Analysis of the European Court of Human Rights selected judgements impact of the national legal systems. The exact must be consulted with the Module leader.

The essay should have 3000-3500 words and have appropriate structure and content, with proper referencing and bibliography.
Harvard reference style.
Plagiarism: >90% of uniqueness. Do not copy without indicating the source.Requirements relating to a scholarly paper, such as providing evidence that supports your theses, statements and claims, as well as proper referencing. Bibliography should have a sufficient number of academic sourcesEditing rules: title page; font, Times New Roman 12; margins, 2,5 cm; double space between verses; italics for book/periodical titles; single quotation marks, etc. The paper must be logically structured ( introduction; the main body subdivided into paragraphs; conclusions) and meet the minimum language standards.
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ESSAY WRITING STANDARD
A Guide for Students and Lecturers
(Updated December 2015)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction
2. Essay Format
2.1. Title Page
2.2. Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers
2.3. Essay Length
2.4. Referencing System
3. Essay Submission and Grading
3.1. Submission
3.2. Grading
Appendix A – Sample Title Page
Appendix B – Page Format
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
8
9
1:
INTRODUCTION
Essay writing assignments are an important element of course assessment. They not only
allow lecturers and professors to check if students have understood the material in a given
course, but they also allow them to assess the students’ critical thinking and analytical
skills. More importantly, essays are a good way for students to learn about a given subject,
and a good means for them to test their own investigative and diagnostic abilities.
There is no one way that an essay should be structured, and no one way that an argument
should be presented. Essays, like novels, can be as long and convoluted as a Dostoyevsky
epic, or as short and straightforward as a Hemingway novella, and still retain the same
literary or academic value. Nevertheless, in order to train strong writers and successful
researchers, Lazarski University has developed this “Essay Writing Standard” to be used
by all students in all courses in its English-language programs.
The Standard is not intended to constrain the creativity of students, but rather to enforce
basic habits such as proper citation, quotation, and paraphrasing, which are essential for
good academic writing. Like in any trade, whether it be painting, carpentry, or
architecture, once students master the basic rules and tools required to be good academics,
they will be free to experiment and demonstrate their full creative abilities. But before
they can do this, they must learn the fundamentals.
2:
ESSAY FORMAT
As stated earlier, there is no set style for writing an essay. However, in order to ease the
grading process, as well as to help students focus on the content of their essay without
worrying about its format, Lazarski University has adopted uniform rules concerning title
pages, font and line spacing, page numbers, bibliography, and citation, which are to be
used by all students for all essay-writing assignments.
2.1 Title Page
All essays should have a precise title. For long essays, the title is to be typed in capital
letters on the first page. Below this comes the student’s name, their student number, the
course for which the essay is submitted, the name of the course coordinator, and the date
of submission. There should be no page number on the title page. An example of a proper
title page is given in Appendix A.
For shorter essays (below 2500 words), students may forgo the title page and simply write
the title above the text of their essay, along with their name, student number, and date of
submission. However, it is up to the course coordinator to designate whether or not a
proper title page is required.
2.2 Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers
The essay text should be double spaced, and the font ought to be in Times New Roman,
size 12. A larger size and different font style may be used for headings or section titles at
the student’s discretion.
3
The margins of the essay should be 2.5 cm all around and all pages in the essay must have
page numbers, except for the title page. Page numbers must be written at the bottom of
each page and should be centred. The text of the essay should also be ‘justified’, and the
first line of each new paragraph must begin with an indentation. However, the first line
at the beginning of a new section and below a section heading should not be indented, see
Appendix B.
2.3 Essay Length
The length of the essay assignment is dependent on the amount of coursework in a given
course, as well as the year in which the course is taught. The length is also determined by
the course coordinator and shall be given in terms of word-count (e.g. 3000 words).
Given that the Essay Standard requires that all papers be double-spaced, with 2.5 cm
margins all around, one page should fit approximately 350 words. Bibliographies are not
counted in the word/page count.
