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russell_m._linden_leading_across_boundaries__creating_collaborative_agencies_in_a_networked_world__2nd_edition__2010_.pdf

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WHAT IS COLLABORATION?
V336: Management Concepts and Applications II
January 17, 2018 (Overview) & March 19, 2018 (Full Lecture)
Instructor: Venkata Krishna Nadella
Readings: Linden Chapters 1&2
OVERVIEW
? Collaborative Behavior
? Complex Challenges and Complexity
? Two Overriding Collaboration Challenges
? Basic Psychological Needs
? AGEP – Example of Successful Collaboration (Chapter 2)
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 2 of 11
COLLABORATIVE BEHAVIOR
Organizational landscape is increasingly portrayed as shifting
? towards creating partnerships
&
? towards rewarding collaborative behaviors
? What constitutes collaborative behavior?
?Court vision?
?Common goals?
?Knowledge sharing?
?Use of technology?
How is this different from organizing?
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 3 of 11
COMPLEX CHALLENGES & COMPLEXITY
Complex challenges and complexity necessitate coordination
across organizational boundaries
“ The most significant challenges facing our society cannot be addressed by any one
organization. They all require collaboration among many organizations.”
? Complexity or uncertainty leads to fragmented organizational
responses, as in the case of FEMA during hurricane Katrina
? Thus collaboration, and collaborative behaviors therein, are defined as
“the process of facilitating and operating in multi-organizational arrangements to solve
problems that cannot be solved, or solved easily, by a single organization.”
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 4 of 11
FEMA: DEALING WITH KATRINA
FEMA under Michael Brown provided
a very fragmented response towards its
org. goal (in delivering relief efforts)
FEMA under Thad Allen provided a
satisfactory response towards handing
disaster response
Organizational Performance is linked
to management approach
Bureaucratic-Hierarchical vs Collaborative
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 5 of 11
TWO OVERRIDING COLLABORATION CHALLENGES
Two key overriding challenges to collaboration are
1) Organizational Structures (or fragmented organizational responses)
Addressed in Part 3 of the Linden text (refer to pgs. 195-196)
2) Individualistic Nature
Addressed in Part 2 of the Linden text (refer to pgs. 93-94)
3) Foundations and Framework for Collaboration
Addressed in Part 1 of the Linden text (refer to pgs. 1-2)
The distinction and classification between the two overriding challenges
is key to understanding how the Linden book is framed
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 6 of 11
CAUSES OF FRAGMENTED ORG. RESPONSES
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 7 of 11
INDIVIDUALISTIC NATURE
The United States is an Individualistic Society, “where people are
expected to look out for themselves and their immediate families.”
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 8 of 11
DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURES
Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Cultures include
1) Power Distance
2) Uncertainty Avoidance
3) Individualism
4) Masculinity
5) Long-Term Orientation – New dimension
6) Indulgence versus Restraint – New dimension
Also look into Appendix B (only lists five dimensions)
Reference and Further Reading: http://geerthofstede.nl/dimensions-of-national-cultures & http://geerthofstede.nl/culture
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 9 of 11
BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS
Self Determination Theory identifies three basic psychological
needs
1) Competence: control of outcome and experience mastery
2) Relatedness: want to belong, be connected to, and experience
caring for others. Also known as ‘Psychological Belongingness’.
3) Autonomy: a universal urge to be in control of one’s own life and
work tasks
Reference and Further Reading: Ryan, Richard M., and Edward L. Deci. “Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic
motivation, social development, and well-being.” American psychologist 55, no. 1 (2000): 68.
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 10 of 11
AGEP – SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATION EXAMPLE
Roosevelt Johnson’s case highlights many distinctive features for
successful collaboration. These include, but are not limited to:
? Strategic Intent
? Holistic approach aiming for Institutional Change
? Focus on internal support structure and Timing
? Creating a culture of collaboration
Reference for Strategic Intent: https://hbr.org/2005/07/strategic-intent
Jan 17&Mar 19, 2018
Slide 11 of 11
FRAMEWORK FOR COLLABORATION
V336: Management Concepts and Applications II
March 21, 2018
Instructor: Venkata Krishna Nadella
Readings: Linden Chapter 3
OVERVIEW
? Seven Key Collaborative Factors
? Shared interest and purpose
? Desire to pursue collaborative solution
? Appropriate people at the table.
