An Argumentative Essay About the topic of (should higher education be free for students)

I agree with the idea of providing free education so the paper should depend on that. Here I attached several documents. Two of them contain useful sources about the topic If you would like to use them. Note: for the word document (ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY) the citation in MLA format. However for this paper, it should be in APA STYLE. Also, I attached an outline that contain main points and thesis statements that might be useful for you (don’t stick with it, so if you have better points or thesis add them). Also,I add the rubric General instructions: write a 2-3 page paper on the controversial topic of should higher education be free for students . The purpose of this paper is for you to choose a stance on a controversial issue and integrate your knowledge about rhetoric and persuasion to defend that stance. To do this effectively, you must conduct research on your topic and apply course concepts by creating a compelling and logical argument based on evidence. What to include in your paper: Structure your paper in an organized manner so that there is an introduction, body, and conclusion. In the introduction paragraph of your paper, make sure to clearly state your argument/claim. Your claim should be specific (e.g., if you are arguing for the legalization of euthanasia, are you arguing that it should be legalized under all circumstances or just certain circumstances?). In the body paragraphs of your paper, provide reasons (about 3) to support your argument/claim. Make sure to incorporate compelling evidence and various types of appeals that we have discussed throughout the course to persuade your audience. You should also address and refute potential opposing viewpoints. In the conclusion paragraph, summarize your claim/argument and the reasons you used in support. In addition, go beyond these points by providing implications about your argument. What should your audience do now? Format: Your 2-3 page paper should be typed and double-spaced, use 12-point Times New Roman font, have 1” margins, and follow APA 6th edition format for all in-text and reference citations. The final paper must also include a separate cover page (that includes your name, date, section #, and ID#) References: You must use at least 6 sources (that are credible, up-to-date, and relevant) to support your argument/claim. All sources must be cited both in-text and in the References section of your paper using APA 6th edition format.
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Argument Outline
higher education contributes to equality for all students. Life opportunities are limited in
different respects. Education is a powerful tool in exposing every available avenue for progress
and also increase creativity for progress. Equality takes different forms. They range from the
opportunity to have continuous and uninterrupted studies, equal chances of securing job
opportunities, or even in the advancement or specialization options for every student
(Jackallenyehuda). Also, it can be viewed from the point of the time spent to undertake a
particular course. Every one of these factors can be affected by the ability or inability of a
student to cater for their tuition fees.
Thesis Statement: Even it seems that providing a free higher education will impact the country
negatively, it actually can lead to many benefits such as an economy increase, reducing the
unemployment rate and also leading to many other political and social benefits.
Main Points:
•
Economic Growth
•
Increasing in the Students’ Academic Achievements
•
opt out from loans
The government intervention could be a great boost for the students. At the moment,
these desperate youths are forced to opt for the education loans which end up being a burden to
them after their studies. There are those students who belong to the rich families thus do not need
to end up in loans or free education (Govindarajan).
Such students are at an advantage since they do not lack anything. Those from the lower
class or the middle-level earners may end up joining the labour sector to make some extra
earnings to meet their needs (Pettinger). Thus, the factor of inequality in education is realized.
Undertaking a research alongside this factor is helpful for the government and the people.
The government gets the crucial information about the potential benefits this would
have to the students and the whole society. The study will also express how the factor of equality
is achieved through offering free high-level education (Simmons). It would also identify the
sectors and institutions which would be appropriate in offering such services.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anderson, Tom. “College should be tuition-Free, 60% of Americans say in survey.” CNBC,
2017. www.cnbc.com/2016/08/01/over-60-of-americans-back-tuition-free-collegesurvey-says.html. Accessed 13 October 2017.
In this article, Anderson makes a summary of a survey that investigated the opinion of
Americans regarding free college tuition. According to the results from the survey, 62% of
respondents said they would support college free tuition for individuals interested in attending.
The issue of college tuition, according to Anderson, pervaded campaign discourse. Presidential
candidates unveiled higher education plans albeit with opposing details, with democratic
candidate eliminating tuition in in-state public institutions for families with income up to
$125,000 while the Republican candidate rejecting the idea. According to author, even the
opponents of a tuition free higher education supported subsidies for low income attendees.
