analysis of strategic decision making in twitter and compare its strategy using alshredge model

.i have provided the references too. no need to explain ashridge sence of mission model . you have to analyse the case study given in the attachment using ashredge model. i need an introduction and conclusion with references. no plagarithm is allowed. also complete the 2nd question in partA.both the questions should be having same introduction and conclusion but make theory into two parts along with references.i need the references at the end of the cource work.i need it on 26th of this april .
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Assessment – Coursework
This graded assessment accounts for 100% of your final grade and comprises two
separate assessment exercises: Part A & Part B which are both weighted equally at
50% of your final grade.
Part A
In Part A, we assess learning outcomes related to topics 1, 2, 3, 7 & 10 by providing
you with case study information on the leadership and strategic development
processes which operate within the innovative context at Twitter.
The purpose of this brief is to provide you:
•
Details of the coursework assessment: background to the case and questions
Information on presentation and submission date.
•
Guidelines to assist you in answering the questions
•
The assessment marking criteria and feedback sheet for Part A.
Case Study Background & Questions
Read carefully the case evidence on Twitter which is contained in the following four
sources:
1. Mark, K. & Parker, S. (2011) Twitter extracted from:
Ireland, R.D., Hoskisson, R. E., & Hitt, M.A. (2013) The Management of
Strategy: Concepts and Cases, 10th International Edition, South-Western,
Cengage Learning, pages 371-377
2. Twitter (2013) Annual Report 2013, Twitter, Inc.