? Open and credible process
? Passionate champion
? Trust (next lecture)
? Collaborative leadership (next lecture)
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 2 of 13
March 21, 2018
SEVEN KEY COLLABORATIVE FACTORS – I
7
3
2
5
4
1
6
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 3 of 13
March 21, 2018
SEVEN KEY COLLABORATIVE FACTORS – II
The seven key collaborative factors are (Exhibit 3.1, pg. 38):
1. Shared interest or purpose that they are committed to and can’t
achieve on their own.
2. Desire to pursue a collaborative solution now and willing to
contribute to the effort.
3. Appropriate people at the table.
4. Open and credible process
5. Passionate champion/s with credibility and clout
6. Trusting relationships
7. Use the skills of collaborative leadership
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 4 of 13
March 21, 2018
1. SHARED INTEREST AND PURPOSE
The partners have a shared, specific interest or purpose
? that they are committed to
? and cannot achieve (as well) on their own
Important instrumental questions of this factor:
? Is there a common goal/purpose/shared interest?
? Are the project goals of the organizations/units similar?
?How committed are the parties involved towards their mission?
?Can these goals be achieved on their own?
?What is the level of interdependency between collaborating orgs/units?
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 5 of 13
March 21, 2018
2. DESIRE TO PURSUE COLLABORATIVE SOLUTION
The partners want to pursue a collaborative solution
? and are willing to contribute to the effort
? and invest time and resources right now
TIMING
PRIORITIES
COMMITMENT
Important instrumental questions of this factor:
? How to make the collaborative project a high priority for everyone?
? How to increase stakeholder commitment?
? What are the biggest resource-based challenges towards a
collaborative solution?
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 6 of 13
March 21, 2018
STRATEGIES FOR ESTABLISHING HIGH COMMITTMENT
Strategies for increasing commitment for a collaborative solution:
? Involve stakeholders/clients/constituents to initial planning meetings
to make the shared purpose real
? Make sure everyone understands the cost of not participating-this
could be to the clients, community, or even the parties involved.
? Discuss how to make the project a high priority for their organization
? Find someone in a leadership position that is respected by groups
involved and recruit that person to serve as a champion of the project
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 7 of 13
March 21, 2018
STRATEGIES FOR ESTABLISHING HIGH COMMITTMENT
Strategies for increasing commitment continued:
? Identify team/group members that are enthusiastic and give them
central roles in the collaboration. This will rub off on others
? Have the leader of the collaboration speak about the passion for the
project
? Connect the project to the big picture of the community need etc.
? Look into Exhibit 3.2; pg. 41
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 8 of 13
March 21, 2018
3. APPROPRIATE PEOPLE ARE AT THE TABLE
It is not only important to find the ‘right’ orgs. for collaboration but
also the ‘appropriate’ people from those orgs. who
? will be affected by the collaborative project
? who have something to contribute to the project
Important instrumental questions of this factor:
? Does the individual have a strong interest in the issue?
? What issue-specific expertise and knowledge does the ind. bring?
? How much time & resources can the ind. commit to the project?
? Look into Exhibit 3.2; pg. 43
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 9 of 13
March 21, 2018
4. OPEN AND CREDIBLE PROCESS
The partners have an open and credible process
? Good process is key to a good collaboration
Some important aspects of a good collaboration
? Joint Ownership – helps people feel invested and committed
? Agreed upon norms and ground rules – ensures candor and equity
? Transparency – improves trust
? Knowledge of each other – increases group affiliation
? Detailed discussion in Chapter Six
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 10 of 13
March 21, 2018
5. PASSIONATE CHAMPION
Every collaborative initiative has a passionate champion
? with high reputation, credibility and clout
? is willing to commit to the project and make it a high priority
Champions can exist at either of two-levels
1. Project-level champion who is a member of the core group
2. Senior-leader who has responsibility of the group
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 11 of 13
March 21, 2018
PROJECT LEVEL CHAMPION
Effective project-level champions are typically self-nominated and
their key tasks are to
? Articulate shared goals, the benefits of success and the costs of failing
