GOAL: bombard yourself with information regarding your topic. You will use the grounds on your position paper outline to do your searching. Ideally, you are trying to find sources that can be used to support your grounds. But do not lose sight of the purpose of the experience getting informed.I have attached a copy of my formal proposal which includes my grounds as well as a copy of a sample annotated bibliographyFOUR PARTS OF AN ENTRYCitation:MLA format (8thedition); BOLDSummary: 5 10 college length sentences; no first person pronounsThis means you must find lengthier, comprehensive sources in order to summarizein 5 10 sentences. (No short readings for this assignment.) But it is also unreasonable to expect that you will read entire books, so do not use books unless you are actually reading them in full. Look for longer articles and chapters within books.Evaluation: 5 10 college length sentences; is this source academically reliable?Credentials of author
.organization/school?Bias? Tone?Date? (is date relevant?)Kinds of sources cited within the text
are they referenced? Etc
Peer reviewed? Journal? Publisher?Statement of use: 1 2 sentences; is this source potentially useful to my paper?Annotated bibliography checklistentries should be in alphabetical order, according to the first letter of the citationno bullets, numbers, or anything funky preceding the citationwrite in complete sentencesavoid repetition of full citation information in the annotationsavoid second person pronounsavoid opinion on your part in the summary section (no position commentary anywhere)use a variety of academic sources (DO NOT USE: wikipedia, google, abstracts, blogs, dictionaries and encyclopedias
etc.) – stick to books, newspaper articles, and academic texts from the University databases accessed through WorldCat (on the library home page)
Unformatted Attachment Preview
GOAL: bombard yourself with information regarding your topic. You will use the grounds
on your position paper outline to do your searching. Ideally, you are trying to find sources
that can be used to support your grounds. But do not lose sight of the purpose of the
experience getting informed.
FOUR PARTS OF AN ENTRY
Citation: MLA format (8th edition); BOLD
Summary: 5 10 college length sentences; no first person pronouns
This means you must find lengthier, comprehensive sources in order to summarize in 5
10 sentences. (No short readings for this assignment.) But it is also unreasonable to
expect that you will read entire books, so do not use books unless you are actually
reading them in full. Look for longer articles and chapters within books.
Evaluation: 5 10 college length sentences; is this source academically reliable?
Credentials of author .organization/school?
Date? (is date relevant?)
Kinds of sources cited within the text are they referenced? Etc
Peer reviewed? Journal? Publisher?
Statement of use: 1 2 sentences; is this source potentially useful to my paper?
Annotated bibliography checklist
entries should be in alphabetical order, according to the first letter of the citation
no bullets, numbers, or anything funky preceding the citation
write in complete sentences
avoid repetition of full citation information in the annotations
avoid second person pronouns
avoid opinion on your part in the summary section (no position commentary anywhere)
use a variety of academic sources (DO NOT USE: wikipedia, google, abstracts, blogs, dictionaries and
encyclopedias etc.) – stick to books, newspaper articles, and academic texts from the University
databases accessed through WorldCat (on the library home page)
avoid the words “says” and “talks about” – instead, use precise verbs such as:
asserts, argues, suggests, outlines, traces, hypothesizes, assesses, examines, explores,
explains, recommends, finds that, addresses, points out, reveals, discloses, believes that,
compares, defines, describes, proves, reasons, expresses, analyzes, advocates,
rationalizes, concludes, proffers…
Aldhous, Peter. “Free Your Mind and Watch It Grow.” New Scientist. vol. 199, no. 2670, 2008, pp.
44-45. Academic Search Complete. http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail ?sid=aa3d86adfa88-43b6-89d4-ad317dc883b6%40sessionmgr101&vid=4&hid=118&bdat
This article is an interview with psychologist Dr. Dweck. She has been studying psychology since 1972,
and she is cited in almost all of my other sources. In the interview, she references her studies on growth
mindsets and tells how she created a game called Brainology based on her findings that teaches kids about
how the brain works in order to encourage a growth mindset. She states as well that a fixed mindset can
lead to reduced resiliency and a greater chance of someone trying to cheat. That being said, she also notes
that people with fixed mindsets are not always unsuccessful; however, they tend to be less successful than
what they could be as well as less happy than what they could be. When asked how she has changed her
own fixed mindset, she says that it was difficult, and it is an ongoing process. She says that when she
went to school, her teacher arranged their seating charts based on an IQ test. This led to her believing that
she was set at a certain IQ level that would never change. She says everyone, even those born with some
form of a growth mindset, have to work to maintain it. When people face adversity, they have to confront
negative thoughts and remind themselves that things are not concrete, and they can be improved through
hard work and effort.