3. Twitter (2014) Annual Report 2014, Twitter, Inc.

4. Twitter (2016) Annual Report 2015, Twitter, Inc.

Each source covers a distinct period of Twitter’s strategic development from start-up,
to stock market listing (IPO), to growth within the internet information provider industry.
•
Source 1 provides a case analysis of Twitter’s strategic development at startup
(2006-2011).
1
•
Source 2 reports on Twitter’s strategic position having achieved an initial public
offering (IPO) in 2013.
•
Source 3 reports on Twitter’s current growth directions and future strategic
choices in 2014.
Source 4 reports on Twitter’s current strategic position and outlines the current
risks related to Twitter and their industry in 2015-2016.
•
All sources provide insights into the leadership, strategy and innovation practices
within Twitter. Source 1 critiques Twitter’s origins, current business model and future
strategic choices, whereas sources 2 and 3 provide a corporate account on Twitter’s
mission, values, along with the content and direction of their previous strategy.
Source 4 provides a corporate account on Twitter’s current strategic position and
warns of the risks the business currently faces. Your analysis of the Twitter Annual
Reports should therefore be particularly critical in order to answer the below questions.
Part A of your coursework assessment requires you to answer two questions:
Questions
1. Using the Ashridge Sense of Mission Model analyse the case evidence to
interpret whether Twitter’s strategy show signs of a weak or strong sense of
mission.
2. Using relevant strategic decision making theory, analyse Twitter’s existing
strategic decisions to interpret if Twitter have pursued a deliberate or emergent
strategy. In your answer, discuss to what extent you believe Twitter have built
and sustained a long-term competitive advantage.
Both questions are equally weighed and you should review how grading is allocated
in the Coursework Feedback Sheet.
Presentation and Submission Date
The assessment in Part A is a case analysis and you should note that case analysis
is not a conceptual explanation or discussion but the application of concepts and
frameworks to interpret the case information, analyse key events and statements, and
reach evaluative judgements. The concepts and frameworks are covered in the
workshops and prescribed reading and the guidance below gives you a few pointers
on how you need to use this knowledge to answer the questions. In developing your
analysis and arguments, you should use supporting evidence from the information
contained in the case studies.
Your answers must only be derived from the information on Twitter contained in the
four case evidence sources listed above. You are not required to consult other sources
2
on Twitter or go beyond the end date of the fourth source (2015-6). The reason for this
is that your analysis and evaluation is being assessed at this point in the organisation’s
development and not in the light of subsequent events. As a result you should not
include references on Twitter from the internet or other sources.
In terms of presentation, introduce each question indicating how you will structure your
answer and conclude each answer with reference to your preceding arguments and
the task required by the question. Do not present your answer in rigid report format
but you may wish to divide your answer into sections which reflect the major elements
of your analysis. The combined word count of your answers to both questions must
comply with the following guidance:
Minimum Length:
2000 words
Maximum Length:
2500 words
Submission deadline:
Friday 27th April 2018, 11.59pm (UK time)
The word limit for Part A excludes appendices and bibliography. Where a
submission exceeds the stated word limit the maximum grade awarded will be P1.
Appendices can be useful to provide additional information from your analysis but you
must incorporate the key analytical arguments into the main body of your answer.
Guidance Notes
The assessment feedback sheet at the end of this section gives the marking criteria
for the overall case analysis. Remember, in writing your solution to the questions you
must not describe what the case says but use the concepts to analyse the information
and use the evidence/facts in the case to support your analysis.
Question 1 asks you to critically review if Twitter has achieved a strong sense of
mission. The question specifically asks you to use the Ashridge Sense of Mission
model which is part of your prescribed reading for unit 2. Specifically you should apply
and discuss the four elements of mission (Ashridge model) to Twitter. When
considering purpose and strategy, you should analyse the case evidence on mission,
values and strategy. When doing this avoid being overly descriptive on the content of
Twitter’s strategy as you will soon exceed the word limit. Attempt to develop arguments
and, if necessary, include supporting details in appendices. More crucially, you must
address the central issue in the question of how the fifth element, a sense of mission,
is achieved through the alignment of the employees’ personal values with the
organisation’s identity and values. In doing this, consider the role played by the
leadership and management approach at Twitter – particularly discussed in sources
2, 3, & 4 – to integrate the elements of mission, behavioural standards and values of
3
the organisation, with those of the employees. You will also need to evaluate Twitter’s
mission based on the company’s recent expansion and strategic developments to
express and justify your opinion on whether Twitter have a achieved a strong sense of
mission.
To answer question 2 you will need to write a short essay by drawing on your learning
of strategic decision-making theory and your prescribed reading from Johnson et al,
chapter 12. Initially, you should commence your research by reading and examining
the case evidence in order to identify a list of Twitter’s strategic decisions. Once you
have identified a list of these decisions in chronological order, your essay discussion
should focus on how this decision-making relates to deliberate and/or emergent forms
of strategy development. When doing this avoid being overly descriptive on the content
of these decisions. Instead, you should ensure that the use the relevant theory to
structure your discussion of case evidence. To develop your arguments further, a brief
distinction between deliberate and intended strategy would be useful, followed by an
in-depth discussion on which approach most closely resembles Twitter’s strategic
development. To reach conclusions on Twitter’s competitive advantage, you should
consider the sources of their competitive advantage (e.g. cost leadership,
differentiation, focus etc.) and whether this has been sustained (e.g. through various
types of isolating mechanisms). See Grant (2012), Chapter 7 and Unit 7 on Strategic
Decision-Making in Innovative Contexts for further guidance.
Important Note:
Please ensure that Part A and Part B are submitted as separate documents. The
documents should clearly be marked Part A and Part B and your matriculation number
and module code should be clearly marked on the submission.
Please also note that it is the intention of the module team to use grademark on this
module – so you may receive feedback in this format.
Turnitin: When uploading your file (either Part A or Part B) to Turnitin, please use your
matriculation number as the file name. For example, your file name should take the
following format “(401xxxxx Part A)” or “(401xxxxx Part B)”.
Your name should not be marked in the submission.
4
Please note that it can take up to 24 hours to receive an originality report when using
the Turnitin system.
Please ensure you include your reference list within your Turnitin submission.
5
Part A
Coursework Assessment Feedback
Matriculation No.
Module: Leading Strategic Decision-making
Part A: Twitter Case Study
Category
Grade
Date of Submission:
Cohort:
Comment
Presentation of analysis, use
of appropriate concepts, and
depth of understanding of the
issues raised in the case.
(10%)
Critically examine Twitter’s
sense of mission using the
Ashridge Model.
(35%)
Analyse Twitter’s existing
strategic decisions to
interpret if Twitter have
pursued a deliberate or
emergent strategy (35%)
Ability to reach coherent and
logical arguments from the
analysis, supported by case
evidence.
(20%)
E
Fail
(F1 – F5)
D
C
B
A
Marginal
Pass (P1)
Satisfactory/
Good
(P2-P3)
Very good
(P4-P5)
Excellent
(D1+)
General Comments:
Overall Grade:
Marker:
6
N.B. the percentages are shown as indications of the relative importance of each section and
should not be taken as a precise indication of the marking scheme.
PART B
In Part B, we require you to write an essay on the following topic.
Essay Topic:
Critically evaluate the impact of transformational leadership on creating innovation in
the workplace. Present some examples of transformational leaders to support your
views.
Marking schedule for Part B:
10% of marks are allocated to the presentation of the essay. The student’s work
should be typed with clear use of paragraphs and headings. Typographical and
spelling errors should be avoided.
10% of marks are allocated to appropriate referencing of content. Students should
familiarise themselves and make use of the APA referencing system and should cite
and reference material properly. Students should make use of a range of resources
(books, journal articles etc) and the literature used should be appropriate to the
arguments made.
60% of marks are allocated to the analysis presented in the essay. Students should
examine appropriate theoretical concepts and frameworks. Students should
demonstrate an awareness of the wider context and present an in-depth discussion
of current issues. Better students will demonstrate critical analysis skills and
communicate their arguments in a clear and coherent manner.
20% of marks are allocated to the conclusions drawn. The conclusions should identify
the key themes or issues under consideration. Conclusions should be well supported
from the analysis and highlight the significance of arguments, evidence and insights
Guidance Notes on Part B:
You must refer to relevant literature throughout the essay. This can be in the form of
textbooks, journal articles, or relevant web-based material. Student are directed in
particular to the following databases which they may find useful in developing their
essay:
•
•
•
•
ABI Inform Complete (Proquest)
Ingenta
Science Direct
Sage Online
7
In particular, the following journals may be helpful to you in relation to the prescribed
topic:
•
•
•
•
•
Leadership Quarterly (Available on Science Direct)
Leadership and Organisation Development Journal (Available on ABI Inform)
Team Performance Management (Available on ABI Inform)
Journal of Management Development (Available on ABI Inform)
Group and Organisation Management (Available on Sage Online)
You may wish to refer to relevant theory or you may wish to cite relevant research or
examples to support your arguments. Remember all material cited must be referenced
using the APA Referencing system. Also please refer to the University guidance notes
on the avoidance of Plagiarism.
Please remember to structure your essay appropriate. You should use headings –
and include an introduction, main body and conclusion/recommendations sections.
Please do not label the main body as “main body”.
You should avoid using footnotes in your essay.
Please ensure you use UK English spelling in your writing – so avoid “z’s” such as
“organization” and use the UK English spelling of “organisation” instead.
Bullet points and numbered lists should be avoided in your essay – with strong,
wellsupported arguments from the literature preferred.
Please use “justify” alignment and 1 and a half or double spacing. Your font should be
a suitable size (usually 11 or 12 font size).
While we do not specify a particular number of references/citations to be included, you
should include at least a minimum of 15 different journal articles in your essay.
Please answer the topic posed. Your essay should NOT be a summary of leadership
theories. You need to specifically address the topic and question posed.
Minimum Essay Length: 2000 words
Maximum Essay Length: 2500 words
The word count includes your entire essay, your citations and your reference
list. Appendices should not be included in your Part B submission. However, the word
count does not include the cover page. The word count ranges between 2000 words
and 2500 words (so please do not ask about 10% allowances related to the word count
– your full word count should fit between 2000 words and 2500 words)
8
Friday 27th April 2018, 11.59pm (UK time).
Submission deadline:
Please note that whilst the submission deadline is Friday 27th April 2018, 11.59pm (UK
time), you are free to make your submission (Part A or B or both) at any time before
this date. You do not need to wait until this day, or the day before or the week before.
Important Note:
Please ensure that Part A and Part B are submitted as separate documents. The
documents should clearly be marked Part A and Part B and your matriculation
number and module code should be clearly marked on the submission.
Please also note that it is the intention of the module team to use grademark on this
module – so you may receive feedback in this format.
Turnitin: When uploading your file (either Part A or Part B) to Turnitin, please use
your matriculation number as the file name. For example, your file name should take
the following format “(401xxxxx Part A)” or “(401xxxxx Part B)”.
Your name should not be marked in the submission.
Please note that it can take up to 24 hours to receive an originality report when using
the Turnitin system.
Please ensure you include your reference list within your Turnitin submission.
Coursework Assessment Feedback
Matriculation No.
Module: Leading Strategic Decision-Making
Part B: Essay
Category
Date of Submission:
Cohort:
Comment
Presentation of the essay. Clear
use of paragraphs and headings
and the text is free from
typographical and spelling errors.
(10%)
9
Referencing of content.
Consistent use of APA
Referencing throughout the
essay with adequate citation
support for arguments being
made. (10%)
Analysis.
Comprehensive examination of
appropriate theoretical
frameworks and models. Strong
arguments presented with critical
insights and good communication
skills in evidence.
(60%)
Conclusions.
Clear identification of key themes
and issues. Synthesis of core
arguments and formulation of
insights and recommendations as
appropriate
(20%)
General Comments:
Overall Grade:
Marker:
N.B. the percentages are shown as indications of the relative importance of each section and
should not be taken as a precise indication of the marking scheme.
10
Assessment – Coursework
This graded assessment accounts for 100% of your final grade and comprises two
separate assessment exercises: Part A & Part B which are both weighted equally at
50% of your final grade.
Part A
In Part A, we assess learning outcomes related to topics 1, 2, 3, 7 & 10 by providing you
with case study information on the leadership and strategic development processes
which operate within the innovative context at Twitter.
The purpose of this brief is to provide you:
•
Details of the coursework assessment: background to the case and questions
Information on presentation and submission date.
•
Guidelines to assist you in answering the questions
•
The assessment marking criteria and feedback sheet for Part A.
Case Study Background & Questions
Read carefully the case evidence on Twitter which is contained in the following four
sources:
1. Mark, K. & Parker, S. (2011) Twitter extracted from:
Ireland, R.D., Hoskisson, R. E., & Hitt, M.A. (2013) The Management of
Strategy: Concepts and Cases, 10th International Edition, South-Western,
Cengage Learning, pages 371-377
2. Twitter (2013) Annual Report 2013, Twitter, Inc.

