Anthropology reading

Read Life Without Chiefs (Files>Textbooks>Conformity & Conflict) and answer the following two questions:1) What is the difference among headmen, big men, and chiefs, according to anthropologist Marvin Harris? 2) What does M. Harris see as the connection between forms of leadership and modes of economic exchange? How does this connection work?Your answers should be in then form of a short essay between 200 and 350 word
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Conformity
and Conflict
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F O U R T E ENTH
EDITION
Conformity
and Conflict
Readings in Cultural Anthropology
JAMES SPRADLEY
DAVI D W. M C CURDY
Macalester College
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Copyright © 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Conformity and conflict : readings in cultural anthropology / [edited by]
James Spradley, David W. McCurdy.—14th ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-205-23410-3
ISBN-10: 0-205-23410-0
1. Ethnology. 2. Anthropology. I. Spradley, James P. II. McCurdy, David W.
GN325.C69 2011
306—dc22
2011015812
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Student Edition:
ISBN 10: 0-205-23410-0
ISBN 13: 978-0-205-23410-3
Instructor’s Review Edition:
ISBN 10: 0-205-06453-1
ISBN 13: 978-0-205-06453-3
á la carte edition:
ISBN 10: 0-205-06460-4
ISBN 13: 978-0-205-06460-1
Contents
World Map and Geographical Placement of Readings
Preface
inside cover
xiii
ONE
Culture and Ethnography
1
Ethnography and Culture
1
6
JAMES P. SPRADLEY
To discover culture, the ethnographer must learn from the informant
as a student.
2
Eating Christmas in the Kalahari
13
RICHARD BORSHAY LEE
The “generous” gift of a Christmas ox involves the anthropologist in a
classic case of cross-cultural misunderstanding.
3
Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS
20
CLAIRE E. STERK
Fieldwork among urban prostitutes means doing ethnography under
difficult but, in the end, manageable circumstances.
4
Nice Girls Don’t Talk to Rastas
31
GEORGE GMELCH
Interaction between a U.S. student and a Rastafarian illustrates the
destructive power of naïve realism in the fieldwork setting.
TWO
Language and Communication
5
Shakespeare in the Bush
37
41
LAURA BOHANNAN
Cross-cultural communication breaks down when an anthropologist
attempts to translate the meaning of Hamlet to the Tiv.
v
vi
Contents
6
Whorf Revisited: You Are What You Speak
49
GUY DEUTSCHER
New evidence supports Benjamin Lee Whorf’s contention that peoples’
mother tongue can shape their experience of the world.
7
Manipulating Meaning: The Military Name Game
57
SARAH BOXER
To frame the meaning of its military operations, U.S. armed forces try
to name them positively without offending anyone.
8
Conversation Style: Talking on the Job
61
DEBORAH TANNEN
On the job, men and women use distinctive conversation styles to
ask for help, leading them to evaluate performance and character
differently.
TH R E E
Ecology and Subsistence
9
69
The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari
73
RICHARD BORSHAY LEE
!Kung and other foragers traditionally worked less and ate better than
many other people with more “advanced” food producing techniques.
Today, however, their survival depends more on drilling wells and
keeping cattle than on collecting wild foods.
10
Eskimo Science
87
RICHARD NELSON
The knowledge developed by Eskimos to hunt successfully contains
the same basic principles that underlie a more formally structured
scientific method.
11
Domestication and the Evolution of Disease
93
JARED DIAMOND
Herd animal diseases that evolved to infect humans have ended up
killing millions of people in the old and new world.
12
Forest Development the Indian Way
105
RICHARD K. REED
South American governments could learn much about tropical forest
development from the Amazonian Indians who live there.
vii
Contents
FOU R
Economic Systems
13
Reciprocity and the Power of Giving
115
119
LEE CRONK
Gifts not only function to tie people together, they may also be used to
“flatten” an opponent and control the behavior of others.
14
Poverty at Work: Office Employment and the Crack
Alternative
125
PHILIPPE BOURGOIS
Poor, uneducated Puerto Rican men living in Spanish Harlem feel that the
risks they run selling drugs are preferable to the disrespect they encounter
as low-wage employees in New York’s financial and service companies.