Anderson uses evidence from surveys and analysis by accredited institutions. In conclusion, the
author points to the role of state governments in supporting higher education, with the challenge
being consistency when the economy weakens. The article’s strength comes from the evidence
from the survey, statistics and analysis made by institutions across the country. The information
in the article is eye opening regarding the opinion of Americans on college tuition. Rising costs
of higher education has prompted the change of opinions by people. As the author is a personal
finance writer, he should know a lot about the economic topics that related to this topic, which
makes him capable to write this article.
Bruenig, Matt. “The Case Against Free College.” Dissent, 2015.
www.dissentmagazine.org/article/matt-bruenig-left-case-against-free-college.
Accessed 9 October 2017.
This article is written by Bruenig Matt in which it focuses on the idea against the free education.
The author starts his article by introducing the public benefits that government provide for
students in order to pay their college tuition. By writing this, he tries to prove that the education
should not be free as several solutions are offered to help students to finance their colleges. After
this introduction, he discusses the issues could occur if the education became free. He states that
when making the colleges free, the richer students will be given more money rather than to the
poor people, which could cause alters in the social classes. Additionally, he said that when the
colleges became free, students won’t force themselves and work hard to get the education, so
they will become careless. The author concludes his article by stating that if this idea will be
applied, it should be under restrictive rules to not hurt the social classes and the economy. The
author is a lawyer and a writer who researches inequality, poverty and welfare systems. Thus,
being a lawyer can help him to write about these topics as he knows the rules and laws. From this
article, I learned the other opinion, that is against the free education, and the logical reasons
behind this opinion.
Endersen, Ellen. “Pros and Cons of Tuition-Free College.” College Raptor, 2017.
www.collegeraptor.com/find-colleges/articles/affordability-college-cost/pros-constuition-free-college/. Accessed 13 October 2017.
This is a pro and con list regarding making college tuition free. According to the author
(Endersen), tuition free college would give students from lower-income families to a chance to
complete college. The upside, however, is that taxpayers would be burdened by the extra cost, a
fact that opponents of free college are uncomfortable with. In a tuition free system, younger
generations would not need student loans and the subsequent lack of student debt would help
them contribute to the economy more. The author sees this as a contributing factor to incapacity
to handle finances among younger people. Further, in a system where college is free, students
will be free to choose any major rather than ones with post-graduation income. This too,
according to Endersen, would devalue college diplomas as students are not keen on getting their
money’s worth. More people going to college is both a pro and con as waitlists would increase to
accommodate more people. The main lesson from this debate is that there is a pro and con to
making tuition free. As the author is an American student who graduate recently. She has that
experience with the education system. So, she is concerned with such as topic and has a
knowledge to write about it.
Govindarajan, Vijay, and Jatin Desai. “Should Higher Education Be Free?” Harvard
Business Review, 2013. https://hbr.org/2013/09/higher-education-for-free. Accessed 9
October 2017.
In this article, Govindarajan and Desai discuss the reasons why higher education should be free
in the United States. They encourage the idea of the free education by providing many reasons
and real examples to convince the readers about the necessity of the education being free. And
not just, but, they state some advantages of applying this idea and show the consequences when
not having this free education. For instance, in the article, they state that the college tuitions
became higher these years in which some students are unable to afford it. This could lead the
students to get loans which can hurt the economy instead of increasing it. Both of the authors are
specialized in either the business or the management field in which they are capable to write such
as a topic that can impact the economy and the employee rate. They did a good job when asking
some questions in the article to engage the readers to think and accept the idea of the free
education. When reading this, I learned that while many people think that the free education can
decrease the economy, it is actually could help to raise it in which a lot of people will be
educated and have good jobs, thus, more productivity exists.
Kelly, Andrew P. “The New York Times Company.” The New York Times, 2016.
www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/01/20/should-college-be-free/the-problem-isthat-free-college-isnt-free. Accessed 14 October 2017.
This article is written by Andrew Kelly. According to the author, the problems surrounding
higher education stem from free college not being free. Kelly makes an argument for making
college education free for students who deserve it. As opposed to popular opinion that free
college is free, Kelly proves that costs are simply shifted from students to taxpayers and the
tuition fee is capped to zero. The implication is that costs of college are not change but only
college expenditures are based on what taxpayers want to spend. Using the past as a guide, the
costs will rise. Kelly posits that the main issue comes in when taxpayers’ money does not keep in
pace with rising costs of college. In supporting his stance, Kelly maintains that the obstacle to
success in college is not only tuition prices, other factors like college readiness and educational
policies need to be taken into consideration. As opposed to the proponents of free college, Kelly
maintains that free college is not the only problem. The article looks at other factors that affect
free college, rising tuition and inability of taxpayers to keep up. I think the article is a challenge
to proponents of free college to look at more than making college free, because it does not imply
free college. The author is a director of the Center for Education Reform at the American
Enterprise Institute. So, developing the education in the U.S is one of his concerns in which he
writes articles about.
