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You can answer the question directly on the file I upload. (please do not delete the questions, just put the answer below or after the questions.) Video: Do Women Earn Less than Men? : The article of “Why Aren’t More Girls Attracted To Physics?” AND ” Why Aren’t More Girls Attracted To Physics?” in the file “Gender Preparation”If you cannot open any of the website in the files, please let me know immediately. Thank you!
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Gender and Patriarchy Assignment
WORTH 200 POINTS
ALWAYS ONE SPACE BETWEEN EACH QUESTION AND EACH ANSWER
1. (18 pts) Watch the video, “Do Women Earn Less than Men?” Quote and explain the
four points that Prof. Horwitz makes.
Point 1 (educational choices):
Point 2 (career, education, and non-career choices):
Point 3 (job hours choices):
Point 4 (job tenure choices):
What Horwitz means by “free choice” and “free market.” Horwitz argues that gender
inequality in the US is the result of women making free choices in a free market — that
women’s lower earnings is not a result of male dominance or discrimination. The “free
market” part of his argument means that people freely choose part-time work and lowtech careers and knowingly get paid less due to market competition. For Horwitz,
women freely made choices to bear children and make educational choices resulting in
lower-paying careers, and therefore, there is no patriarchal issue to fix and government
intervention in the free market is unnecessary.
Sociologists, in contrast, are deeply skeptical of the “free choice” view of human
behavior. Research suggests that women’s decisions and conditions are indeed shaped
by male dominance (patriarchy). At the most basic level, people do not choose their
gender at birth. That females are the gender that bears children is not a choice.
Further, women learn indirectly from their families and communities that they should stay at
home and raise children (or not), should pursue a certain type of career (or any career). It’s
not the case that “choices” are made outside of culture, politics, and social
circumstances.
Girls in wealthy families may get tutoring that opens greater opportunities for their careers
than poor girls. Neither simply made a “choice” to pursue or not pursue certain
careers. More obviously, if women are harassed at an engineering company, and quit,
then their decisions to give up an engineering career are not “free” either. They are socially
conditioned. It works both ways. Women’s options may be positively shaped to
counter patriarchal social conditions that are shaping so-called free markets.
If all girls
are encouraged to take physics courses rather than social science courses, or if men are
encouraged and allowed to receive paternal leave to help raise kids, and so on, then people’s
decisions are also not “free” but shaped by social and political circumstances. This means
that markets are not really “free” or “neutral” and working all by themselves. A “free”
market in the context of patriarchy or slavery, etc. is not really free, but shaped by
social conditions. Government policies establish private property markets and shape how
they work. Well-regulated markets, or little-regulated markets, are shaped by the policies that
governments and people enact.
Scientists observe that when governments reject patriarchy
and the hands-off “free market” approach, and enact policies that regulate markets in
ways that reduce gender inequality (patriarchy), as they do in Nordic countries, they
can significantly reduce gender equality.
2. (16 pts) Read the article on gender equality in the Nordic countries, “What Makes
the Nordic Countries Gender Equality Winners?” Quote and then explain a fact
from the article on how government intervention in the market has affected gender
inequality.
Fact:
Explanation:
3. (20 pts) Compare the views of people in Nordic countries to Horwitz regarding…
…whether or not gender inequality in the United States is the result of “free market
choices” that men and women make. Explain why people in Nordic countries
disagree with Horwitz, and why Horwitz disagrees with them.
…whether or not government intervention is needed to address the gender inequality.
Explain why people in Nordic countries disagree with Horwitz, and why Horwitz
disagrees with them.
…explain why people in Nordic countries would argue there is patriarchy in the United
States in workplaces and government, contrary to Horwitz’s views:
4. (24 pts) Quote a fact from from the article (Why Aren’t More Girls Attracted To
Physics?) and then explain how it contradicts Prof. Horwitz’s claims that women
“choose” different educational paths.
