Animal Farm

Its not an Essay , its all about answering in short and summarized way.Animal Farm Questions Ch. 2-4In Chapter 2, the pigs organize the philosophy of Animalism into 7 commandments, which is then broken down into a single motto (“Four legs good, Two legs bad!”) What does Orwell imply about the concept of Animalism—is it a noble or worthwhile goal? Once the Revolution is completed, how does Orwell depict the animals’ response to their new life?Assume that, like the pigs of Animal Farm, you were tasked with naming the overriding philosophy of America and breaking it down to a few essential commandments and/or a motto. What would they be? What documents or cultural artifacts would you turn to to help you formulate these commandments?The character Mollie appears to be quite content with the conditions of her slavery, and cares more about creature comforts like hair ribbons and sugar than she does principles and concepts like “freedom.” What is Orwell’s attitude toward Mollie? To what extent is his criticism of her valid?In Chapter 3, Snowball is tasked with defining why “wings” count as legs and not arms for the purposes of Animalism. How credible do you find his explanation, or how credible did you think Orwell intended it to be? How has America had to deal with similar questions—for example, what is the definition of “person,” and how has that changed?At the end of Chapter 2, the surplus milk from the cows disappears. In Chapter 3, Orwell reveals that the pigs have taken the milk, and recruited Squealer to justify why the milk should be reserved for the pigs alone. What are the strategies Squealer uses to convince the other animals? Can you think of examples in an American context where certain benefits are reserved for the more powerful classes? If so, what are the justifications for them, and do you agree?Orwell introduces some subsidiary characters into the story, such as the cat and the “wild animals.” What rhetorical purpose do they serve? (In other words, why does Orwell include them?)In Chapters 2-4, there has been a successful rebellion as well as a successful battle to defend against intruders. The animals, for the most part, seem pleased with these successes, and animals on other farms are inspired and emboldened by their example. Still, Orwell is setting the stage for the eventual failure of Old Major’s vision. What tendencies does Orwell identify in these chapters which, as he implies, will lead to disaster? Do you recognize any of those tendencies in American civilization? Explain
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CHAPTER 2
Three nights later old Major died peacefully in his sleep. His body was buried
at the foot of the orchard.
This was early in March. During the next three months there was much
secret activity. Major’s speech had given to the more intelligent animals on the
farm a completely new outlook on life. They did not know when the Rebellion
predicted by Major would take place, they had no reason for thinking that it
would be within their own lifetime, but they saw clearly that it was their duty
to prepare for it. The work of teaching and organising the others fell naturally
upon the pigs, who were generally recognised as being the cleverest of the
animals. Pre-eminent among the pigs were two young boars named Snowball
and Napoleon, whom Mr. Jones was breeding up for sale. Napoleon was a
large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not
much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way. Snowball was
a more vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive,
but was not considered to have the same depth of character. All the other male
pigs on the farm were porkers. The best known among them was a small fat
pig named Squealer, with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble
movements, and a shrill voice. He was a brilliant talker, and when he was
arguing some difficult point he had a way of skipping from side to side and
whisking his tail which was somehow very persuasive. The others said of
Squealer that he could turn black into white.
These three had elaborated old Major’s teachings into a complete system
of thought, to which they gave the name of Animalism. Several nights a week,
after Mr. Jones was asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn and
expounded the principles of Animalism to the others. At the beginning they
met with much stupidity and apathy. Some of the animals talked of the duty of
loyalty to Mr. Jones, whom they referred to as “Master,” or made elementary
remarks such as “Mr. Jones feeds us. If he were gone, we should starve to
death.” Others asked such questions as “Why should we care what happens
after we are dead?” or “If this Rebellion is to happen anyway, what difference
does it make whether we work for it or not?”, and the pigs had great difficulty
in making them see that this was contrary to the spirit of Animalism. The
stupidest questions of all were asked by Mollie, the white mare. The very first
question she asked Snowball was: “Will there still be sugar after the
Rebellion?”
“No,” said Snowball firmly. “We have no means of making sugar on this
farm. Besides, you do not need sugar. You will have all the oats and hay you
want.”
“And shall I still be allowed to wear ribbons in my mane?” asked Mollie.
“Comrade,” said Snowball, “those ribbons that you are so devoted to are
the badge of slavery. Can you not understand that liberty is worth more than
ribbons?”
Mollie agreed, but she did not sound very convinced.