15
Cocaine and the Economic Deterioration of Bolivia
136
JACK WEATHERFORD
The world market for cocaine robs Bolivian villages of their men and
causes problems for health, nutrition, transportation, and family.
16
Malawi versus the World Bank
145
SONIA PATTEN
Malawi government’s successful state subsidized fertilizer program
challenges the World Bank and IMF’s insistence on market-driven
agricultural programs.
FIVE
Kinship and Family
17
Mother’s Love: Death without Weeping
151
155
NANCY SCHEPER-HUGHES
Close mother-child bonds suffered in the presence of high infant
mortality in a Brazilian shantytown although recent changes have
reduced the problem to some degree.
18
Family and Kinship in Village India
165
DAVID W. MCCURDY
Kinship still organizes the lives of Bhil villagers despite economic
opportunities that draw people away from the community and
dependence on relatives.
viii
Contents
19
Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife
172
MELVYN C. GOLDSTEIN
By jointly marrying one woman, Tibetan brothers preserve family
resources and the “good life.”
20
Uterine Families and the Women’s Community
179
MARGERY WOLF
To succeed in a traditional patrilineal family, a Chinese woman had to
create her own informal uterine family inside her husband’s household.
SIX
Identity, Roles, and Groups
21
185
You@Work: Jobs, Identity, and the Internet
189
BRENDA MANN
Topday’s U.S. job mobility requires “branding” one’s identity through
careful use of the Internet.
22
The Opt-Out Phenomenon: Women, Work, and Identity
in America
197
DIANNA SHANDY AND KARINE MOE
Why were young, educated professional women leaving high-paying jobs
for a life at home and what difference has today’s tough economy made?
23
Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?
208
LILA ABU-LUGHOD
Americans should work for justice in the world, not save Muslim
women from wearing burqas or following their Islamic religion.
24
Mixed Blood
217
JEFFERSON M. FISH
A woman can change her race from black to “brunette” by taking a
plane from New York to Brazil.
SE V E N
Law and Politics
25
227
Cross-Cultural Law: The Case of the Gypsy Offender
230
ANNE SUTHERLAND
Legal cultures clash when a young Gypsy is convicted of using
someone else’s social security number to apply for a car loan.
Contents
26
Life without Chiefs
238
MARVIN HARRIS
Small societies based on reciprocal and redistributive economic
exchange can do without officials.
27
The Founding Indian Fathers
246
JACK WEATHERFORD
Although their contribution goes unrecognized, Indian, especially
Iroquoian, political structure may have served as a model that helped
to produce a United States federal government.
EIGH T
Religion, Magic, and World View
28
Taraka’s Ghost
255
260
STANLEY A. FREED AND RUTH S. FREED
A woman relieves her anxiety and gains family support when a friend’s
ghost possesses her.
29
Baseball Magic
266
GEORGE GMELCH
American baseball players from the game’s introduction to today employ
magical practices as they try to deal with the uncertainty of their game.
30
Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage
275
JILL DUBISCH
An annual ritual motorcycle pilgrimage from Los Angles to
Washington, DC personally transforms the Vietnam veterans and
others who ride in it.
31
Body Ritual among the Nacirema
287
HORACE MINER
The Nacirema display a complex array of body rituals aimed at
achieving health and beauty.
NINE
Globalization
32
How Sushi Went Global
293
296
THEODORE C. BESTOR
International interdependence between tuna fishermen and sushi as a
Japanese culinary style becomes popular in a globalized world.
ix
x
Contents
33
Village Walks: Tourism and Globalization among the
Tharu of Nepal
306
ARJUN GUNERATNE AND KATE BJORK
Advertised as a primitive tribe, Tharu villagers endure tours that falsely
treat them as part of the Chitwan National Forest’s natural history and
have responded by building a museum to separate their past from the
present.
34
The Road to Refugee Resettlement
316
DIANNA SHANDY
Nuer refugees must develop the skill and determination to pass
through a series of bureaucratic hurdles to reach and adjust to life in
the United States.
