an analysis of a company that based on an article (relevant important PPT provided)

Identify the issue; do an external/internal analysis (external analysis: porter’s 5 forces, internal analysis) to understand the firm’s current strategy; understand the organization’s current design, leadership, and culture; recommend a course of action to solve the issue; outline the implementation the course of action and consider the impact of the new strategy, changes to org design, etc.Necessary elements:(1) Executive summaryshould summarize the entire paper: what you did, what you discovered, what it means – all in a page or less(2) Introductionshould tell the reader: what the paper is about, why it’s important to read the paper, and then describe the layout of the paper(3) Issue identificationshould identify the tools you used to understand the external environment and the organization, and explain why you used that toolshould tell the reader what the analysis discoveredshould state the issue that your analysis uncoversVRIO is not for GE: stating GE is valuable, it’s hard to copy, etc., is not the proper use of the model (VRIO looks at GE’s resources and capabilities individually, not the firm as the resource)(4) Analysis of fitis there a fit between the strategy of GE and your analysis of the external environment and the firm: state your position and build an argument to support the position? Did CEO make good decisions about the strategic direction of GE?cite relevant papers from the course to discuss the idea of strategic fit (e.g., The coherence premium)(5) Analysis of organizational design and cultureexplain the model you used to understand the organization’s design: why this model?should identify the GE case facts in relation to each element of the modelshould discuss these elements with reference to the course readings (extrinsic rewards are good because paper X said so)should link all of the elements (strategy, structure, people, rewards, processes) together to discuss whether or not there is alignment – this is the point of this analysis, is the organization designed well? What should have been changed, or what was changed to bring the design into alignment?what is the take-away? Is Welch doing a good job in changing the organization?(6) Analysis of leadershipshould describe the type of change at GEshould describe and discuss CEO’s leadership style and its relation to the type of changeshould describe the way in which CEO went about the change at GE in relation to implementation – how did he lead the change?should describe the process through which leadership is developed (is there a thought to succession?)should cite readings from the course(7) Formatshould cite the case in the referencesshould spell the names of authors correctlyshould cite the papers correctly (e.g., Bartlett & Wozny, not Wozny & Barlett, and other combinations and spellings)should spell the CEO’s nameshould cite ideas that aren’t your own: the definition of leadership is…… (cite the author who said it)should check grammar and spelling (e.g., it’s not “off of” – a personal no-no, we don’t say “on of”)should check formatting: don’t leave hanging titles at the bottom of a page, don’t have a header without an exhibitexhibits should be aids to the discussion: GE org charts don’t really lend anything to the discussion of structure when pasted into the middle of your essay, leave it for the appendix if you think it’s importantleave the document for developing your analysis, and leave discussion of Porter’s Five Forces (for example) to an appendix (e.g., discuss in the text that strong supplier power in the aircraft engines industry means….for GE’s strategy)each appendix should be numbered sequentially based upon its first appearance in the text: Appendix 2 should not first appear after Appendix 3
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COMM 4352 – Strategic Management
Class 15 – Strategic leadership
Bill Foster, PhD
Assistant Professor, Strategic Management
Rowe School of Business
Administration
•
questions from last class
•
comments or concerns with Brightspace, the readings, etc.
•
due dates:
•
additional lecture: 28 March
– Potter Auditorium (6:00 – 7:30)
– bonus participation (attend, submit question)
– content not tested, but would be a bonus
•
exam:
– case will be released 11 April on HBS
8 March
20 March
18 April
– Progress Report #3
– individual case assignment (GE and Jack Welch)
2
Guest speakers
Pascal Bécotte
Dr. Pascal Bécotte leads the firm’s global Operations & Supply Chain Officers practice. He is also a key
member of Russell Reynolds Associates Healthcare and Industrial sectors, where he advises global clients
on their overall talent strategy; particularly with respect to leadership assessment and succession
planning.
Professional Experience
Pascal has over 16 years of search experience; more recently with a global executive search firm serving
as Managing Partner for the Montreal office. He is highly involved with the firm’s Healthcare and
Industrial sectors where he recruits directors, CEOs and other Operations and Supply Chain senior
executives.