The pigs had an even harder struggle to counteract the lies put about by
Moses, the tame raven. Moses, who was Mr. Jones’s especial pet, was a spy
and a tale-bearer, but he was also a clever talker. He claimed to know of the
existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain, to which all
animals went when they died. It was situated somewhere up in the sky, a little
distance beyond the clouds, Moses said. In Sugarcandy Mountain it was
Sunday seven days a week, clover was in season all the year round, and lump
sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges. The animals hated Moses because
he told tales and did no work, but some of them believed in Sugarcandy
Mountain, and the pigs had to argue very hard to persuade them that there
was no such place.
Their most faithful disciples were the two cart-horses, Boxer and Clover.
These two had great difficulty in thinking anything out for themselves, but
having once accepted the pigs as their teachers, they absorbed everything that
they were told, and passed it on to the other animals by simple arguments.
They were unfailing in their attendance at the secret meetings in the barn, and
led the singing of ‘Beasts of England’, with which the meetings always ended.
Now, as it turned out, the Rebellion was achieved much earlier and more
easily than anyone had expected. In past years Mr. Jones, although a hard
master, had been a capable farmer, but of late he had fallen on evil days. He
had become much disheartened after losing money in a lawsuit, and had taken
to drinking more than was good for him. For whole days at a time he would
lounge in his Windsor chair in the kitchen, reading the newspapers, drinking,
and occasionally feeding Moses on crusts of bread soaked in beer. His men
were idle and dishonest, the fields were full of weeds, the buildings wanted
roofing, the hedges were neglected, and the animals were underfed.
June came and the hay was almost ready for cutting. On Midsummer’s
Eve, which was a Saturday, Mr. Jones went into Willingdon and got so drunk
at the Red Lion that he did not come back till midday on Sunday. The men had
milked the cows in the early morning and then had gone out rabbiting,
without bothering to feed the animals. When Mr. Jones got back he
immediately went to sleep on the drawing-room sofa with the News of the
World over his face, so that when evening came, the animals were still unfed.
At last they could stand it no longer. One of the cows broke in the door of the
store-shed with her horn and all the animals began to help themselves from
the bins. It was just then that Mr. Jones woke up. The next moment he and his
four men were in the store-shed with whips in their hands, lashing out in all
directions. This was more than the hungry animals could bear. With one
accord, though nothing of the kind had been planned beforehand, they flung
themselves upon their tormentors. Jones and his men suddenly found
themselves being butted and kicked from all sides. The situation was quite out
of their control. They had never seen animals behave like this before, and this
sudden uprising of creatures whom they were used to thrashing and
maltreating just as they chose, frightened them almost out of their wits. After
only a moment or two they gave up trying to defend themselves and took to
their heels. A minute later all five of them were in full flight down the carttrack that led to the main road, with the animals pursuing them in triumph.
Mrs. Jones looked out of the bedroom window, saw what was happening,
hurriedly flung a few possessions into a carpet bag, and slipped out of the farm
by another way. Moses sprang off his perch and flapped after her, croaking
loudly. Meanwhile the animals had chased Jones and his men out on to the
road and slammed the five-barred gate behind them. And so, almost before
they knew what was happening, the Rebellion had been successfully carried
through: Jones was expelled, and the Manor Farm was theirs.
For the first few minutes the animals could hardly believe in their good
fortune. Their first act was to gallop in a body right round the boundaries of
the farm, as though to make quite sure that no human being was hiding
anywhere upon it; then they raced back to the farm buildings to wipe out the
last traces of Jones’s hated reign. The harness-room at the end of the stables
was broken open; the bits, the nose-rings, the dog-chains, the cruel knives
with which Mr. Jones had been used to castrate the pigs and lambs, were all
flung down the well. The reins, the halters, the blinkers, the degrading
nosebags, were thrown on to the rubbish fire which was burning in the yard.
So were the whips. All the animals capered with joy when they saw the whips
going up in flames. Snowball also threw on to the fire the ribbons with which
the horses’ manes and tails had usually been decorated on market days.
“Ribbons,” he said, “should be considered as clothes, which are the mark
of a human being. All animals should go naked.”
When Boxer heard this he fetched the small straw hat which he wore in
summer to keep the flies out of his ears, and flung it on to the fire with the
rest.
In a very little while the animals had destroyed everything that reminded
them of Mr. Jones. Napoleon then led them back to the store-shed and served
out a double ration of corn to everybody, with two biscuits for each dog. Then
they sang ‘Beasts of England’ from end to end seven times running, and after
that they settled down for the night and slept as they had never slept before.