Kelly, Andrew P. “Should public colleges be free? No.” The Denver Post, 2013.
www.denverpost.com/2013/10/03/should-public-colleges-be-free-no/. Accessed 12
October 2017.
The argument made by Andrew Kelly in which it shows that scrapping college tuition is not the
most appropriate solution to rising college prices. Although income and college tuition are going
in opposite directions, leaders need to foster competition among institutions rather than create a
public monopoly by eliminating tuition costs. The argument for making college free is based on
the premises that a public option for higher education will solve problems in the systems.
However, the post invalidates that argument by showing that only who pays for tuition will
change in such a system. Free college will rise college costs by institutions with regards to labor,
and the implication is that prices will keep rising and taxpayers will have to pay more as time
progresses. To make college free would mean that student success increases. However, that is
not the case. The argument made in the article is that making college free is not the ultimate
solution to problems pervading higher education. The main lesson from the article is that college
tuition is not the only thing that should be focused on, colleges need to fundamentally change
their cost structure for a real impact to be made. As mentioned previously, as Andrew Kelly is a
director of the Center for Education Reform at the American Enterprise Institute. So, he is
concerned about the education in the country. Thus, being capable to write about this topic.
Pollak, Leo. “Should higher education course materials be free to all?.” Juncture , (2008):
36-41. https://lib.wvu.edu/. Accessed 14 October 2017.
Pollak looks at the infiltration of online course materials, owing to the Internet and posits that
such materials should be availed free of charge for all individuals. Institutions of higher learning
have published their course materials online, particularly in America. Pollak looks at the impact
such moves have on the UK education system and maintains that in following in the footsteps of
MIT and UC Berkeley, UK institutions must embrace the change. The success of the open
courseware from American institutions is the basis of Pollak’s Open Access proposal. The article
posits that such a project would give Britain a progressive position by establishing a hub of open
courseware from Britain under a free domain permitting access to all. Pollak adds that nongraduate and nonstudents will have the opportunity to take similar courses as enrolled students.
Under the Open Access proposal, Pollak establishes that parliament will enact laws that will
make open degrees legally similar to conventional ones. Open courseware pioneered by MIT has
been successful. The premise of Pollak’s article is that such success can be the basis of a
proposal using official channels in the UK. The lesson from the article is that the internet
provides similar opportunities for all individuals to access content from prestigious institutions as
enrolled students.
Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free: How to Decrease Cost and
Increase Quality at American Universities. Google Books, 2013.
https://books.google.com. Accessed 12 October 2017.
Samuels posits that in the past, universities had the central identity of research and identity.
However, such activities have been diluted by competing interests, which has resulted in
expensive and disorienting outcomes. Universities are, according to Samuels, losing touch with
their central mission and this simultaneously raises the cost of education. Samuels argues that
raising the cost of education and research in American universities is accompanied by reduced
quality. Samuels maintains that such a counterintuitive principle can be attributed to inability to
contain costs when universities lack a defining objective. Samuels shows that universities have
become like investment banks which spend money on secondary projects like athletics and
increase tuition. Samuels suggests that costs can be lowered while increasing quality by
reallocating the funds being misused and having universities revert to their fundamental mission
of research and instruction. Samuels’ suggestion is aimed to make institutions inexpensive and
vital by using the available resources effectively, universities can make higher education free.
The main objective advanced by Samuels is that in their current state, universities are focused on
the wrong objectives and the implication is rising costs. However, if they handle available
resources well, universities will make public education free. The author is a president of the
faculty union University of California-American Federation of Teachers and lectures for the
University of California and Santa Barbara Writing Programs, which means that he has the skills
and the knowledge to write a book about the free education.
Weissmann, J. How Washington Could Make College Tuition Free (Without Spending a
Penny More on Education). The Atlantic Daily, 2013. https://www.theatlantic.com.