Suite 3410, Scotia Plaza
40 King Street West
Toronto, ON M5H 3Y2
Canada
Phone: +1-416-364-3355
Education
pascal.becotte@russellreynolds.com
Pascal received a B.S. in Engineering Physics from the Royal Military College of Canada and was trained as
an Aerospace Engineer with the Royal Canadian Air Force. He also earned a Master’s and a Doctorate in
Business Administration from Athabasca University and focused his research and dissertation topic on
CEO succession. Based in Toronto and New York, Pascal is fluent in French and English.
Volvo welcomes the arrival of Raymond Leduc as President of Nova Bus and Prevost
2016-02-19
Raymond Leduc is appointed as President of Nova Bus and Prevost. He will be responsible for Nova Bus, Prevost and Volvo bus brands in Canada and the United States. He will lead the strong
team behind these three brands to conInue to expand and grow the business.
“I am delighted to welcome Raymond Leduc to our North America organizaIon. Raymond Leduc represents a valuable addiIon to our team and I have full con?dence that his experience,
customer focus and leadership will signi?cantly bene?t the conInued success of our threes brands in North America” said Ralph Acs, Senior Vice President, Volvo Buses, Business Region
Americas.
“Joining the Nova Bus and Prevost team is truly exciIng for me as I ?rmly believe that the bus industry o?ers ideal transit soluIons to the economic, social, and environmental challenges faced by
ever-growing ciIes” menIoned Raymond Leduc, President Nova Bus and Prevost.
Raymond Leduc brings to Volvo extensive experience, with over 30 years in various leadership posiIons, in internaIonal companies such as Bell Helicopter and IBM Canada. His appointment was
e?ecIve on February 1st and he will be located in Saint-Eustache, Quebec, Canada.
Private and Confidential
1
3
Guest speakers
•
format:
•
•
•
•
presentation by Mr. Raymond Leduc about strategy formulation and
implementation
question and answer period with Mr. Leduc, facilitated by Dr. Pascal Bécotte
one question per reading group for each speaker that relates to strategy
implementation and his experience is to be sent to me by 1200, Friday 23 March
require:
•
•
host for Mr. Leduc
host for Dr. Bécotte
– greet upon arrival, ensure arrival at meetings, thank at end
– same
4
Follow-up
•
organizational culture
5
Additional reading
Bass, BM. 1981. Stodgill’s Handbook of Leadership. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Kostenbaum, P. 2002. Leadership: The Inner Side of Greatness. A Philosophy for Leaders. San Francisco,CA: Wiley.
Kotter, JP. 1990. What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review, December.
Martin, R. 2007. The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win Through Integrative Thinking. Boston, MA:
Harvard.
McChrystal, General S (USA, retired) with Collins, T, Silverman, D & Fussell, C. 2015. Team of Teams: New Rules of
Engagement for a Complex World. New York, NY: Penguin.
Sinek, S. 2014. Leaders Eat Last: Why Some Teams Pull Together and Others Don’t. New York, NY: Penguin.
Useem, M. 1998. The Leadership Moment: Nine True Stories of Triumph and Disaster and Their Lessons for Us All.
New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.
6
Session objectives
•
to examine the role of the leader in strategic implementation
•
in particular:
1. to define and discuss leadership
2. to understand the role of leaders for implementing strategy
•
references:
Watkins (2012); George, Sims, McLean & Meyer (2007); Nadler & Tushman (2012);
Bennis (1996)
7
Outline
Leadership
Strategy
Culture
Identity
People
Structure
Reputation
Climate
Social
networks
Image
Rewards
Processes
8
Part 1
Strategic leadership defined
What is your definition of leadership?
•
what is leadership?
•
what is a leader?
•
examples?
10
Leadership
Oxford English Dictionary
•
•
•
•
•
•
the dignity, o?ce, or position of a leader, esp. of a political party
ability to lead
the position of a group of people leading or influencing others within a given
context
the group itself
the action or influence necessary for the direction or organization of e?ort in a
group undertaking.
also attrib., as leadership behaviour, leadership school, leadership skill.