? Keep leadership informed of progress and needs
? Anticipate problems and help deal with the problems
? Give feedback to the group
? Help the group use collaborative problem-solving and decisionmaking
? Look into Exhibit 3.4; pg. 50
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 12 of 13
March 21, 2018
SENIOR LEADER CHAMPION
Effective senior leaders typically have some vested interest and
responsibility for the group’s mission and their key tasks are to:
? Demonstrate support for the initiative (both in actions & words)
? Provide resources for the collaborative effort
? Help deal with potential issues hindering progress of the initiative
? Make strategic changes that affect group structure and dynamics
? Recognize accomplishments and greater impact of the initiative
? Look into Exhibit 3.5; pg. 52
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 13 of 13
March 21, 2018
STRUCTURAL CHANGE & ACCOUNTABILITY
V336: Management Concepts and Applications II
April 09, 2018
Instructor: Venkata Krishna Nadella
Readings: Linden Chapters 11 & 12
OUTLINE FOR PART-3 OF LINDEN TEXT
There are two macro-barriers/overriding challenges to collaboration
1) Organizational Structures (or fragmented organizational responses)
? Ch 11: Co-locating operations – sharing information and knowledge
? Ch 12: Using Compstat – generating collaboration & accountability
? Ch 13: Web 2.0/New Web – Collaborative tool in value creation
? Ch 14: Leadership to create tomorrow’s cultures
2) Individualistic Nature (Addressed in Part 2 of the Linden text)
Addressed in Part 2 of the Linden text
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 2 of 13
April 09, 2018
OUTLINE FOR TODAY’S LECTURE
? Co-locating operations (Linden, Ch. 11)
? Colocation – a structural approach to increase collaboration
? Case 1: Arts organizations in Buffalo, NY
? Case 2: Child advocacy center
? Case 3: Fusion Centers
? How to make colocation work – Planning & Operational phases
? Evaluating risks of co-location
? Using Compstat (Linden, Ch. 12)
? Washington state’s GMAP method
? How do stat programs work
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 3 of 13
April 09, 2018
CO-LOCATING OPERATIONS
Co-locating business operations has become widely prevalent in the past
few decades. Co-location often refers to a set of practices which include
sharing resources such as office space, IT infrastructure, employees etc.
One puzzling finding in recent research is the strong synergy effect
among organizations (and org. units) that work in close proximity to
each other, despite recent progress in communications technology.
Linden refers to this effect of proximity as the medici effect
“The creativity unleashed when people from different discipline and cultures come
together.”
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 4 of 13
April 09, 2018
ARTS ORGANIZATIONS IN BUFFALO, NY
Three non-profits shared space and administrative functions that
work in different functional areas within the non-profit sector.
The three organizations shared a grant-writer, and information and
knowledge about funding organizations. There was a quantifiable
improvement in each organization’s performance, budget, & efficiency.
Further, these organizations took their time and did not rush into
colocation when previously required by funder organizations.
Main takeaway: The main goal of co-location is not collaboration per se,
but to strengthen each organization through collaboration.
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 5 of 13
April 09, 2018
CHILD ADVOCACY CENTER
Baltimore County Child Advocacy Center (CAC) is a public sector
Joint Venture (JV) between numerous local govt. agencies.
?Their operations are executed in two member teams – one police
detective and one social worker – who bring complementary skills.
?A well-structured governance and supervision plan oversees CAC
operations.
?CAC has delivered results in a quick time.
Main takeaway: The CAC joint venture was successful as all staff
roles were defined on an ongoing basis, joint training helped in
generating shared common knowledge, and procedures were in place
to deal with conflict and generate workflow protocol. April 09, 2018
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 6 of 13
FUSION CENTERS
Employees from different domestic and foreign intelligence agencies
work together in a shared space. Their goal is to detect, prevent, and
respond to criminal and terrorist activities. The fusion centers are a
hybrid between co-location and JV structures as:
? Employees stay on the payroll of their parent orgs. and rotate in and out
? Employees from the same agency tend to cluster around each other
? This meant that the fusion centers had many benefits and challenges.
