency.The active negative personality is out to prove themselves. They perceive threats everywhere. Examples of this personality include Richard Nixon and Lyndon Johnson. Both were of humble circumstances and were out to prove their ability. For both, the price was very high. Nixon lost office because of the Watergate break-in and Johnson because of the Vietnam conflict. Both were popular but lost all by making poor decisions in their greatest leadership tests.The last personality, passive positive, is probably the most maligned. These personalities see their job as a duty to be endured. Much like the soldier who knows doing his/her duty is going to be hell, but it’s their job to do. Calvin Coolidge and Dwight Eisenhower are two examples. Coolidge remained in the presidency, struggling with deep depression, after the death of his young son. Eisenhower, remained in the White House after suffering from two major heart attacks.The Vice-Presidency has risen in importance in the 20th and 21st centuries. It is no longer the political morgue it once was. The Vice-President’s formal role is limited to presiding over the Senate and casting only a tie-breaking vote. Most vice-presidents such as John Adams and John Nance Garner saw the office as a dead end. Garner referred to the office “not being worth a pitcher of warm piss”. Adams noted the office as “the most insignificant office ever devised”.The office has become more important in its informal role. Presidents have come to recognize the assistance their vice-president can offer as not only a stand in for chief of state functions, but also as an adviser and helpmate. Vice-presidents no longer are “out of the loop” as in Harry Truman’s brief tenure. He recognized, as well as future presidents, the importance of involving their Veep’s. Nearly every twenty years since 1840, a vice-president has filled the presidency on the death of executive. In the 20th century, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, Lyndon Johnson, and Gerald Ford became president on death or resignation. Only Ford was not re-elected in his own right.The Constitution also recognizes the issue of presidential disability since the 1960’s. Vice-presidents can temporarily assume the highest office on illness or brief periods such as a presidential medical procedure. Dick Cheney assumed the Presidency during a presidential medical exam. His medical fitness was also an issue during and after the disputed 2000 election.The First Lady, although unelected, also plays an important role in the Executive. Her role is informal and is primarily structure around what she chooses. Lowi frequently refers to the position as “Queen of America”. Former First Lady Hillary Clinton is the exception to the rule in choosing her role. She was far more political than her predecessors, eventually achieving election to the U.S. Senate from New York. Most First Ladies have found more traditional, non-political interpretations. Most have assisted the President in meeting the ceremonial obligations of “chief of state”. Former First Lady Laura Bush has adopted literacy, much like her mother-in-law Barbara Bush. Rosalynn Carter was Jimmy Carter’s closest adviser and confidant, frequently attending meetings in a low-key role.The position, like the Vice-Presidency is constantly evolving. Each First Lady will find her way in the position as society and expectations change. The election of a married female chief excutive will put “a new spin” on the role just as Britons experienced with the election of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.The Cabinet consists of 15 various department heads for Defense, Agriculture, State, and so on. These department heads, called secretaries, are chosen by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Most are selected for political reasons as well as ability. They are less important than the White House staff and the presidential inner circle, frequently portrayed in the media in programs like “West Wing”. These staffers serve at the President’s pleasure and aren’t subject to Senate approval.Assignments: Forum: Presidential powerShould the President respect existing law, as in the legalistic theory of the presidency, or forge ahead in making policy, where no laws exist, as in the stewardship theory? Could a president violate the spirit of the Constitution and the law by doing so?
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