3. Twitter (2014) Annual Report 2014, Twitter, Inc.

4. Twitter (2016) Annual Report 2015, Twitter, Inc.

Each source covers a distinct period of Twitter’s strategic development from start-up, to
stock market listing (IPO), to growth within the internet information provider industry.
•
Source 1 provides a case analysis of Twitter’s strategic development at startup
(2006-2011).
•
Source 2 reports on Twitter’s strategic position having achieved an initial public
offering (IPO) in 2013.
•
Source 3 reports on Twitter’s current growth directions and future strategic
choices in 2014.
Source 4 reports on Twitter’s current strategic position and outlines the current
risks related to Twitter and their industry in 2015-2016.
•
All sources provide insights into the leadership, strategy and innovation practices within
Twitter. Source 1 critiques Twitter’s origins, current business model and future strategic
choices, whereas sources 2 and 3 provide a corporate account on Twitter’s mission,
values, along with the content and direction of their previous strategy.
Source 4 provides a corporate account on Twitter’s current strategic position and warns
of the risks the business currently faces. Your analysis of the Twitter Annual Reports
should therefore be particularly critical in order to answer the below questions.
Part A of your coursework assessment requires you to answer two questions:
Questions
1. Using the Ashridge Sense of Mission Model analyse the case evidence to
interpret whether Twitter’s strategy show signs of a weak or strong sense of
mission.
2. Using relevant strategic decision making theory, analyse Twitter’s existing
strategic decisions to interpret if Twitter have pursued a deliberate or emergent
strategy. In your answer, discuss to what extent you believe Twitter have built
and sustained a long-term competitive advantage.
Both questions are equally weighed and you should review how grading is allocated in
the Coursework Feedback Sheet.
Presentation and Submission Date
The assessment in Part A is a case analysis and you should note that case analysis is
not a conceptual explanation or discussion but the application of concepts and
frameworks to interpret the case information …
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