2.4 Referencing System
Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas
that are used while writing the essay. In that regard, students should do their best to cite
all of their sources properly and avoid plagiarism. Proper referencing also helps readers
to verify quotations, allows readers to follow up on what the authors have written, and
lets them locate the cited works easily.
There are many different citation styles, such as the American Psychological Association
(APA) style, or the Chicago Manual of Style. For essays written at Lazarski University
however, the preferred referencing system is the ‘Harvard Style’. Harvard style is often
referred to as an “author-date”, or “parenthetical” system. It is widely accepted in
academic publications, although there are several variations in the way that it is used.
The Harvard style uses parentheses instead of footnotes as a way to cite sources. In their
essays, students may also use footnotes but only as a way to clarify or expand on a given
point and NOT as a way to reference. For good examples of how to use and apply the
Harvard style, check the following links:
http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
http://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/harvard_6.pdf
Students may also refer to the BA Thesis Manual, as well as the MA/MSc Dissertation
Manual, for more details. Moreover, they may refer to the Coventry University Harvard
Reference Style Quick Guide. The Quick Guide and the Manuals are available on the
student resource page (zasoby) under the codes “course1” and “course2”.
4
3:
ESSAY SUBMISSION AND GRADING
3.1 Submission
All essays are to be submitted before or on the day specified by the course coordinator.
Late submissions may result in penalties and lower grades. Each student MUST submit
a paper copy of their essay AND an electronic copy either on disc or via email. The
electronic copy will be used by the course coordinator to verify that the work has not been
plagiarized by using the anti-plagiarism programs Turn-it-in-UK, as well as
www.plagiat.pl.
3.2 Grading
Essay grades will be given in percents ranging from 0 to 100, although students should
not expect to be given perfect scores because, after all, it is impossible to define what
exactly constitutes a “perfect” essay. To receive an “A” on their essays, students should
aim to achieve 65 percent or above. Scores below 40 percent constitute a failing grade.
The table below details the different grade scales in terms of percents, British-letter
grades, and Polish grades.
Percent
71-100%*
65-70%
59-64%
53-58%
47-52%
40-46%
0-39%
British letter scale
A+
A
B
C
D
E
F
Polish scale
5,5*
5,0
4,5
4,0
3,5
3,0
2
* a grade of A+ or in Polish “celujacy”, is to be given only for truly exceptional work
The following table specifies the characteristics of excellent, mediocre, and poor essays.
Undergraduate level:
Class
Mark range
Guidelines
Class I
90 – 100%
In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, an outstanding answer
that could hardly be bettered. High degree of understanding,
critical/analytic skills and original research, where specified.
Outstanding in all respects.
80 – 89%
In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, the answer will
demonstrate an excellent level of understanding, presence of
clear description, critical/analytical skills or research, as
appropriate.
5
Class
Mark range
70 – 79%
Guidelines
Answer entirely relevant to the assignment set. Answer will
demonstrate clear understanding of theories, concepts, issues
and methodology, as appropriate. There will be evidence of
wide-ranging reading and/or research, as appropriate, beyond
the minimum recommended. Answers will be
written/presented in a clear, well-structured way with clarity of
expression. At level 3, evidence of independent, critical
thought would normally be expected.
Class II : I
65 – 69%
Answer demonstrating a very good understanding of the
requirements of the assignment. Answer will demonstrate
very good understanding of theories, concepts, issues and
methodology, as appropriate. Answer will be mostly
accurate/appropriate, with few errors. Little, if any, irrelevant
material may be present. Reading beyond the recommended
minimum will be present where appropriate. Well organised
and clearly written/presented.
60 – 64%
A good understanding, with few errors. Some irrelevant
material may be present. Well organised and clearly
written/presented. Some reading/research beyond
recommended in evidence.
55 – 59%
Answer demonstrating a good understanding of relevant
theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Some
reading/research beyond that recommended may be present.
Some errors may be present and inclusion of irrelevant
material. May not be particularly well-structured, and/or
clearly presented.