Explain how girls from wealthier families gain advantages over girls from poorer
families:
Explain why, with regard to both wealthy and poorer families, social conditions strongly
affect women’s career paths:
5. (20 pts) Read “Many Women Leave Engineering, Blame The Work Culture”
Quote the percentages of women who chose the career, and those who practice or stay in
it, and explain why those statistics are relevant to the debate.
Quote a fact from the article and explain how this research contradicts Prof. Horwitz’s
that workplace discrimination doesn’t account for career differences.
Quote a fact from the article and explain how the research supports the idea that people’s
behavior is the result of social conditions and not simply “free choice.”
Gender Assignment Preparation
Read the following and then follow the links and read those two short articles.
Global Patterns
Patriarchy in general is learned by boys and girls from adult family members, from
adults in the community, workplaces, educational institutions, and indirectly from the
laws of the country that permit patriarchal structures. There is a correlation between
poverty and patriarchy. The wealthiest countries tend to have the least patriarchy
whereas the most patriarchal countries tend to be the poorer countries. The same
pattern appears among the wealthy countries. Those wealthy countries that have
overall greater class equality than other wealthy countries tend also to have greater
gender equality. The Nordic countries of Iceland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands,
rank in the top ten for overall class equality and they also rank in the top ten for the
greatest gender equality. Other wealthy countries, like the United States, Austria, and
Japan, have greater class inequality and also greater gender inequality. There are also
exceptions to note among poorer countries. Some poor countries, including China (90
HDI, GII 37), Libya (102 HDI, 38 GII), and Moldova (107 HDI, 46 GII) which rank far
lower in the Human Development Index, but have less or similar gender inequality than
some rich countries, like the United States (10 HDI, 43 GII) and New Zealand (13 HDI,
34 GII).
Still, in the world-economy of modern society, the wealthiest countries tend to have less
gender inequality than poorer countries. The most patriarchal countries tend to be the
poorest countries. Among the bottom 20 countries ranked by gender inequality, none
are wealthy countries. This pattern raises questions about the possible prospects that
poorer countries taken together have in achieving the same levels of equality as wealthy
countries. For centuries, about 20 percent of the population of modern society (the
people in the wealthy countries) have become very wealthy by controlling the most
profitable activities of the world-economy. This 20% controls about 80% of the world’s
wealth and lives very high standards of living. Most people, about 50-60% of society’s
population in the poorer countries remain stuck with the least profitable activities and
get only about 10% of the world’s wealth. Unless there is a change in the worldeconomy’s division of labor, and how wealth is distributed, it would seem that they will
continue to experience gender inequality indefinitely.
Extreme patriarchy, including the psychological and physical abuse of women by men is
found more frequently in poorer countries, but also occurs in wealthy countries. There
are instances of women abusing men, however, 85% of domestic violence victims are
women (source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief, Intimate Partner Violence,
1993-2001, February 2003). Violence against women is not natural, but learned,
typically in households. In some poor countries of modern society, violence against
women or repression of women is common and many men see it as “normal” or
“traditional.” To the extent that violence against women is widespread, men who
commit acts of violence against women are not seen as “bad people.” In wealthier
countries, the culture has been changed by women’s movements for equality and
violence against women is widely condemned and men who commit acts of violence are
viewed as entirely responsible for their behavior.
Two Approaches to Explaining Gender Inequality
There are, however, two contending approaches to understanding the behavior of men
regarding violence against women. One approach is “choice theory” which argues that
people make choices freely, good or bad, and that they are fully responsible for their
decisions. Men choose to be violent and should be held accountable. They shouldn’t
be allowed to get away with such actions. Or women may choose to have children and
so they choose to fall behind men in their careers and salaries, and therefore the free
market is holding women accountable for their choices. However, choice theory may be
an attempt to justify unfair male privilege, as with women who receive less wealth and
power because they birthed children. There seems to be a reasonable logic behind this
approach: that adults know (or should know) what the consequences are for their
behaviors and must be held accountable.