35
Global Women in the New Economy
325
BARBARA EHRENREICH AND ARLIE RUSSELL HOCHSCHILD
Millions of women migrate from poor to wealthy nations serving as
nannies, maids, and sex workers. They send money home but find it
hard to separate from their countries and families.
TE N
Culture Change and Applied Anthropology
36
335
Advice for Developers: Peace Corps Problems in Botswana
340
HOYT S. ALVERSON
An anthropologist discovers why some Peace Corps volunteers fail to
complete their assignments in rural Botswana, citing perceptions of
their role and naïve realism as the basic problems.
37
Medical Anthropology: Leprosy on the Ganges
351
RON BARRETT
Indians who contract leprosy find themselves stigmatized for
life, causing them to delay treatment or amplify symptoms to
enhance begging.
38
Public Interest Ethnography: Women’s Prisons and Health Care
in California
359
RACHAEL STRYKER
Student ethnographers uncover institutional health care problems at
two women’s prisons in California and suggest changes that result in a
revision of state policy.
Contents
39
Using Anthropology
371
DAVID W. MCCURDY
Professional anthropologists do everything from ethnographies of
automobile production lines to famine relief, but even the neophyte
may be able to use the ideas of culture and ethnography to succeed in
the workplace.
40
Career Advice for Anthropology Undergraduates
382
JOHN T. OMOHUNDRO
The ability to translate useful anthropological skills into “resume speak”
is one way for anthropology graduates to find employment.
Glossary
391
Photo Credits
Text Credits
Index
403
397
399
xi
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Preface
Forty-one years ago as we prepared the first edition of this book, Jim Spradley and I
sought to make the communication of cultural anthropology more effective for both
students and instructors. We looked for useful, engaging articles written by anthropologists for non-anthropologists. We encouraged anthropologists to send us articles that
fit our design for Conformity and Conflict. We sought out material that demonstrated
the nature of culture and its influence on people’s lives. We included more material on
Western, especially North American, cultures so students could make their own cultural comparisons and see the relation between anthropology and their own lives. We
chose articles that reflected interesting topics and current issues, but we also looked
for selections that illustrated important anthropological concepts and theories because
we believed that anthropology provides a unique and powerful way to look at human
experience. Finally, we organized the book around traditional topics found in many
textbooks and courses.
The original features of Conformity and Conflict remain part of its design today,
but the book’s content has also altered over the years to reflect changing instructional
and disciplinary interests and the needs and suggestions provided by students and
instructors. Part introductions now include discussion of many basic anthropological
definitions for use by instructors who do not want to assign a standard text but find
it helpful to provide students with a terminological foundation. Article introductions
seek to tie selections to anthropological concepts and explanations in a coherent and
systematic way. Articles and section parts have grown to include environmental, global,
medical, and practical anthropological sub fields as well as traditional interests such
as language, gender, kinship, economics, politics, law, and religion.
Several student aids are retained in the fourteenth edition. Lists of key terms
accompany each part introduction. Each article is followed by several review questions.
Maps locating societies discussed in articles accompany each selection. There is also a
glossary and subject index at the end of the book.
What’s New to This Edition
The revision of the fourteenth edition includes a number of changes and updates:
• There are eight new articles, and two selections have been brought back from
previous editions.
• Five articles found in the thirteenth edition have also been revised and updated.
• Four of the eight new articles have been written especially for the fourteenth edition making fourteen original articles altogether.
• Part 2, Language and Communication, has been revised to include definitions
and discussion of two new concepts, metaphor and symbolic framing. It also
xiii
xiv
Preface
•
•
•
•
includes a new article on the resurrection of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis by
linguist, Guy Deutscher.
Part 3, Subsistence and Ecology, contains a new article comparing Eskimo
hunting knowledge to the structure of scientific inquiry. It also includes an
article by Jared Diamond on the origin and spread of crowd diseases brought
back from a previous edition. Richard Reed’s article on Forest Development is
updated.
