Answer questions: Gender and Socialization

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Assignment:
1. Look at your teammates’ responses to #4 B (on why they agree with one of the
explanations for the paradox reporting of gender violence in Nordic countries). Do
you agree or disagree with their explanation? Why?
2. Research the two countries that one of your teammates’ chose for #5 above. (If any
of the countries that you and any teammate selected are the same, then communicate on the side and
agree to select different countries before you continue with this item. If no teammate posted by the
first round due-date, then pick another country on your own and do the following.)
From http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site. get the data on those two countries selected by your teammate for the
items below, PLUS the US:
(when you copy and paste this, you should see a table that is invisible here)
A top 15 ranked
country:
US
male:
male:
female:
female:
maternal mortality
Parliament seat percentage
Secondary education percentage
Overall HDI rank
A. Now list 5 more entirely different countries from among the bottom 50
ranked according to HDI and answer the questions B and C below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
B. Is there a correlation between poverty and gender inequality among the three
countries in the table (plus the additional five above)?
C. What do you suppose is a basic reason why poorer countries tend not to have the
resources to reduce maternal mortality rates and improve secondary education rates
compared to the top 15 countries?
D. Patriarchal beliefs, practices, and government policies account for why women
are hired and paid much less than men in countries in countries like Mexico, the
Congo, Bangladesh, and so on. Cheap female labor there benefits consumers in
countries like the Netherlands and the United States. Explain.
E. Now explain how this shift of wealth from poor to rich countries contributes
to reducing gender inequality in wealthy countries, as measured by huge differences
in maternal mortality rates and secondary education among the two sets of
countries.
Me:
2. Go to http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.
The countries are ranked by Human Dev. Index. Look at the Gender Inequality
Index column, and list those five countries that have the lowest gender inequality
rank.
1. Switzerland
2. Denmark
3. Netherlands
4. Sweden
5. Iceland
GII rank of:
Romania: 72
Bulgaria: 45
Portugal: 41
3. Read this
article: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/06/10/the-bestcountries-for-gender-equality-may-also-have-a-domestic-violenceproblem/?utm_term=.45561ee11b35 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external
site.
Briefly describe the basic point of the “Nordic paradox” regarding IPV, and, using the
same chart in that article and the GII rankings above, explain the inverse paradox for
IPV of countries like Portugal, Romania, and Bulgaria.
The “Nordic paradox” can be explained in terms of the contradiction of how some of
the countries with the best ranking in terms of gender equality are also likely to
experience high levels of domestic violence against women. The paradox is because of
the impressive rankings of Nordic countries as in terms of gender-equality globally
yet they also show a disproportionate high level of intimate partner violence (IPV)
towards women. The situation is conflicting, as it would normally be expected that
gender-related violence against women goes down with a high rate of equality of
women in society. However, this is not the case with the Nordic countries which
have a higher prevalence IPV against women as well as equally higher levels of
gender equality but the opposite is true giving rise to the ‘Nordic paradox’.
4. In the same article, one argument explaining the Nordic paradox is that the rates
that are reported are accurate and there is a “backlash” against women.
The other
argument is that the actual rates of violence in countries with greater
gender inequality, like Romania, and Bulgaria, are probably much higher because
women are not reporting as much out of fear.
A. Explain both arguments.
– Backlash explanation (the actual rates are higher):
The issue of backlash against women is a factor that is likely to see explain this
paradox to some extent. This is because, in such societies with higher gender equality,
there is a possibility of more anger against women because of the relatively higher
social status they enjoy in comparison to their partners as opposed to the case in the
less gender-equal societies. Their partners would therefore not hesitate to report cases
of gender violence as a retaliatory measure against their helplessness.
– “Reported rates are misleading” explanation (the actual rates vs reported rates are
different):
The expectation is that higher levels of gender equality would translate to fewer cases
of IPV against women but the reasoning for this is that the actual rates could actually
be higher but they go unreported. The higher levels of gender equality in the Nordic
countries would result to more women reporting cases of violence by their partners,
but not necessarily more cases of violence against partners as opposed the
underreporting that would happen in countries with less gender-equality. This is
because in such cases, there are likely to be higher levels of disclosures on gender
violence against women as such cases are more likely to be addressed and challenged
in such societies.