I believe this source is very credible because it is a direct interview with Dr. Dweck who has devoted her
life to studying mindsets and has done many studies on this topic. The interviewer asked good questions
that allowed her to state some of this research. He also asked follow up questions that led to answers that I
had not found in my own research. The interviewer seems very neutral and asks questions to better
understand Dwecks research in a non-demeaning way.
I will definitely use this source in my paper. It gives me exact quotes from a credible researcher on this
topic and brings it down to a more personal level.
Chan, David W. “Life Satisfaction, Happiness, and the Growth Mindset of Healthy and Unhealthy
Perfectionists Among Hong Kong Chinese Gifted Students.” Roeper Review. vol. 34, no. 4, 2012, pp.
224-233. Academic Search Complete. http://web.b.ebscohost.com.www
.libproxy.wvu.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid =ede197a9-1d6e-417b-affb-93ba10b 974a c%40
This study examined the effects of growth mindsets on 251 Chinese students who were mostly ages ten to
sixteen and were deemed gifted because they excelled in one subject or another. They were each given a
twenty-three-question survey to measure their levels of perfectionism, a five-question survey to measure
their satisfaction with life, an eight-question survey to measure their overall happiness, and a twelvequestion survey with six questions relating to having a growth mindset and six questions relating to
having a fixed mindset to determine which category they fell under most. Each survey question consisted
of a five-point scale ranging from one to five where one stood for least like me and five stood for most
like me. Based on these results, they separated them it three groupings for comparison: nonperfectionists, healthy perfectionists, and unhealthy perfectionists. They found that healthy perfectionists
were happier, more satisfied with life, and tended to have a growth mindset. Inversely, unhealthy
perfectionists tended to be less satisfied with life, less happy, and more likely to have a fixed mindset.
They believe that unhealthy perfectionists can be trained to develop more of a growth mindset in order to
improve their overall quality of life.
This study seems credible, but its results cannot be generalized over other populations because the only
participants involved were gifted Chinese students. The idea that types of perfectionism is related to
mindsets and happiness levels is a new and interesting variable that I feel that I can use in my paper as a
supporting fact. This study cites researcher Dweck, who has been referenced in all of my other sources
and seems highly credible, so I feel that their background information came from a trustworthy source.
They also heavily researched the surveys they planned to use to determine which varieties of them yielded
the best results in previous experiments so that their results would be as accurate as possible. Some of
these surveys were originally written in English, so they had language professionals translate and
retranslate them into Chinese to make sure they were simple enough for all ages to understand but also
still got the exact meanings across contained in the English questions. There did not seem to be many
sources of bias in this study, so I believe it is credible.
I will most likely use this source in my paper but not heavily. It adds a new piece of interesting
information to my topic, but there is not enough new information for it to be used as a major source of
Claro, Susana, David Paunesku, and Carol S. Dweck. “Growth Mindset Tempers the Effects of
Poverty on Academic Achievement.” Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The
United States of America. vol. 113, no. 31, 2016, pp. 8664-8668. Academic Search Complete.
This study took every tenth grader in Chile into account. They had students answer questions relating to
their beliefs on intelligence, such as whether they thought that intelligence was an innate ability (fixed
mindset) or if intelligence can be gained through learning new things and trying challenging tasks (growth
mindset). Then, information was collected on students test scores in math and reading on Chiles
standardized tests. Additionally, parents were asked to report their yearly incomes. First, this study found
that there was a positive correlation between high test scores and children with a growth mindset.
