answer all the questions

The first midterm exam is due **** at 11:59 p.m.Once the exam is accessed you will have three hours to complete it.Please review the instructions on the course moodle site for taking the exam before you access the exam.Review Session:(***) (Hafey Marian 303)Section I: Lecture QuestionsFrom the list below, taken from course lectures (and listed on your syllabus), I will choose three essays from the list below for your exam.You will select two of the three essay questions to answer.In your answer, you should make sure to define key terms and events that add the necessary detail to your answer and offer an in depth explanation of the who, what, where, when and why of the events in question.Make sure in each case you carefully unpack the meaning of the term modern.Each essay is worth 15% of the total grade for the exam.1) What is meant by stagnation?How do the 1970s represent both a crisis and a golden age of the good life as outlined in the post-war years?What is a 1970s “good life?”2) How were the wars in Vietnam and Afghanistan examples of forgetting the virtues of the Cold War logic of proxy wars?How do they demonstrate the retention of the vices of those same proxy wars?How do they demonstrate the limits of the superpowers’ ability to structure the world in their image? 3) How is the Iranian Revolution a commentary on modernity? Westernization? Colonialism?4) How is 1979 a “hinge year” of the 20th century? How should we make sense of the larger social movements at play?How are they a reaction to stagnation? 1968? Modernity?5) What accounts for the collapse of socialist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union?Do the revolutions of 1989 and 1991 represent the triumph of liberal democratic capitalism?6) What is left of the idea of the good society in 2017?Of the ideological movements of the 20th century that pursued the idea?Where do we go from here?Section II: Reading QuestionsFrom the list below, taken from course readings (and listed on your syllabus), I will choose three essays from the list below for your exam.You will select two of the three essay questions to answer.In your answer, you should make sure to define key terms and events that add the necessary detail to your answer and offer an in depth explanation of the who, what, where, when and why of the events in question.Make sure in each case you carefully unpack the meaning of the term modern.Each essay is worth 15% of the total grade for the exam.Reading Questions:1) How does Hobsbawm understand the “Real Existing Socialism” in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union?What accounts for its successes?Why did it collapse?2) What were the historical conditions leading to the “crisis decades” (and, ultimately, to “the landslide”)?What were the immediate consequences (see particularly section V in chapter 14)3) How does the music of Bob Marley help us understand the perils and possibilities of living in the colonial and post-colonial era?How does this correspond to Hobsbawm’s understanding of the period?4) What does Solzhenitsyn mean by a “world divided?”Where is the division? What are the implications?5) What does Baldwin mean by the “fire next time?”What are the limitations of the American Liberal Democratic Capitalist vision of the good life?How is it created?What does Baldwin see as its consequences?6) How does Satrapi understand the good society?Modernity?The Iranian Revolution?The European model?7) How does Hobsbawm explain the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union?Its continuation in China?8) What does Fukuyama mean by the end of history?Are we there? What remains of the modernist project to remake the world?The four major modernist ideologies?Where do we go from here?9) How does Hobsbawm “approach the millennium?” How does he make sense of the collapse of communism?The transformation of ideology and the good society at the “end of history?”What are we to do?Section III: Visual Primary Source In the third section, you will be asked to interpret a visual historical source.How does this source reflect the time and place in which it was produced?What larger themes does it illustrate?How does it connect to themes that we have discussed in class?This section will count for 10% of your exam grade. Section IV: HobsbawmThis section will ask you to analyze a short section from the Hobsbawm texts that we are using to contextualize the era of modernity.What claims is Hobsbawm making?What evidence is he using? What are the stakes?This section will count for 10% of your exam grade.Section V: Cumulative QuestionPlease answer the following question which will count for 20% of your exam grade.The narrative of the Twentieth Century presented in this course has been the story of people hoping to discover and establish the good society (defined and frame by ideology).First outline briefly the major ideological contenders of the century, highlighting their world view and attributes, then chose two of the following nations (one from each column) and highlight their own attempts, successes and failures to create the good society:Column A:Column B:Soviet UnionIsraelGermanyIndiaUnited States IranBelgiumCongo / Zaire