Accessed 13 October 2017.
In this article Weissmann explains how the current funding to public universities and colleges is
flawed, insufficient or worst, unsustainable. The article presents the current problem in the
institutions of higher learning in the U.S and offers possible solution. The federal government
slashed off funding for public universities while institutions of higher learning kept on increasing
tuition fees. This makes the cost of a degree unnecessarily high. Actually, the government could
use even less to make tuition free. If this is done, the public universities and colleges (which
account for over 76% of graduates) will have no avenue to increase tuition fees. This will have
losers particularly in the private sector. This article validly informs about the current issue in
funding institutions of higher learning. It contains a lot of facts and percentage that can convince
the readers quickly. Thus, by reading this article I recognized the real percentage of the students’
loans and how much the government usually spend to offer the education for the students. This
can help me to prove my points in the research paper. The author is a senior business and
economics correspondent in which he knows a lot about the economic growth in the country,
thus he can write such as topic that can affect the economy. Using many figures to prove the idea
of free education and also citing the place that he got the information from (most are government
websites) is evident for the credibility of the author and source.
(x4)
Arrangement
Incomplete (1)
This paper does not
follow the introduction,
body, and conclusion
format.
Needs Improvement (2)
This paper is structured so
that there is an introduction,
body, and conclusion, but
the thesis is missing or
unclear.
Acceptable (3)
This paper is structured so
that there is an introduction,
body, and conclusion. The
thesis and conclusion is
vague but present.
Good (4)
This paper is structured so
that there is an
introduction, body, and
conclusion. The
introduction has a thesis
and the paper has a
conclusion.
Excellent (5)
This paper is structured
so that there is an
introduction, body, and
conclusion. The
introduction has a clear
and explicit thesis, the
conclusion is concise, and
the paper flows nicely.
This paper fails to clearly
articulate a position on a
controversial issue.
This paper articulates a
position on a controversial
topic, but fails to use
compelling evidence or to
recognize opposing
viewpoints
This paper articulates a
position on a controversial
topic. It is supported with
evidence and recognizes
opposing viewpoints.
This paper articulates a
position on a controversial
topic. It is well reasoned,
supported with compelling
evidence, and recognizes
opposing viewpoints.
This paper articulates a
position on a
controversial topic. It is
well reasoned, supported
with compelling
evidence, and recognizes
and addresses the
opposing viewpoints.
This paper fails to
incorporate in text
citations.
This paper uses sources that
lack credibility, are out
dated, and non-relevant.
This paper uses credible, up
to date, and relevant
sources with minor
inaccuracies.
This paper uses credible,
up to date, and relevant
sources accurately.
This paper uses credible,
up to date, and relevant
sources accurately and
fully.
This paper is missing
more than four of the
following: appropriate
length; 12-point font;
Times New Roman font;
1” margins; double
spacing; a title page; a
rubric; or is not stapled.
This paper is missing four
of the following:
appropriate length; 12-point
font; Times New Roman
font; 1” margins; double
spacing; a title page; a
rubric; or is not stapled.
This paper is missing three
of the following:
appropriate length; 12-point
font; Times New Roman
font; 1” margins; double
spacing; a title page; a
rubric; or is not stapled.
This paper is missing one
or two of the following:
appropriate length; 12point font; Times New
Roman font; 1” margins;
double spacing; a title
page; a rubric; or is not
stapled.
This paper is a full 2 to 3
pages; is written in 12point, Times New Roman
font; has 1” margins; is
double spaced; has a title
page attached to the front
and a rubric attached to
the back; and is stapled.
This paper does not
include references, or
does not follow APA
format.
This paper uses less than
six sources, or has more
than five APA mistakes.
This paper uses at least six
references but there are
three to five APA mistakes.
This paper uses at least six
references, and there are
less than three APA
mistakes.
This paper uses at least
six references, and all intext cites and references
follow APA format
without mistakes.
(x5)
Argumentation
(x5)
Use of
References
(x3)
Format
(x3)
References
(APA)
Sarah Ali
COMM 104- 400
Instructor: Katie Condon
4 April 2018
Annotated Bibliography of “Should Higher Education be Free”
Goldrick-Rab, S. (2016). Public Higher Education Should Be Universal and FreeNYTimes.com. Nytimes.com. Retrieved from https://ww …
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