But they woke at dawn as usual, and suddenly remembering the glorious
thing that had happened, they all raced out into the pasture together. A little
way down the pasture there was a knoll that commanded a view of most of the
farm. The animals rushed to the top of it and gazed round them in the clear
morning light. Yes, it was theirs — everything that they could see was theirs!
In the ecstasy of that thought they gambolled round and round, they hurled
themselves into the air in great leaps of excitement. They rolled in the dew,
they cropped mouthfuls of the sweet summer grass, they kicked up clods of the
black earth and snuffed its rich scent. Then they made a tour of inspection of
the whole farm and surveyed with speechless admiration the ploughland, the
hayfield, the orchard, the pool, the spinney. It was as though they had never
seen these things before, and even now they could hardly believe that it was all
their own.
Then they filed back to the farm buildings and halted in silence outside the
door of the farmhouse. That was theirs too, but they were frightened to go
inside. After a moment, however, Snowball and Napoleon butted the door
open with their shoulders and the animals entered in single file, walking with
the utmost care for fear of disturbing anything. They tiptoed from room to
room, afraid to speak above a whisper and gazing with a kind of awe at the
unbelievable luxury, at the beds with their feather mattresses, the lookingglasses, the horsehair sofa, the Brussels carpet, the lithograph of Queen
Victoria over the drawing-room mantelpiece. They were lust coming down the
stairs when Mollie was discovered to be missing. Going back, the others found
that she had remained behind in the best bedroom. She had taken a piece of
blue ribbon from Mrs. Jones’s dressing-table, and was holding it against her
shoulder and admiring herself in the glass in a very foolish manner. The
others reproached her sharply, and they went outside. Some hams hanging in
the kitchen were taken out for burial, and the barrel of beer in the scullery was
stove in with a kick from Boxer’s hoof, otherwise nothing in the house was
touched. A unanimous resolution was passed on the spot that the farmhouse
should be preserved as a museum. All were agreed that no animal must ever
live there.
The animals had their breakfast, and then Snowball and Napoleon called
them together again.
“Comrades,” said Snowball, “it is half-past six and we have a long day
before us. Today we begin the hay harvest. But there is another matter that
must be attended to first.”
The pigs now revealed that during the past three months they had taught
themselves to read and write from an old spelling book which had belonged to
Mr. Jones’s children and which had been thrown on the rubbish heap.
Napoleon sent for pots of black and white paint and led the way down to the
five-barred gate that gave on to the main road. Then Snowball (for it was
Snowball who was best at writing) took a brush between the two knuckles of
his trotter, painted out MANOR FARM from the top bar of the gate and in its
place painted ANIMAL FARM. This was to be the name of the farm from now
onwards. After this they went back to the farm buildings, where Snowball and
Napoleon sent for a ladder which they caused to be set against the end wall of
the big barn. They explained that by their studies of the past three months the
pigs had succeeded in reducing the principles of Animalism to Seven
Commandments. These Seven Commandments would now be inscribed on the
wall; they would form an unalterable law by which all the animals on Animal
Farm must live for ever after. With some difficulty (for it is not easy for a pig
to balance himself on a ladder) Snowball climbed up and set to work, with
Squealer a few rungs below him holding the paint-pot. The Commandments
were written on the tarred wall in great white letters that could be read thirty
yards away. They ran thus:
THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal.
It was very neatly written, and except that “friend” was written “freind” and
one of the “S’s” was the wrong way round, the spelling was correct all the way
through. Snowball read it aloud for the benefit of the others. All the animals
nodded in complete agreement, and the cleverer ones at once began to learn
the Commandments by heart.
“Now, comrades,” cried Snowball, throwing down the paint-brush, “to the
hayfield! Let us make it a point of honour to get in the harvest more quickly
than Jones and his men could do.”
But at this moment the three cows, who had seemed uneasy for some time
past, set up a loud lowing. They had not been milked for twenty-four hours,
and their udders were almost bursting. After a little thought, the pigs sent for
buckets and milked the cows fairly successfully, their trotters being well
adapted to this task. Soon there were five buckets of frothing creamy milk at
which many of the animals looked with considerable interest.
“What is going to happen to all that milk?” said someone.
“Jones used sometimes to mix some of it in our mash,” said one of the
hens.
“Never mind the milk, comrades!” cried Napoleon, placing himself in front
of the buckets. “That will be attended to. The harvest is more important.
Comrade Snowball will lead the way. I shall follow in a few minutes. Forward,
comrades! The hay is waiting.”