Students who believed that their intelligence level was something they were born with did significantly
worse of the standardized tests. Additionally, a positive correlation was found between childrens
mindsets and family income level. Families who had low incomes often had children with fixed mindsets,
and families who had higher incomes often had children that had growth mindsets. Based on previous
studies, poverty levels have been a very strong predictor of childrens academic success, but the
correlation between mindset and academic achievement shows a correlation comparable to that of
This is the first study to ever take into account the effects of mindset on a population from an entire
nation. Because of the large sample size, I believe that this study is very credible. Also, one of the authors
has been cited in many of my other sources, and this is not her first study on this subject. She seems very
knowledgeable on this subject. She also states that while her findings are significant, they do not replace
previous findings on the correlation between socioeconomic factors and academic success.
I will most likely use this source because it adds another layer to my support on how praise can encourage
people to try harder things and do better in their lives.
Gambino, Thomas. “The Effect of Verbal Praise on Maze Completion.” Psi Chi Journal of
Psychological Research. vol. 21, no. 1, 2016, pp. 54-58. Academic Search Complete. http://web.a.e
In this study, random participants were asked to complete a maze in five minutes. One group of
participants were told encouraging things at certain time markers while they completed the maze while
the other group was told they were running out of time and that they needed to hurry which caused
frustration. Every participant in both groups that completed the maze did so in under five minutes;
however, 55% of people in the discouraging group gave up and did not complete the maze at all. Those in
the encouraging group completed the maze much faster than those who completed the maze in the
I do not believe this source is credible. They cited many references in the background section and made
their experiment based on previously done studies, but there were many sources of bias. A possible source
of bias I can see is this experiment was voluntary response oriented; however, there were no incentives
given for participating. The author identified a few other possible sources of bias, such as the participants
being all college students and mostly Caucasian. Because of this, their findings cannot be generalized
over a larger group of people, which puts a dent in their experiments credibility. Also, the number of
participants is never stated.
I will not use this source. It does not give as much information as my other sources, and the participants
did not vary enough to provide accurate results.
19 February 2018
In the article, What if Marriage is Bad, authors Laurie Essig and Lynn Owens explore the topic
of marriage and how the institution has changed, so much so that it is no longer necessary or
good. In the article they state, Those who would appear to gain the most from marriage are the
same ones who prove most resistant to its charms. Study after study has found that it is the poor
in the United States who are least likely to wed. The people who get married are the same ones
who already benefit most from all our social institutions. I agree with this statement and plan to
prove that marriage and family law favor people of a higher income. Even in recent history,
under the presidency of George W. Bush, policies have pushed marriage as a way to escape
poverty, but in reality, it may have contributed to a further economic divide. I chose this because
I come from a state where economic inequality is felt and marriage is a topic I find interesting.
Areas to be Studied
To support my thesis I will have to research the history of marriage. I will need to look into how
it has changed as well. In the past, marriage was a practical institution that benefited people in
economic and social ways, but that now has changed. I will need to research marriage rates and
divorce rates and see if there is a relationship between that and economic standing. I will also
research how marriage benefits those of an upper class and how it can also affect middle and
lower class people as well. I plan to research policies and politicians who have tried to push
marriage as a way out of poverty and show how these programs did not work.
Methods of Research
My research is composed of several types of sources both in print and electronic. I have found a
number of books and journal articles that explore the ideas of marriage in society and many of
them touch on the changes marriage has gone through. I have used books found in the library and
online, journal articles through WVU databases, and a documentary about gay marriage. My
research is mostly composed of cultural, sociology, and marriage and family psychology. I also
have looked at economics research and family law as it is also tied to marriage. I will be using
databases for the majority of my topic research.
Carbone, June and Naomi Cahn. “Inequality and Marriage.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol.
60, no. 35, 16 May 2014, pp. B15-B16. EBSCOhost,
Chapman, Bruce and Cahit Guven. “Revisiting the Relationship between Marriage and
Does Marriage Quality Matter?.” Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, Apr. 2016,
pp. 533-551. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10902-014-9607-3.
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert A. Pollak. “The Evolving Role of Marriage: 1950-2010.” Future of
Children, vol. 25, no. 2, Fall2015, pp. 29-50. EBSCOhost,
Request for Approval
I am requesting permission to move forward with my research on marriage and economic
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