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Bob Marley Lyrics
Babylon System
Bob Marley (1979)
Survival
We refuse to be
What you wanted us to be
We are what we are
That’s the way it’s going to be, if you don’t know
You can’t educate I
For no equal opportunity
Talking about my freedom
People freedom and liberty
Yeah, we’ve been trodding on
The winepress much too long
Rebel, Rebel
We’ve been trodding on the
Winepress much too long, Rebel
Babylon System is the Vampire
Sucking the children day by day
Me say the Babylon System is the Vampire
Sucking the blood of the sufferers
Building church and university
Deceiving the people continually
Me say them graduating thieves and murderers
Look out now
Sucking the blood of the sufferers
Tell the children the truth
Tell the children the truth
Tell the children the truth right now
Come on and tell the children the truth
(repeat)
‘Cause we’ve been trodding on
The winepress much too long
Got to Rebel, Got to Rebel Now
We’ve been taken for granted
Much too long, Rebel
(repeat)
From the very day we left the shores
Of our father’s land
We’ve been trampled on, oh now
Now we know everything we got to rebel
Somebody got to pay for the work
We’ve done, Rebel
Redemption Song
Bob Marley (1980)
Uprising
Old pirates yes they rob I
Sold I to the merchant ships
Minutes after they took I from the
Bottom less pit
But my hand was made strong
By the hand of the almighty
We forward in this generation triumphantly
All I ever had is songs of freedom
Won’t you help to sing these songs of freedom
Cause all I ever had redemption songs, redemption songs
Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery
None but ourselves can free our minds
Have no fear for atomic energy
Cause none of them can stop the time
How long shall they kill our prophets
While we stand aside and look
Some say it’s just a part of it
We’ve got to fulfill the book
Won’t you help to sing, these songs of freedom
Cause all I ever had, redemption songs, redemption songs, redemption songs
Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery
None but ourselves can free our minds
Have no fear for atomic energy
Cause none of them can stop the time
How long shall they kill our prophets
While we stand aside and look
Yes some say it’s just part of it
We’ve got to fulfill the book
Won’t you help to sing, these songs of freedom
Cause all I ever had, redemption songs
All I ever had, redemption songs
These songs of freedom, songs of freedom
Easy Skanking
Bob Marley (1978)
Kaya
Easy skanking, skanking it easy
Easy skanking, skanking it slow (repeat)
Excuse me while I light my spliff
Oh GOD I gotta take a lift
From reality I just can’t drift
That’s why I am staying with this riff
Take it easy, easy skanking (repeat)
Got to take it easy, easy skanking
You see we’re taking it easy
We’re taking it slow, taking it easy
Got to take it slow, so take it easy
Easy skanking, easy skanking
Oh take it easy, easy skanking
Excuse me while I light my spliff
Oh GOD I gotta take a lift
From reality I just can’t drift
That’s why I am staying with this riff
Take it easy, taking it easy
Got to take it easy, taking it slow
Take it easy, taking it easy
Skanky taie it easy, taking it slow
Tell you what herb for my wine
Honey for my strong drink
Herb for my wine, honey for my strong drink
I’ll take it easy, taking it easy
Take it easy, skanking it slow
Take it easy, taking it easy
Take it easy, skanking it slow
Exodus
Bob Marley (1976)
Exodus
Exodus, movement of Jah people, oh yeah
Open your eyes and let me tell you this
Men and people will fight ya down (Tell me why?)
when ya see Jah light
Let me tell you, if you’re not wrong (Then why?)
ev’rything is alright
So we gonna walk, alright, through the roads of creation
We’re the generation (Tell me why)
trod through great tribulation
Exodus, movement of Jah people
Exodus, movement of Jah people
Open your eyes and look within
Are you satisfied with the life you’re living?