50 – 54%
Answer demonstrating a reasonable understanding of theories,
concepts, issues and methodology. Answer likely to show
some errors of understanding. May be significant amount of
irrelevant material. May not be well-structured and
expression/presentation may be unclear at times.
45 – 49%
An understanding demonstrated, but may be incomplete and
with some errors. Limited use of material with limited
reading/research on the topic. Likely to be poorly structured
and not well-expressed/presented. Irrelevant material likely to
be present.
40 – 44%
Basic understanding demonstrated, with some correct
description. Answer likely to be incomplete with substantial
errors or misunderstandings. Little use of material and limited
reading/research on the topic in evidence. May be poorly
Class II : II
Class III
6
Class
Mark range
Marginal
fail
35 – 39%
Some relevant material will be present. Understanding will be
poor with little evidence of reading/research on the topic.
Fundamental errors and misunderstanding likely to be present.
Poor structure and poor expression/presentation. Much
material may not be relevant to the assignment.
Fail
30 – 34%
Inadequate answer with little relevant material and poor
understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology,
as appropriate. Fundamental errors and misunderstandings
will be present. Material may be largely irrelevant. Poorly
structured and poorly expressed/presented.
20 – 29%
0 – 19%
Guidelines
structured and poorly expressed/presented. Some material
may be irrelevant to the assignment requirements.
Clear failure to provide answer to the assignment. Little
understanding and only a vague knowledge of the area.
Serious and fundamental errors and lack of understanding.
Virtually no evidence of relevant reading/research. Poorly
structured and inadequately expressed/presented.
Complete failure, virtually no understanding of requirements
of the assignment. Material may be entirely irrelevant.
Answer may be extremely short, and in note form only.
Answer may be fundamentally wrong, or trivial. Not a serious
attempt.
Postgraduate level:
Indicative
mark
A
Percentage %
marks
70% and above
Characteristics
Very high standard of critical analysis using appropriate
conceptual frameworks.
Excellent understanding and exposition of relevant issues.
Clearly structured and logically developed arguments.
Good awareness of nuances and complexities.
Substantial evidence of well-executed independent research.
Excellent evaluation and synthesis of source material.
Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced.
Distinction
70% and above
B
69-60%
High standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual
frameworks.
Clear awareness and exposition of relevant issues.
Clearly structured and logically developed arguments.
7
Awareness of nuances and complexities.
Evidence of independent research.
Good evaluation and synthesis of source material.
Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced.
Merit
60-69%
C
59-50%
Uses appropriate conceptual frameworks.
Attempts analysis but includes some errors and/or omissions.
Shows awareness of issues but no more than to be expected from
attendance at classes.
Arguments reasonably clear but underdeveloped.
Insufficient evidence of independent research.
Insufficient evaluation of source material.
Some good use of relevant data and examples, but incompletely
referenced.
D
49-40%
Adequate understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks.
Answer too descriptive and/or any attempt at analysis is
superficial, containing errors and/or omissions.
Shows limited awareness of issues but also some confusion.
Arguments not particularly clear.
Limited evidence of independent research and reliance on a
superficial repeat of class notes.
Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples
and poorly referenced.
Pass Mark = 40%
E
39-30%
Weak understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks.
Weak analysis and several errors and omissions.
Establishes a few relevant points but superficial and confused
exposition of issues.
No evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial
repeat of class notes.
Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples
and poorly referenced.
F
29% and below
Very weak or no understanding of appropriate conceptual
frameworks.
Very weak or no grasp of analysis and may errors and omissions.
Very little or no understanding of the issues raised by the question.
No appropriate references to data, sources, examples or even class
notes.
8
APPENDIX A – SAMPLE TITLE PAGE
The Role of Intellectuals in
Contemporary Politics
By: John F. Awesome
Student Number: 100 500
Course:
Advanced Political Theory
Module Leader:
Prof. Knows-A-Lot
Date of Submission:
February 31, 2052
9
APPENDIX B – PAGE FORMAT
10

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