Choice theory seems to be imbued with a sense of fairness and justice, but it may be
misdirected. It confuses a scientific explanation of human behavior with a political
position of how to deal with or respond to human behavior. There is a faulty assumption
that human behavior is actually the result of choices or decisions that people make
freely and knowingly. However, choice theory doesn’t take into consideration how
people’s individual behaviors are in fact shaped by cultural patterns and local personal
experiences. For example, where violence against women is considered acceptable, a
man’s violence against a woman is not simply a freely-made choice: it is behavior that is
explained by wider patterns of social norms and patriarchy. Because people are
socialized into this behavior, sociologists and anthropologists explain behavior as the
result of a cultural patterns, learning, and local experiences. Social scientists generally
reject the idea that human behavior can be explained by humans simply choose their
behavior and actions. No one, for instance, chose the language they speak or the
norms of their ethnicity.
But what about those areas of modern society, like in Europe or the United States,
where everyone knows that violence against women is unacceptable? Isn’t a man’s
abuse of a woman the result of a choice the man has freely made? But it’s not that
simple. For example, a fact cited in “Domestic Violence Facts” (required reading in
module) explains that violence is learned even on a local scale. The fact is that children
who witness “violence between one’s parents or caretakers is the strongest risk factor of
transmitting violent behavior from one generation to the next.” In other words, there is a
pattern of evidence in which children who grow up in abusive homes far more often
become abusers themselves. One might expect that an individual’s exposure to cruelty
would have the opposite effect: that a boy witnessing violence against his mother or
sister at home would make him less likely to be violent against women. However, the
research indicates the opposite: exposure increases likelihood. Thus, to argue that the
boy who witnessed repeated abuse and who becomes an adult abuser has “chosen” to
act this way even though he knows it’s wrong simply doesn’t account for the behavior.
Of course, explaining the complexity of human behavior doesn’t mean that one is
justifying behavior or arguing that a person shouldn’t be held accountable for abuse or
other violations of norms. We should be careful not to confuse a scientific explanation
of human behavior with a political position of how to deal with or respond to human
behavior. The evidence from research shows that boys exposed to violence against
women don’t exactly “make an individual choice” to be violent as adults. Humans may
be able to choose not to behave violently, however, the correlation between boys who
witness violence and later behave violently toward women indicate that there is more
involved than simply them choosing or not choosing to behave in certain ways. People
internalize behavior patterns that they are exposed to and later repeat them. Thus,
human behavior is not simply the result of “free individual choice.” While it may be
argued that individuals should still be held responsible for their behavior, that does not
mean that people made a choice when behaving in particular ways. Humans are social
creatures: social learning and context play a major role in individual behavior whether
on a large community-scale or on the smaller household-scale. This is easier to see
with less controversial behaviors and social conditions. For example, none of us chose
the language we speak or to follow the norms of our culture. We are socialized. We
have the capacity to change our behaviors, but that capacity may not be utilized for
various reasons.
Even in countries where violence against women is generally considered unacceptable,
like the United States or Japan, many men do not treat women as equals and believe
that they deserve less pay and power. Women are paid less than men for the same
work, are not equally represented in the management and directors positions in
businesses or in government positions of power. Some people (men and women) claim
that women’s secondary status is the result of the choices they make, that women
individually choose to earn less than men, or freely make decisions that result in earning
less and having less power. As Dr. Horwitz argues, the gender pay gap is not the result
of gender discrimination in the labor force, but of women’s free decisions in a free
market. He contends that most of the differences boil down to women’s decision to
have children and that as a result women fall behind men in their careers, or choose
certain careers paths that offer more time off and pay less, due to market forces. Lower
pay is the result of free choice and free markets. Since men choose to dedicate more
time to a career, and women don’t, men end up getting promoted more and paid more.
Horwitz is taking a “free market” position, arguing that gender inequality is the result of
what people freely choose. He is taking a free-market position that opposes
government regulation or “interference” in the market and he doesn’t see these
outcomes as part of a wider pattern of patriarchy in modern society.