So the animals trooped down to the hayfield to begin the harvest, and
when they came back in the evening it was noticed that the milk had
disappeared.
CHAPTER 3
How they toiled and sweated to get the hay in! But their efforts were rewarded,
for the harvest was an even bigger success than they had hoped.
Sometimes the work was hard; the implements had been designed for
human beings and not for animals, and it was a great drawback that no animal
was able to use any tool that involved standing on his hind legs. But the pigs
were so clever that they could think of a way round every difficulty. As for the
horses, they knew every inch of the field, and in fact understood the business
of mowing and raking far better than Jones and his men had ever done. The
pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the others. With their
superior knowledge it was natural that they should assume the leadership.
Boxer and Clover would harness themselves to the cutter or the horse-rake (no
bits or reins were needed in these days, of course) and tramp steadily round
and round the field with a pig walking behind and calling out “Gee up,
comrade!” or “Whoa back, comrade!” as the case might be. And every animal
down to the humblest worked at turning the hay and gathering it. Even the
ducks and hens toiled to and fro all day in the sun, carrying tiny wisps of hay
in their beaks. In the end they finished the harvest in two days’ less time than
it had usually taken Jones and his men. Moreover, it was the biggest harvest
that the farm had ever seen. There was no wastage whatever; the hens and
ducks with their sharp eyes had gathered up the very last stalk. And not an
animal on the farm had stolen so much as a mouthful.
All through that summer the work of the farm went like clockwork. The
animals were happy as they had never conceived it possible to be. Every
mouthful of food was an acute positive pleasure, now that it was truly their
own food, produced by themselves and for themselves, not doled out to them
by a grudging master. With the worthless parasitical human beings gone, there
was more for everyone to eat. There was more leisure too, inexperienced
though the animals were. They met with many difficulties — for instance, later
in the year, when they harvested the corn, they had to tread it out in the
ancient style and blow away the chaff with their breath, since the farm
possessed no threshing machine — but the pigs with their cleverness and
Boxer with his tremendous muscles always pulled them through. Boxer was
the admiration of everybody. He had been a hard worker even in Jones’s time,
but now he seemed more like three horses than one; there were days when the
entire work of the farm seemed to rest on his mighty shoulders. From morning
to night he was pushing and pulling, always at the spot where the work was
hardest. He had made an arrangement with one of the cockerels to call him in
the mornings half an hour earlier than anyone else, and would put in some
volunteer labour at whatever seemed to be most needed, before the regular
day’s work began. His answer to every problem, every setback, was “I will
work harder!”— which he had adopted as his personal motto.
But everyone worked according to his capacity. The hens and ducks, for
instance, saved five bushels of corn at the harvest by gathering up the stray
grains. Nobody stole, nobody grumbled over his rations, the quarrelling and
biting and jealousy which had been normal features of life in the old days had
almost disappeared. Nobody shirked — or almost nobody. Mollie, it was true,
was not good at getting up in the mornings, and had a way of leaving work
early on the ground that there was a stone in her hoof. And the behaviour of
the cat was somewhat peculiar. It was soon noticed that when there was work
to be done the cat could never be found. She would vanish for hours on end,
and then reappear at meal-times, or in the evening after work was over, as
though nothing had happened. But she always made such excellent excuses,
and purred so affectionately, that it was impossible not to believe in her good
intentions. Old Benjamin, the donkey, seemed quite unchanged since the
Rebellion. He did his work in the same slow obstinate way as he had done it in
Jones’s time, never shirking and never volunteering for extra work either.
About the Rebellion and its results he would express no opinion. When asked
whether he was not happier now that Jones was gone, he would say only
“Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey,” and the
others had to be content with this cryptic answer.
On Sundays there was no work. Breakfast was an hour later than usual,
and after breakfast there was a ceremony which was observed every week
without fail. First came the hoisting of the flag. Snowball had found in the
harness-room an old green tablecloth of Mrs. Jones’s and had painted on it a
hoof and a horn in white. This was run up the flagstaff in the farmhouse
garden every Sunday morning. The flag was green, Snowball explained, to
represent the green fields of England, while the hoof and horn signified the
future Republic of the Animals which would arise when the human race had
been finally overthrown. After the hoisting of the flag all the animals trooped
into the big barn for a general assembly which was known as the Meeting.
Here the work of the coming week was planned out and resolutions were put
forward and debated. It was always the pigs who put forward the resolutions.
The other animals understood how to vote, but could never think of any
resolutions of their own. Snowball and Napoleon were by far the most active in
the debates. But it was noticed that these two were never in agreement:
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