B. Explain why you agree with one or the other (both cannot be true):
I tend to agree with the argument that the reported rates are misleading for a number
of reasons. In other countries recording lower rates of gender violence, there may be
even higher incidences but women do not report them due to the stigma associated
with domestic or gender violence or lack of understanding what is regarded as
domestic violence or not. The other reason would be the societal setups where in
Nordic countries women are brought up to be more independent and will not likely
entertain domestic abuse by their partners reporting such incidences quickly as the
system also supports them.
5. This is to prepare for the next round: Go
to http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.
Select ONE country, according to the HDI rank on left column, from any of the top
15 countries (out of ALL the countries on the list), EXCEPT THE US, and select ONE
country, according to the HDI rank on left column, from any of the bottom 15
countries (out of ALL the countries listed):
The countries I selected are:
One of top 15: Hong Kong, China (SAR)
One of bottom 15: Burundi
Teammate 1:
2. Go to http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
The countries are ranked by Human Dev. Index. But list the top five countries by
highest gender equality (which doesn’t match HDI) LOOK AT THIRD COLUMN:
Gender Inequality Index “Rank,” and list 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
1. Switzerland
2. Denmark
3. Netherlands
4. Sweden
5. Iceland
GII rank of:
Romania: 72
Bulgaria: 45
Portugal: 17
3. Read this
article: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/06/10/thebest-countries-for-gender-equality-may-also-have-a-domestic-violenceproblem/?utm_term=.45561ee11b35 (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Briefly describe the basic point of the “Nordic paradox” regarding IPV, and, using the
same chart in that article and the GII rankings above, explain the inverse paradox for
IPV of countries like Portugal, Romania, and Bulgaria.
The “Nordic paradox” is that some Nordic countries with the highest levels of gender
equality also have the highest levels of domestic abuse towards women, also known as
IPV or intimate partner violence. This is seen in countries like Sweden, Iceland, and
Denmark, which experience more reported domestic violence than most countries
throughout the world regardless of having a much larger amount of gender equality
than most of the world. Denmark, Sweden, and Iceland are ranked 2, 4, and 5,
respectively for their amount of gender equality. The inverse of the paradox is also
seen; countries that have very low amounts of gender equality tend to show lower
amounts of this intimate partner violence within the population. This is seen in the
countries Romania and Bulgaria, non-Nordic countries, which are ranked 72 and 45
respectively for gender equality. These countries are ranked low for gender equality
however they also have low levels of reported intimate partner violence compared to
those Nordic countries.
4. In the same article, one argument explaining the Nordic paradox is that the rates
that are reported are accurate and there is a “backlash” against women. The
other argument is that the actual rates of violence in countries with greater
gender inequality, like Romania, and Bulgaria, are probably much higher because
women are not reporting as much out of fear.
A. Explain both arguments.
– Backlash explanation (the actual rates are higher):
The backlash explanation for high levels of intimate partner violence in countries
with high levels of gender equality is that men are abusing women more due to the
fact that they are not pleased with women obtaining high status like themselves. Men
are abusing the women as a way to attempt to put women “back in their place” below
men and to keep men feeling superior in comparison to women. Women being in a
higher role in society are also not afraid to report this abuse and stand up for
themselves as they would in countries where women hold lower roles.
– “Reported rates are misleading” explanation (the actual rates vs reported rates are
different):
The “reported rates are misleading” explanation for low rates of intimate partner
violence in countries with low levels of gender equality is that levels are just as high,
if not higher, in these countries, and women just are not reporting this abuse. The
believed reason women are not reporting this abuse from men is because these
women are afraid of men and the consequences that may come from reporting such
abuse to authoritative figures. This is why rates of domestic violence in the more
gender equal Nordic countries could appear higher; these women are not afraid to
speak up about being abused unlike women in less gender-equal societies. The women
of countries with less gender equality are more likely to feel unsafe about reporting
abuse they may receive.