The pay gap is indeed partly the result of unfettered market forces that Horwitz
describes. However, to argue that the pay and power gap is the result of “free choices”
by men and women is not what sociological evidence indicates. With regard to the “free
market” and “free choices,” Horwitz overlooks two realities. One (1), women didn’t
choose to be the childbearing gender. Thus they did not really choose the
consequences of less pay, status, and power that result when markets are not regulated.
Two (2), women did not choose to live in conditions where unregulated market
conditions punish them for having children and give men a benefit. Unregulated
markets conditions are actually the political outcome of male domination in government
where men choose not to enact policies that create a level playing field or compensate
women for being the childbearing gender. In those countries where men and women
cooperate and have enacted government policies that regulate or override markets,
gender equality has been achieved. The achievement of gender equality in a number of
European countries thus demonstrates that citizens can ensure that women are paid
equally at work and are represented equally in business and government even though
they may take time off to bear and raise children. In other words, people can create
cultural norms and structures that reject “free markets” and so-called “free-choice” in the
sphere of economics to create gender equality.
Another problem with Horwitz’s argument is that he overlooks evidence of workplace
discrimination and other forms of patriarchy that affect women’s decision. Some studies
of women engineers show that women are in fact discriminated against in the workplace
by men who create hostile work environments that are unwelcoming to women
engineers. Horwitz also overlooks forms of patriarchy that occur at the level of
communities. Girls who grow up in communities and households where women
typically pursue lower-paying careers end up in those kinds of careers. This is
analogous to boys who grow up in violent households and become abusers as adults.
In both cases, the behavior of the girl and the boy as an adult is not simply a matter of
them making a decision to behave the way they do; they’re behavior patterns are
shaped by social conditions. Likewise, in communities and households where women
have successfully pursued careers in typically male-dominated areas, like in science
and engineering, girls are more likely to become scientists and engineers as adults.
Here as well the behavior of the girl is not simply a matter of her making a decision to
become a scientist or engineer: her behavior is shaped by social conditions.
In both conditions of patriarchy and conditions of gender equality, social conditioning is
a major factor in determining behavior. This doesn’t mean that people don’t make
decisions and choices. They do. But that clearly is not all that his going on. There is a
preponderance of scientific research showing that social conditions shape individual
human thought and action. Moreover, the evidence and research of vast differences in
cultures across history also demonstrate that there is no “natural” way for men or
women to behave and that any pattern of gender relationships can be changed if
enough people cooperate to re-shape those patterns and structures.
Read the following two articles to prepare to answer the questions in the next Team
Assignment.
? Many Women Leave Engineering, Blame The Work Culture
http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2014/08/12/339638726/many-women-leaveengineering-blame-the-work-culture?
? Why Aren’t More Girls Attracted To Physics?
http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2013/08/09/210251404/why-arent-moregirls-attracted-to-physics
Read: What Makes the Nordic
Countries Gender Equality
Winners?
What Makes the Nordic Countries Gender
Equality Winners? (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site.
Saadia Zahidi (Links to an external site.)Links
to an external site.
Senior Director and Head of Gender Parity and Human Capital at the World
Economic Forum
Although no country in the world has yet achieved gender equality, the Nordic
countries consistently stand out in the World Economic Forum’s annual Global
Gender Gap Report (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., which
measures how well countries are doing at removing the obstacles that hold women
back.
In this year’s report, Iceland holds the top spot for the fifth consecutive year with
Finland, Norway and Sweden following close behind. With the exception of
Denmark, all Nordic countries have closed over 80 percent of the gender gap, making
them useful as both role models and benchmarks. So, what is the secret of their
success?
It’s not just a question of wealth. Although these high-income
Nordic economies [countries] tend to top a lot of global polls, the Global Gender Gap
Index strips out overall wealth, instead measuring how equitably income, resources
and opportunities are distributed between women and men.
All Nordi …
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