11
Leadership
A preoccupation with leadership as opposed to headship based on inheritance,
usurpation, or appointment occurs predominantly in countries with Anglo-Saxon
heritage.
The Oxford English Dictionary (1993) notes the appearance of the word “leader” in the
English language as early as the year 1300.
However, the word “leadership” did not appear until the first half of the nineteenth
century in writings about political influence and control of the British Parliament.
Bass (1991)
12
Leadership versus management
•
good management brings a degree of order and consistency to key dimensions like
the quality and profitability of products
•
•
•
•
planning and budgeting
organizing and sta?ng
controlling and problem solving
leadership is about coping with change
•
•
•
setting a direction
aligning people
motivating and inspiring
Kotter (1990)
13
Leadership theories
•
trait theory
•
behavioural or style theory
•
situational or contingency theory
•
functional theory
•
transactional and transformational theory
14
Leadership traits
•
intelligence
•
extraversion
•
self-e?cacy
•
height
•
gender
15
Leadership styles
•
autocratic or authoritarian
•
participative or democratic
•
laissez-faire or free-rein
•
task-oriented or relationship-oriented
16
Leadership
•
leadership may be defined as directly or indirectly influencing others, by means of
formal authority or personal attributes, to act in accordance with one’s intent or a
shared purpose
•
this definition is generic and value-neutral
•
it is broadly inclusive of all forms of leadership across a wide range of settings and
times and makes no statements about what might be good or bad, e?ective or
ine?ective, leadership
Leadership in the Canadian Forces (2005)
Crimson Tide clip – traditional view of the great man as leader
17
Leadership
•
in accordance with the belief that leadership serves collective purposes and the
collective good, e?ective CF leadership may be formally defined as:
•
•
directing, motivating, and enabling others to accomplish the mission
professionally and ethically, while developing or improving capabilities that
contribute to mission success
e?ective CF leaders get the job done, look after their people, think and act in terms of
the larger team, anticipate and adapt to change, and exemplify the military ethos in
all they do
Leadership in the Canadian Forces (2005)
18
Leadership
•
five long-term business trends that are forcing a revision of leadership thought:
•
•
•
•
•
economic change from manufacturing to knowledge work
organizational change to flatter less hierarchical structures
global change to more diverse and dispersed workforces
generational change in the expectations of employees for communications
technological change to instant connectivity
Groysberg & Slind (2012)
19
Leadership
Leadership is a matter of intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and
discipline …
Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness.
Exercise of humaneness alone results in weakness.
Fixation on trust results in folly.
Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence.
Excessive discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty.
When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function, then one can
be a leader.
Sun Tzu
20
Discussion of the readings
Preparation
•
Section 1
be prepared to present and discuss:
•
Groups 1, 8 and 9
Watkins (2013)
How managers become leaders
•
Groups 3, 6 and 10
George, Sims, McLean & Mayer (2007)
Discovering your authentic leadership
•
Groups 4, 5 and 11
Nadler & Tushman (1990)
Beyond the charismatic leader
•
Groups 2 and 7
Bennis (1996)
The leader as storyteller
22
Preparation
•
Section 2
be prepared to present and discuss:
•
Groups 1 and 8
Watkins (2013)
How managers become leaders
•
Groups 2 and 7
George, Sims, McLean & Mayer (2007)
Discovering your authentic leadership
•
Groups 3 and 6
Nadler & Tushman (1990)
Beyond the charismatic leader
•
Groups 4 and 5
Bennis (1996)
The leader as storyteller
23
Preparation
•
summarize the main argument of the paper
•
what does the paper tell us about strategic leadership?
• what leadership definition or perspective is stated or implied in the paper?
•
how does the paper inform our previous discussions of strategy, organizational
design, and culture?
24
How managers become leaders (Watkins, 2012)
•
as a manager, one will develop:
•
•
•
•
mastery of own function
organizational know-how
the ability to build and motivate a team
is there a definition of leadership?