We know where we’re going; we know where we’re from
We’re leaving Babylon, we’re going to our fatherland
Exodus, movement of Jah people
(Movement of Jah people)
Send us another Brother Moses gonna cross the Red Sea
(Movement of Jah people)
Send us another Brother Moses gonna cross the Red Sea
Exodus, movement of Jah people
Exodus, Exodus, Exodus, Exodus,
Exodus, Exodus, Exodus, Exodus
Move! Move! Move! Move! Move! Move!
Open your eyes and look within
Are you satisfied with the life you’re living?
We know where we’re going; we know where we’re from
We’re leaving Babylon, we’re going to the fatherland
Exodus, movement of Jah people
Exodus, movement of Jah people
Movement of Jah people (4 times)
Move! Move! Move! Move! Move! Move!
Jah come to break down ‘pression, rule equality
Wipe away transgression, set the captives free
Exodus, movement of Jah people
Exodus, movement of Jah people
Movement of Jah people (5 times)
Move! Move! Move! Move! Move! Move!
Movement of Jah people (5 times)
Running Away
Bob Marley (1978)
Kaya
You running and you running
And you running away (repeat)
You running and you running
But you can’t run away from yourself
Can’t runaway from yourself,
Can’t runaway from yourself,
Can’t runaway from yourself (repeat)
You must have done,
Something wrong (repeat)
Why you can’t find the
Place where you belong
Running away, running away,
Running away (repeat)
Every man thinketh his
Burden is the heaviest (repeat)
But who feels it knows it Lord
Who feels it knows it Lord,
Who feels it knows it Lord
You running and you running
And you running away (repeat)
You running and you running
But you can’t runaway from yourself,
Could you runaway from yourself,
Can you runaway from yourself
Can’t runaway from yourself,
Can’t runaway from yourself
You must have done, something,
Something, something something,
Something, you don’t want nobody to
Know about, you must have … Lord.
Something wrong you must have done,
You must have done, something wrong
Why you can’t find where you belong
Well, well, well, you running away,
Running away, no, no, no,
I’m not running away, don’t say that
Don’t say that, cause I’m not running away
I’ve got to protect my life,
And I don’t want to live with no strife
It is better to live on the house top
Than to live in a house full of confusion
So, I made my decision and I left you
Now you coming to tell me
That I’m running away
But it’s not true,
I am not running away
Concrete Jungle
Bob Marley (1972)
Catch a Fire
No sun will shine in my day today
(No sun will shine.)
The high yellow moon won’t come out to play
(Won’t come out to play.)
Darkness has covered my light (and has changed,)
And has changed my day into night
Now where is this love to be found, won’t someone tell me?
‘Cause life, sweet life, must be somewhere to be found, yeah
Instead of a concrete jungle where the livin’ is hardest
Concrete jungle, oh man, you’ve got to do your best, yeah.
No chains around my feet, but I’m not free
I know I am bound here in captivity
And I’ve never known happiness, and I’ve never known sweet caresses
Still, I be always laughing like a clown
Won’t someone help me?
Cause, sweet life, I’ve, I’ve got to pick myself from off the ground, yeah
In this here concrete jungle,
I say, what do you got for me now?
Concrete jungle, oh, why won’t you let me be now?
I said life must be somewhere to be found, yeah
Instead of a concrete jungle, illusion, confusion
Concrete jungle, yeah
Concrete jungle, you name it, we got it, concrete jungle now
Concrete jungle, what do you got for me now?