Part 6, Identity, Roles, and Groups, contains two new articles. The first,
an original selection by Brenda Mann, looks at how the Internet is used by
employers and job seekers to shape and present work identities. The second,
by Lila Abu-Lughod urges American women to work for justice in the world,
not saving Muslim women from wearing the burqa. Dianna Shandy and Karine
Moe’s article is updated to reflect recent trends in women’s decisions about
work and family.
Part 9, Globalization, now includes an original selection by Arjun Guneratne and
Kate Bjork on tourism from the native viewpoint in Nepal, and another brought
back from a previous edition by Theodore Bestor about the world impact of sushi.
Dianna Shandy’s article on refugees has also been updated to reflect the recent
vote for independence in South Sudan.
Part 10, Culture Change and Applied Anthropology, begins with an article
on Peace Corps problems in Botswanna by Hoyt Alverson. This is followed by a
new original article by medical anthropologist, Ron Barrett, about the nature of
leprosy and its stigmatization in Banaras (Varanasi) North India, and another
original article by Rachael Stryker on public interest anthropology at work in a
study of the health services afforded women inmates in two California Prisons.
Support for Instructors and Students
•
is an interactive and instructive multimedia site designed
to help students and instructors save time and improve results. It offers access to
a wealth of resources geared to meet the individual teaching and learning needs
of every instructor and student. Combining an ebook, video, audio, multimedia
simulations, research support and assessment, MyAnthroLab engages students
and gives them the tools they need to enhance their performance in the course.
Please see your Pearson sales representative or visit www.myanthrolab.com for
more information.
• Instructor’s Manual with Tests (0205064566): For each chapter in the text, this
valuable resource provides a detailed outline, list of objectives, discussion questions, and suggested readings. In addition, test questions in multiple-choice, true/
false, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer formats are available for each chapter;
the answers are page-referenced to the text. For easy access, this manual is available within the instructor section of MyAnthroLab for Conformity and Conflict,
or at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.
• MyTest (020506454X): This computerized software allows instructors to create
their own personalized exams, edit any or all of the existing test questions, and add
new questions. Other special features of the program include random generation
Preface
xv
of test questions, creation of alternate versions of the same test, scrambling question sequence, and test preview before printing. For easy access, this software is
available at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.
• PowerPoint Presentation Slides for Conformity and Conflict (0205064558):
These PowerPoint slides help instructors convey anthropology principles in a
clear and engaging way. For easy access, they are available within the instructor
section of MyAnthroLab for Conformity and Conflict, or at www.pearsonhighered
.com/irc.
It has always been my aim to provide a book that meets the needs of students and
instructors. To help with this goal, I encourage you to send your comments and ideas
for improving Conformity and Conflict to me at dcmccurdy@comcast.net. Ideas for
future original selections are also welcome.
Many people have made suggestions that guided this revision of Conformity and
Conflict. I am especially grateful to colleagues Dianna Shandy, Arjun Guneratne, Ron
Barrett, and Sonia Patten for their advice and help as well as George Gmelch for his
many suggestions. Thanks also to reviewers of this edition: Jane Park, Seton Hall University; Neill Hadder, The University of Texas—Austin; Autumn Cahoon, California
State University—Sacramento; Kurt Reymers, Morrisville State College; K. Jill Fleuriet, University of Texas—San Antonio; Susan Schalge, Minnesota State University;
Kristen Kuehnle, Salem State College; Joy Livergood, Columbus State Community
College; Willem Clements, Arkansas State University. I would also like to thank my editors Nancy Roberts and Nicole Conforti for their guidance and work on this volume.
DWM
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PA R T O N E
CULTURE
AND ETHNOGRAPHY
READINGS IN THIS SECTION
Ethnography and Culture
6
James P. Spradley
Eating Christmas in the Kalahari
13
Richard Borshay Lee
Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS
20
Claire E. Sterk
Nice Girls Don’t Talk to Rastas
George Gmelch
31
2
PART ONE
Culture and Ethnography
C
ulture, as its name suggests, lies at the heart of cultural anthropology. And the
concept of culture, along with ethnography, sets anthropology apart from other social and behavioral sciences. Let us look more closely at these concepts.
To understand what anthropologists mean by culture, imagine yourself in a foreign setting, such as a market town in India, forgetting what you might already know
about that cou …
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