25
How managers become leaders (Watkins, 2012)
•
seven seismic shifts are necessary to transition to leader:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
•
specialist to generalist
analyst to integrator
tactician to strategist
(level shifting, pattern recognition, mental simulation)
bricklayer to architect
problem solver to agenda setter
warrior to diplomat
supporting cast member to lead role
how does this relate to strategy and organization?
Braveheart clip – transition of William Wallace to leader of the Scots
26
Discovering your authentic leadership (George, Sims, McLean & Mayer, 2007)
•
how do the authors define “authentic leaders”?
•
•
authentic leaders demonstrate a passion for their purpose, practice their values
consistently, and lead with their hearts as well as their heads
where does “authentic leadership” come from?
•
consciously and subconsciously they were constantly testing themselves through
real-world experiences and reframing their life stories to understand who they were
at their core
27
Discovering your authentic leadership (George, Sims, McLean & Mayer, 2007)
•
steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
learning from your life story
knowing your authentic self
practicing your values and principles
balancing your extrinsic and intrinsic motivations
building your support team
integrating your life by staying grounded
•
how do the authors define leadership and leading?
•
what does the paper tell us about strategic leadership?
28
Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change
(Nadler & Tushman, 1990)
•
organizational change varies
•
•
•
strategic and incremental changes
reactive and anticipatory changes
the role of executive leadership varies considerably for the di?erent types of changes
•
in a strategic change the process and structure of the organization changes
• it is the subject of change and cannot be relied upon
29
Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change
(Nadler & Tushman, 1990)
•
types of organizational change
Incremental
Strategic
Anticipatory
Tuning
Re-orientation
Reactive
Adaptation
Re-creation
30
Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change
(Nadler & Tushman, 1990)
•
types of leadership:
•
charismatic
•
a special quality that enables the leader to mobilize and sustain activity within an
organization through specific personal actions combined with perceived personal
characteristics
•
•
•
envisioning
energizing
enabling
Braveheart clip – William Wallace the charismatic leader
31
Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change
(Nadler & Tushman, 1990)
•
types of leadership:
•
instrumental
•
focuses not on the excitement of individuals and changing their goals, needs or
aspirations, but on making sure that individuals in the senior team and
throughout the organization behave in ways needed for change to occur
•
•
•
structuring
controlling
rewarding
32
Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change
(Nadler & Tushman, 1990)
•
•
charismatic leadership is limited by the frequency and intensity of contact
instrumental leadership is limited by the degree to which the leader can structure,
observe, measure and reward behaviour
• change requires both
•
for change to occur, leadership should be institutionalized throughout the
organization in one of three ways ways
•
•
•
empower and develop the senior team
broaden senior management
develop leadership in the organization
Crimson Tide clip – developing the senior management team
33
Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change
(Nadler & Tushman, 1990)
•
develop leadership in the organization
•
•
•
•
•
source talent
socialize individuals
educate
manage careers
seed talent
•
how does the article define leadership and leading?
•
what does the paper tell us about strategic leadership?
Crimson Tide clip – who is the leader?
34
The leader as storyteller (Bennis, 1996)
•
e?ective leaders tell or embody stories that speak to other people
•
four essential factors for e?ective leadership:
•
•
•
•
a tie to the community or audience
a rhythm of life that includes isolation and immersion
a relationship between the stories the leader tells and the traits they embody
arrival at power through the choice of the people
•
how does the article define leadership and leading?
•
was Hitler an e?ective leader?
35
Part 3
Summary
Summary
•
main take-aways:
1. much of organizational experience involves management
2. leadership begins with the individual, it is more than a position at the top of an
organization
3. organizations must institutionalize leadership to develop individuals
4. leaders set strategic direction, align the organization, and motivate and inspire
5. leadership is context dependent, but always demands self-awareness
37
General Stanley McChrystal (retired) TED talk – Listen, learn…then lead
COMM 4352 – Strategic Management
Class 3 – Strategy formulation:
Fit, trade-o?s, and growth
Bill Foster, PhD
Assistant Professor, Strategic Management
Rowe School of Business
Administration
•
questions from last class
•
comments or concerns with Brightspace, the readings, etc.