War
Alan Cole and Carlton Barret
Rastaman Vibration (1976)
Until the philosophy which holds one race
Superior and another inferior
Is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned
Everywhere is war, me say war
That until there is no longer first class
And second class citizens of any nation
Until the colour of a man’s skin
Is of no more significance than the colour of his eyes
Me say war
That until the basic human rights are equally
Guaranteed to all, without regard to race
Dis a war
That until that day
The dream of lasting peace, world citizenship
Rule of international morality
Will remain in but a fleeting illusion
To be pursued, but never attained
Now everywhere is war, war
And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes
That hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique,
South Africa sub-human bondage
Have been toppled, utterly destroyed
Well, everywhere is war, me say war
War in the east, war in the west
War up north, war down south
War, war, rumours of war
And until that day, the African continent
Will not know peace, we Africans will fight
We find it necessary and we know we shall win
As we are confident in the victory
Of good over evil, good over evil, good over evil
Good over evil, good over evil, good over evil
Burnin’ and Lootin’
Bob Marley (1973)
Burnin’
This morning I woke up in a curfew
Oh god, I was a prisoner too – yeah
Could not recognise the faces standing over me
They were all dressed in uniforms of brutality
How many rivers do we have to cross
Before we can talk to the boss
All that we got seems lost
We must have really paid the cost
(That’s why we gonna be)
Burnin’ and a-lootin’ tonight
(Say we gonna burn and loot)
Burnin’ and a-lootin’ tonight
(One more thing)
Burnin all pollution tonight
(Oh yeah, yeah)
Burning all illusions tonight
Oh stop them
Give me the food and let me grow
Let the roots man take a blow
All them drugs gonna make you slow now
It’s not the music of the ghetto
Weeping and a-wailing tonight
(Ooh can’t stop the tears)
Weepin’ and a-wailin’ tonight
(We’ve been suffering all these long, long years)
Weeping and a-wailing tonight
Give me the food and let me grow
Let the roots man take a blow
All them drugs gonna make you slow now
It’s not the music of the ghetto
We gonna be burnin’ and a-lootin’ tonight
(To survive, yeah)
Burnin’ and a-lootin’ tonight
(Save your babies lives)
Burning all pollution tonight
Burning all illusions tonight
Burnin and lootin tonight
Burnin and lootin tonight
Ride Natty Ride
Bob Marley (1979)
Survival
Dready got a job to do
And he’s got to fulfill that mission
To see his hurt is their
Greatest ambition
But we will survive
In this world of competition
‘Cause no matter what they do
Natty keep on coming thru
And no matter what they say
Natty de deh every day
Natty dread rides again
Thru the mystics of tomorrow
Natty dread rides again
Having no fear, having no sorrow
All and all you can see a gwan
Is to fight against the Rastaman
So they build their world
In great confusion
To force us in the devil’s illusion
But the stone that the builder refuse
Shall be the head cornerstone
And no matter what games they play
There is something they could
Never take away
Something they could never take away
And it’s the fire, it’s the fire, fire
Burning down everything
Feel the fire, fire, the fire, the fire
Only the birds have wings
No time to be deceived
You should know and not believe
Jah says this judgment
Could never be with water
So no water could put out this fire
This this fire, this this fire
This this fire Ride Natty Ride
Go deh Dready, go deh Dready, go deh
Now the fire is burning
Out of control panic in the city
Wicked weeping for their gold
Everywhere the fire is burning
Destroying and melting their gold
Destroying and wasting their souls
Ride Natty Ride
Go deh Dready, go deh Dready
Go deh Dready, go deh
Now the people gather on the beach
And the leader try to make a speech
But dread again tell them it’s too late
Fire is burning
Man pull your own weight
Fire is burning
Man pull your own weight
Natty dread rides again
Go deh Dready, go deh Dready go deh
Oh Ride Natty Ride