B. Explain why you agree with one or the other (both cannot be true):
I agree more with the “reported rates are misleading” explanation for why Nordic
countries with greater amounts of gender equality have greater amounts of intimate
partner violence. I think this because I believe women who are abused and are treated
unequal to men will not report abuse in order to protect themselves a little bit more
than if they were to report abuse. If a women were to report abuse from her partner
in a country where there is little gender equality, an authority figure might not
believe the woman reporting abuse and nothing would be done in order to protect the
woman. Even worse, the authority figure could tell the man accused of domestically
abusing the woman that said woman tried to report him; that could end with the
woman being abused even more than before. It is in cases like these where it would
be safer for a woman to say nothing at all in order to prevent her situation from
becoming worse. In countries where women are treated more equal to men, there
would be less of a chance of authority figures like the police not believing women
abuse or tattling on women to their abuser. Women probably feel more protected by
the law in these Nordic countries and is probably why the women are not afraid to
report the abuse they may be put through. This is why domestic abuse seems to be
higher in Nordic countries than in countries with low gender equality; women feel
safer reporting their abuse than in low gender equality countries.
5. This is to prepare for the next round: Go
to http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Select ONE country, according to the HDI rank on left column, from any of the top
15 countries (out of ALL the countries on the list), EXCEPT THE US, and select ONE
country, according to the HDI rank on left column, from any of the bottom 15
countries (out of ALL the countries listed):
The countries I selected are:
One of top 15: Canada
One of bottom 15: Chad
Teammate 2:
2. Go tohttp://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
The countries are ranked by Human Dev. Index. But list the top five countries by
highest gender equality (which doesn’t match HDI) LOOK AT THIRD COLUMN:
Gender Inequality Index “Rank,” and list 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
1. Switzerland
2. Denmark
3. Iceland
4. Sweden
5. Iceland
GII rank of:
Romania: 72
Bulgaria: 45
Portugal: 17
3. Read this
article: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/06/10/thebest-countries-for-gender-equality-may-also-have-a-domestic-violenceproblem/?utm_term=.45561ee11b35 (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Briefly describe the basic point of the “Nordic paradox” regarding IPV, and, using the
same chart in that article and the GII rankings above, explain the inverse paradox for
IPV of countries like Portugal, Romania, and Bulgaria.
The “Nordic paradox” examples that even though the Nordic Nations such as Sweden
and Finland have very good gender equality they also have a high level of IPV as well.
Now the paradox is different in countries like Portugal, Romania, and Bulgaria who
are all towards the bottom of the GII rankings. The article stated that when countries
do not have a lot of gender equality for their women there is also very low incidents
of IPV as well.
4. In the same article, one argument explaining the Nordic paradox is that the rates
that are reported are accurate and there is a “backlash” against women. The
other argument is that the actual rates of violence in countries with greater
genderinequality,like Romania, and Bulgaria, are probably much higher because
women are not reporting as much out of fear.
A. Explain both arguments.
– Backlash explanation (the actual rates are higher): The backlash explanation is
simple. Some men are upset that women are starting to get more and more
recognition in this world every day. Some of their partners might feel this way so
they decide to take it out on them which is a sad reality for some women.
– “Reported rates are misleading” explanation (the actual rates vs reported rates are
different): The reported rates are misleading explanation explains how women might
feel more comfortable going to the police in a country where they are considered to
be equal to men. Women in countries who don’t feel that they are equal to men
might not feel as comfortable going to the police.
1. Explain why you agree with one or the other (both cannot be true):
I agree more with the “reported rates are misleading” explanation because when it
comes to domestic violence abuse most women are scared to say anything because
they don’t want the abuse to happen again. They don’t want their partner to know
that they went behind their back. It could just be fear holding them back as well.
Also, women in countries where they aren’t as equal might also be scared to go to the
police because the police force is usually male dominate. Whereas if they were in a
country that had more equal rights for women they might not have any problem with
going to the police force because there could be a higher chance of a female employee
there as well.
5. This is to prepare for the next round: Go
to http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Select ONE country, according to the HDI rank on left column, from any of the
top 15 countries (out of ALL the countries on the list), EXCEPT THE US, and
select ONE country, according to the HDI rank on left column, from any of the
bottom 15 countries (out of ALL the countries listed):
The countries I selected are:
One of top 15: Australia
One of bottom 15: Brazil

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