•
due dates:
•
Project progress report #1
25 Jan
2
Additional reading
Andrews, KR. 1980. The Concept of Corporate Strategy. Homewood, IL: Richard D Irwin, Inc.
Cohen, WA. 2004. The Art of the Strategist: 10 Essential Principles for Leading Your Company to Victory. New York,
NY: AMACON.
Galbraith, JR. Designing Organizations: Strategy, Structure, and Process at the Business Unit and Enterprise
Levels. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Porter, M. 1985. Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. New York, NY: The Free
Press.
Sun-Tzu. 2003. The Art of War: The Essential Translation of the Classic Book of Life. As translated by John Minford.
New York, NY: Penguin Group.
3
Session objectives
•
aligning the firm for competitive advantage across levels
•
in particular:
1. to discuss strategy and operational e?ectiveness
2. to discuss the evolution of organizations and fit
3. to introduce the Star Model
•
references:
Porter (1996); Collis & Rukstad (2008); Greiner (1998) — core to lecture objectives
(see also chapters 4-6, 9 and 10 in HJS)
Hambrick & Cannella (1989); Galbraith (2014) — summarize course and project
4
Outline
3
Evolution of
organizations
and fit
Strategy of the
firm
2
1
Competitive
advantage
5
Part 1
Strategy and operational e?ectiveness
What is strategy?
•
sustained competitive advantage:
•
•
industry positioning:
core competencies:
•
•
•
the ability to obtain above average profits
the control and use of di?cult to imitate resources
deliver greater value to customers
create comparable value at lower cost
(both)
7
What is strategy?
•
why do we have firms?
•
e?ciency of organizing production versus contracting individuals
•
•
market mechanism
administrative mechanism
(Adam Smith)
(Alfred Chandler)
•
transaction cost economics
• boundaries of the firm
• allocation of decision rights
• agency costs
(TCE – Oliver Williamson)
8
Levels of strategy
• corporate strategy
• where a firm competes – industry environment and external analysis
• business strategy
• how a firm competes – cost, di?erentiation (or both)
low prices
• broad low cost
low prices niche
• narrow low cost
target many segments
• broad di?erentiation
customized o?erings
• narrow di?erentiation
• functional strategy
• improving e?ectiveness to attain e?ciency, quality, innovation, etc.
9
Cost and di?erentiation trade-o?
© Cengage Learning
10
Superior profitability
Substitutes
Threat of new
entrants
Buyer power
Price
Greater value

Rivalry
Greater e?ciency
Cost
=
Profit
Supplier power
Magretta, J. Understanding Michael Porter: The Essential Guide to Competition and Strategy. Harvard Business Press: 20.
11
What is strategy?
•
we will see that strategy is also:
•
•
•
making trade-o?s in competing
choosing what not to do
as a manager, you should distinguish between operational e?ectiveness and strategy
•
think back to Drucker (1973)
•
organizational initiatives and decisions should link to creating and sustaining
competitive advantage
12
The productivity frontier
© Cengage Learning
13
Operational e?ectiveness
•
necessary, but not su?cient for superior performance
•
numerous activities are required to create, produce, sell, and deliver products and
services
•
•
cost advantage
di?erentiation
?
– performing activities more e?ciently than competitors
– choosing to do di?erent activities
activities are the basic units of competitive advantage (Porter, 1996: 3)
14
Operational e?ectiveness
•
operational e?ectiveness means performing similar activities better than rivals
•
•
•
•
eliminate waste
employ more advanced technology
motivate employees better
better insight into managing activities
?
directly a?ect relative costs and levels of di?erentiation
•
about internal performance
•
strategic positioning means performing di?erent activities, or similar activities in
di?erent ways
15
Operational e?ectiveness
Being better
=
Constant
improvement
16
Operational e?ectiveness
Constant
improvement
=
Diminishing
returns
17
The productivity frontier
© Cengage Learning
18
Operational e?ectiveness

1960s – 1980s
#
199 …
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