Natty dread rides again
Go deh Dready, go deh, go deh Dready go deh
Riding thru the storm
And we’re riding thru the calm
Go deh, go deh
We riding thru the thick
We riding thru the thin
Ride Natty, Ride Natty
Vietnam / Afghanistan
Vietnam, Afghanistan and the Cold War
1)
Vietnam and Afghanistan: Forgetting the Logic
(Virtues) of Proxy Wars
Emperor Bokasa (Central African Republic)
Mengistu (Ethiopia)
Vietnam, Afghanistan and the Cold War
1)
Vietnam and Afghanistan: Forgetting the Logic
(Virtues) of Proxy Wars
2)
Vietnam and Afghanistan: Retaining the Vices of Proxy
Wars
3)
Vietnam and Afghanistan as Proxy Wars (with
unintended consequences)
Osama Bin Laden (Fighting Commies)
Osama Bin Laden (Fighting Modernity)
Vietnam, Afghanistan and the Cold War
1)
Vietnam and Afghanistan: Forgetting the Logic
(Virtues) of Proxy Wars
2)
Vietnam and Afghanistan: Retaining the Vices of Proxy
Wars
3)
Vietnam and Afghanistan as Proxy Wars (with
unintended consequences)
4)
Superpowers and their limits
Ho Chi Minh
Geneva Accords, 1954
Ngo Dinh Diem
Plan for a Strategic Hamlet
Protesting Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem, 1963
Bombing in Vietnam
Napalm
Guarding the US Embassy During the Tet
Offensive
The Tet Offensive
My Lai
My Lai
My Lai
Kent State, 1970
Kent State, 1970
Fall of Saigon
Soviet Image of an Afghan Crowd, 1980
Kabul, 1981
Outside of Kandahar
Women’s Rally, 1981
Mujaheddin in 1984
Soviet Involvement in Afghanistan
1) Logic of History and the “Communist Mission”
2) Fears Provoked by the Iranian Revolution
(and of the Soviet internal Muslim minority)
3) Cold War “Hammers and Nails”
Soviet Union
Soviet Involvement in Afghanistan
1) Logic of History and the “Communist Mission”
2) Fears Provoked by the Iranian Revolution
(and of the Soviet internal Muslim minority)
3) Cold War “Hammers and Nails”
Mujaheddin and Stinger Missiles
Islam and the Question of Modernity
Mural Outside the former U.S. Embassy in Tehran
Modernity and Questions in the Islamic World
• Is modernity a good thing?
• Is modernity western (if so, does adopting it
betray something essential in local culture)?
• Is it possible to use tradition to resist modernity?
Answers from the Islamic World
• Turkey and the Modern, Secular, Nation-State
• Iran and the Islamic Revolution to combat
“westoxification”
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Turkey and the Modern Nation-State
1) The “Problem” of National Minorities
a) Arabs
b) Armenians
c) Greeks
d) Kurds
Turkish Chete Officers in an Armenian Village
Armenian Village in the Ottoman Empire
Concentration Camp for Armenians in Northern Syria, 1916
Armenian Village in the Ottoman Empire
Megali Idea (the Grand Idea)
Ethnic Greeks Evacuating Izmir (Smyrna)
Izmir (Smyrna) on Fire
The Turkish City of Izmir
Population Transfers
“Greek” Refugees from Smyrna
“Turkish” Refugees from Thrace
Atatürk (Mustafa Kemal)
Atatürk, Kemalism, and the Creation of
Modern Turkey
• Abolished the Sultan and Caliphate
• Replaced Madrasas with Compulsory State Education
• Replaced Religious Courts with State Courts
• Outlawed Headscarves and the Fez
• Sunday as the Day of Rest
• Latin Alphabet (Purging Foreign Words)
• Giving Surnames to the Population—Mustafa Kemal
becomes Atatürk (Father of the Turks)
Atatürk teaching the New Turkish
Reza Shah (Pahlavi)
Mohammed Reza Shah (Pahlavi)
Mohammed Mosaddegh
Mosaddegh, Time Magazine, Man of the Year, 1951
White Revolution 1961
• State Supported Industrialization
• Nationalization of Forests and Pastureland
• Land Reform
The Shah Passing out Land Deeds during
the White Revolution
White Revolution 1961
•
•
•
•
•
•
State Supported Industrialization
Nationalization of Forests and Pastureland
Land Reform
Literacy Corps (and State Education)
Religious Corps
Women’s Rights
Empress Soya
Empress Farah
Model for the Tent City at Persepolis
Celebration at Persepolis
Tents at the Tent City
Celebration at Persepolis
Military Parade celebrating 2,500 years of
the Iranian Military
Ayatollah Khomeini
Smuggled Tapes and Revolution
Iranian Revolution
Storming of the American Embassy in Iran

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