answer 2 discussion question

1. *This post should not be attempted until the readings have been reviewed.For this discussion post option, develop your post based on the format below.Once again use the Situation, Behavior/Action, Outcome/Result to organize your discussion post. Think of a situation where discriminate or evaluative listening was required of you.Describe the situation or circumstance.Explain the message that you believe the sender was trying to communicate or did communicate.Describe your listening behavior/feedback; note verbal and nonverbal aspects that comprised your feedback.Describe the outcome in terms of the success or lack therof of the communication transaction. Did the way that you listened influence the outcome?Cite points of information or conclusions drawn from the reading. One point made from each of your 3 reading/video choices is sufficient.2. Read the articles and identify any 3 elements of nonverbal behaviors that you exhibit as you communicate messages in the workplace or classroom settings. (May be elements of posture, movement, eye contact, facial expression) Based on the information in the articles, do these behaviors enhance or detract from your messages? Explain how.*please make sure to answer all the questions above, each question should not be less then 550 words. *please see the file attached, file 1 is for question 1 and file 2 is for question 2.


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n Scott Anders
In this article…
Learn what nonverbal clues to watch for when talking with bosses, direct reports
and peers.
customary cup of coffee and the usual “good morning.” Instantly I knew something was amiss before turning around
to talk. His voice was tighter and his pitch higher. The visual
cues were mixed but in general reflected internal conflict or
His stance was normal. He was not squared off but he
was leaning toward me. While there was a smile on his face
his upper lip was thin and his brows slightly furrowed. Had I
taken my cue from his words alone, I would have missed the
true meaning of our visit.
IMPORTANCE OF NONVERBAL CUES — I t happens to everyone, we hear the words but understand a different meaning than was intended, or believe we are delivering a clear
message and see confusion. Nonverbal communication, body
language and paralinguistic clues can account for more than
65 percent of human communication.1
During interactions, it has also been estimated that we
draw from sight (83 percent), hearing (11 percent), smell (3
percent), touch (2 percent) and taste (1 percent) to understand
the message being sent.1
Professor Albert Mehrabian, professor emeritus of psychology at the University of California Los Angeles, pioneered
the 7 percent, 38 percent, 55 percent rule for communication.2 Seven percent is due to the words alone, 38 percent
depends upon paralinguistic delivery and 55 percent from
facial expressions.
Every interaction is interpreted through an internal filter
composed of history, past experiences, education, bias, context, culture, expectations and our goals. Perception, which is
primarily contextual,3 can affect the message received. Our
interpretation and opinions are formed during reception of
the message, influenced by delivery and our internal filters.
The same interaction, appearance or communication can
be and is often interpreted differently in varying circumstances. How many of us have sent an email that is received in a
manner not consistent with our intent?
Personal space is widely acknowledged to vary based on
culture.4 For example, Americans in general need more personal space than someone from Japan or India. Unless there is
a romantic or familiar relationship, standing close to someone
in America can be considered an act of aggression, while in another country moving away can be considered inconsiderate.
There are gender nuances in body language as well. When
males stand or sit face-to-face, it can be threatening. This
may explain the observed phenomenon of males positioning
themselves side-by-side or at an angle while interacting with
another male. From an early age, females have an inclination
for face-to-face positioning during intimate or emotionally
intense conversations.
ESTABLISHING A BASELINE — Unfortunately, there are no
definitive or pathognomonic signs. Evaluation of nonverbal
cues must be taken in context and compared to that person’s
baseline mannerism, voice cues and appearance.
Joe Navarro, former FBI counterintelligence special agent
and expert on nonverbal cues, emphasizes the importance of
establishing a baseline while interviewing potential suspects.5
It is imperative to understand how that person reacts while
comfortable to be able interpret their nonverbal cues when
Navarro also underlines the importance of our innate limbic
response to stress, especially external stressors; freeze, flight
or fight (or as he calls them, rigidity, distancing or acrimony).
When faced with an uncertain outcome we often resort to
one of our three basic responses.
How often have you seen someone go absolutely still during a performance review (freeze), lean away from the interviewer (flight), or clench a jaw, narrow their eyes and grip the
chair tightly (fight)?
FIRST IMPRESSIONS — Some research suggests we form
accurate first impressions within 100 milliseconds6 based on
nonverbal cues. Negative first impressions can deliver unfavorable biases that may take upward of six months of close
contact to reverse.
During first impressions, we quickly and unconsciously assimilate all available information in an effort to place this person
within our internal catalog, ranking them against our established baselines. What goes into this ranking? Appearance,
posture, movements, micro-expressions, eye contact, paralinguistic delivery and contact (shaking hands) to name a few.
When you enter a room, do you pause to survey those present upon entering or do you enter with your eyes down, head
to the nearest open seat and sit down? Which one conveys
confidence? Changing our appearance, our mannerisms and
interactions can greatly affect how other people perceive us.
EXAMPLES — A s mentioned before, all nonverbal cues need
to be evaluated in the context of delivery. However, in general
some cues are often intuitive:
n Crossed arms — closed off
n Thighs crossed away from other participant —
lack of interest/confrontation
n Thighs crossed toward other participant —
n Leaning back — not interested, anxious
n Leaning forward — conveying interest
n Hands steepled — confidence
How often have you seen
someone go absolutely still
during a performance review
(freeze), lean away from the
interviewer (flight), or clench
a jaw, narrow their eyes and
grip the chair tightly (fight)?
throughout their visit? Do they walk side by side with patients
or lead them? What material is offered or provided for reading, education or distraction? How long is the typical wait
for service? Are there ostensible signs of empathy for your
patients concerns, safety and wellbeing?
Understanding nonverbal cues is essential for leaders to
navigate every interaction with direct reports, peers, supervisors, board members and public appearances. Leaders need
to be able to convey clear messages, direct reports need to
understand the nuances of the messages being delivered, and
peers need to feel a sense of equity.
In the end, the only message that matters is the one received. Are you really sending your intended message? n
n Hand under chin — thinking/making a decision
n Hand on back of neck — not in agreement, has
Scott Anders, MD, MBA, CPE, FAAFP, is chief
medical officer at Tenet Physician Resources
in Dallas, Texas.
n Feet pointed toward the door — flight, desire to
n Closed mouth/tightened lips — distress, anger
ENVIRONMENT — Up to this point, we have been discussing nonverbal cues as they relate to people, but consider the
influence of environmental nonverbal cues. What message
is your office, practice or hospital sending?
Consider areas of first contact — websites, geographic location, parking lot and facility appearance. How easy is access
and navigation? What is the appearance of your entryway,
waiting rooms or guest sitting areas? How does your staff
meet and greet new arrivals?
How are your patients escorted to their destination and
Pease A. The Definitive Book of Body Language: How to read other’s
thoughts by their gestures. Buderim, Australia: Pease International, 2004.
Mehrabian A. Nonverbal Communication. Aldine Transaction, 2007.
Ariely D. Predictably Irrational. New York: HarperCollins Publisher, 2008.
Hall E. (1966). The Hidden Dimension. New York: Anchor Books, 1966.
Navarro J. What Every BODY Is Saying. New York: HarperCollins Publishers,
Wood P. Snap, Making the Most of First Impressions, Body Language &
Chrisma. Novato, CA: New World Library, 2012.
Copyright of Physician Executive is the property of American College of Physician
Executives and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a
listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print,
download, or email articles for individual use.
Copyright of Physician Leadership Journal is the property of American College of Physician
Executives and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a
listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print,
download, or email articles for individual use.

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