Main take-away: There were many overlapping jurisdictions in the case of
fusion centers, between federal, state, and local governments and among
intelligence agencies. However, there are challenges with goal congruence,
staff training and retention, and governance issues that existed due to
V336clashing
Spring 2018 organization cultures. Slide 7 of 13
April 09, 2018
HOW TO MAKE COLOCATION WORK – PLANNING
There are several benefits to collocating, and the book discusses
numerous success factors for co-locating:
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Pick partners will similar goals and complimentary strengths
Senior support
Lay out goals from the beginning
Create a governance structure that works for both partners
Maintain communication
MOUs
Share costs of move and space
Look into Exhibit 11.3 pg. 212
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 8 of 13
April 09, 2018
HOW TO MAKE COLOCATION WORK –
OPERATIONAL PHASE
Key Success factors once co-location is operational:
? Be sure to encourage equality among partners
? Maintain ongoing discussions of roles and processes
? Learn about the different org cultures and values
? Share information & credit
? Communicate successes to everyone-internal and external
? Track how money is spent
? Settle disagreements in ways that stay true to the mission and that will
generate stakeholder support
? Work on relationships and trust
? Look into Exhibit 111.4, pgs. 213-214
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 9 of 13
April 09, 2018
KEY QUESTIONS TO EVALUATE RISKS OF CO-LOCATION
The three cases described have experienced considerable success by
adopting to varying degrees of structural change. Some key questions to
consider in evaluating risks of co-location are:
? Is there a good fit with the respective cultures?
? What information can or should partners share about customers?
? Do key stakeholders support the change?
? Do the agencies’ leaders work well together?
? Is loss of autonomy a concern?
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 10 of 13
April 09, 2018
COMPSTAT: COLLABORATION & ACCOUNTABILITY
Compstat refers to a set of management practices that combines
structured meetings focused on goal-achievement, fact-based
analysis and decisions, senior-leadership involvement, and
rigorous follow-up
Thus the central problem of fragmented response from organizations is
addressed by making them accountable to the goal by iteratively
monitoring their response-mechanism.
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 11 of 13
April 09, 2018
WASHINGTON STATE’S GMAP
?
?
?
?
Focused on broad outcomes
Required active interagency collaboration to achieve broad outcomes
Its outcomes reflect governor’s priorities
Allows citizens to be actively involved in establishing priorities and
performance measures
? Models demonstrating connections between agency programs and
governor’s priorities
? Meeting are open to public and broadcast live
The Washington state’s GMAP program was a success leading to demonstrable
impact on key outcomes.
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 12 of 13
April 09, 2018
HOW DO STAT PROGRAMS WORK
The key features that distinguish stat programs from other methods of
accountability are:
? Openness and transparency
? Clear benefits to stakeholders
? Ground truth and situational awareness
? Stat programs need the fundamental human needs in organizational
settings and promote collaboration
V336 Spring 2018
Slide 13 of 13
April 09, 2018
“Collaboration in the nonprofit world is very complex. You try to collaborate with people who share your values, but who also compete for the same
funds and often work with the same constituencies. Yet collaboration is
critical because it can create the power necessary for positive social change.
Russ Linden’s book gives us excellent guidance, useful ideas, and inspiring
examples of people who overcame the collaboration obstacles to create
exciting change. It is highly recommended for anyone who wants to promote social change in collaboration with others.”
—Rachel Liel, Israeli executive director, New Israel Fund
“Russ Linden has written a book that is at once practical and inspiring.
Collaboration is learnable, and he shows us how with compelling stories
from education, government, industry, and real life. All health care professionals will benefit from Linden’s approach and the thoughtful ideas in
this important book.”
—Dorrie K. Fontaine, Sadie Heath Cabaniss Professor
of Nursing and dean, University of Virginia School
of Nursing, and author, Critical Care Nursing
“Collaboration is vital in our networked society and this book offers great
insight into the collaborative process. This book is a must-read for anyone
interested in better problem solving and decision making.”
—Tom Martin, captain, Virginia State Police (retired)
“Hard knocks have taught the big lesson: we need far better collaboration in doing the public’s work. Saying it and getting it, however, are
two different things. In this imaginative and creative new book, Linden
not only nails down the case for stronger collaboration, but he also
identifies—in clear and convincing language—the steps leaders need to
take to achieve it. That’s an invaluable contribution to anyone charged
with shaping organizations, big and small.”
—Don Kettl, dean, University of Maryland School
of Public Policy, and author, The Next Government
of the United States
“Government is increasingly turning to non-hierarchical ways of doing
business, often called collaborative networks and boundary-less organizations. Linden has written a practical guide to collaborative leadership,
providing policy makers and program managers a clearer understanding
and examples showing how to become collaborative leaders who can
work across organizational boundaries in ways that achieve broader
outcomes.”
—Jonathan D. Breul, executive director, IBM Center
for The Business of Government, and former senior
executive, U.S. Office of Management and Budget
“Linden’s book challenges us to re-think how we work and to step outside our comfort zone into new ways of inter …
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