There is total 3 thing you need to do about the movie name “Thor” produced by Marvel(this source is the movie) ;( I will show you a example same thing just difference source, I would like you to keep the same format as the example I give to you)1:Application of the Hero’s Journey(There will be a ppt and a document explain how to do)2:Character Analysis:(there will be a document show you how to do)Do a character analysis for each of the following characters: I don’t have the character list yet, soon as I get it, I will send it to you3:Critical Thinking:(there will be a document show you how to do)
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The Heros Journey
The Origins of the Heros Journey
In 1949, scholar Joseph Campbell published his preeminent work, The Hero with a
Thousand Faces, in which he explored the idea that every story shares the same basic
He used the term monomyth to describe this phenomenon and based his work
on ideas such as Carl Jungs idea of archetypes.
Since then, many scholars have either used or adapted Campbells work to fit their
needs, such as Maureen Murdock who felt that the journeys stages didnt apply to
female characters and created the Heroines Journey.
In 1987, the term Heros Journey was used in a documentary to describe
Campbells work on the ultimate narrative archetype.
The Stages of the Heros Journey
The Heros Journey is generally divided into 17 steps, split into three
Call to Adventure
Refusal of the Call
Crossing of the First Threshold
Belly of the Whale
The Stages of the Heros Journey Cont.
Road of Trials
Meeting with the Goddess
Woman as Temptress
Atonement with the Father
The Stages of the Heros Journey Cont.
Refusal of the Return
Rescue from Without
Crossing of the Return Threshold
Master of Two Worlds
Freedom to Live
Stage One: The Call to Adventure
“… a forest, a kingdom underground, beneath the waves, or above the sky, a secret island, lofty mountaintop, or profound dream state; but it is always a place of
strangely fluid and polymorphous beings, unimaginable torments, super human deeds, and impossible delight. The hero can go forth of his own volition to accomplish
the adventure, as did Theseus when he arrived in his father’s city, Athens, and heard the horrible history of the Minotaur; or he may be carried or sent abroad by some
benign or malignant agent as was Odysseus, driven about the Mediterranean by the winds of the angered god, Poseidon. The adventure may begin as a mere blunder…
or still again, one may be only casually strolling when some passing phenomenon catches the wandering eye and lures one away from the frequented paths of man.
Examples might be multiplied, ad infinitum, from every corner of the world.”
The hero generally begins in some type of mundane, normal situation. (A peasant, a farm boy, an everyday sort of situation). Something occurs (a problem, challenge,
or request). This prompts the hero to leave behind his ordinary life and venture into the unknown.
The normality of the heros initial situation creates a bond between the hero and the audience. If an ordinary person like the hero can be called upon to set off on
some great adventure, then it could happen to anyone. The audience identifies with the hero.
The call also generates tension or conflict. Will the hero respond to the call? Should he? After all, it might be the right thing to do, but its also probably dangerous
and the hero might be better served just staying at home. This is the first step that might separate the hero from ordinary people hes chooses to accept the call into
unknown and possibly dangerous circumstances because hes a hero at heart, regardless of his ordinary upbringing.
This can differ depending on the story sometimes the hero doesnt choose to answer the call; hes forced to under various circumstances. Many times, the call may
be ignored until the hero has no choice. Frequently, a mentor or teacher of some kind provides encouragement in acceptance of the call.
Harry Potter: Harry receives the letter from Hogworts
Shrek: the invasion of Shreks swamp by all the fairy tale creatures
“Refusal of the summons converts the adventure into its negative. Walled in boredom, hard work, or ‘culture,’ the subject
loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved. His flowering world becomes a
wasteland of dry stones and his life feels meaninglesseven though, like King Minos, he may through titanic effort
succeed in building an empire or renown. Whatever house he builds, it will be a house of death: a labyrinth of cyclopean
walls to hide from him his minotaur. All he can do is create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of
Being an ordinary person, the hero may initially refuse the call. He may have other obligations, feel unworthy, feel its not
his problem, or simply be frightened.
This builds the tension further, as the audience can see the need for the hero to intervene, even when he cant. This also,
however, humanizes the hero further. The audience can relate to the reluctance to get involved or set off into the unknown.
Shrek: Shreks refusal to help Donkey
Harry Potter: Harrys refusal to accept that hes anything more than just Harry.
Stage Three: Supernatural Aid
“For those who have not refused the call, the first encounter of the hero journey is with a protective figure (often a little old crone or old man) who provides the
adventurer with amulets against the dragon forces he is about to pass. What such a figure represents is the benign, protecting power of destiny. The fantasy is a
reassurancepromise that the peace of Paradise, which was known first within the mother womb, is not to be lost; that it supports the present and stands in the future
as well as in the past (is omega as well as alpha); that though omnipotence may seem to be endangered by the threshold passages and life awakenings, protective power
is always and ever present within or just behind the unfamiliar features of the world. One has only to know and trust, and the ageless guardians will appear. Having
responded to his own call, and continuing to follow courageously as the consequences unfold, the hero finds all the forces of the unconscious at his side. Mother Nature
herself supports the mighty task. And in so far as the hero’s act coincides with that for which his society is ready, he seems to ride on the great rhythm of the historical
First, dont be confused by the word supernatural. In this instance, it doesnt necessarily mean magical or otherworldly. Campbell is using it in this case in its original
meaning: above the laws of nature. Heroes are often prompted to begin their journey by a figure who has stepped outside of the heros limited world, learned the ways
and laws of the outside world, and has now returned, wiser and able to instruct the hero as a mentor. Often this figure is an outcast of some sort in the heros world.
Because they have left the limited world of the heros origin, they may be regarded as the Other and untrustworthy. This may create a bond between the hero and the
mentor, as they both seem different to the rest of world. At other times, the mentor figure may be well respected by the community, but still somewhat remote. This
can imbue a sense of honor on the hero when the mentor chooses to assist him.
However, whether outcast or idol, the mentor figure provides the hero with the means to begin their journey. Sometimes this is through information that the mentor
figure provides; sometimes it is through some sort of object that that he/she gives to the hero which enables them to complete their quest. However, although the
mentor figure can provide the impetus to begin the journey, they are always there only to assist and guide. The mentor figure does not complete the quest for the hero.
Harry Potter: Hagrid and later Dumbledore
Shrek: Donkey instructs Shrek in how to be a friend
Stage Four: Crossing of the First Threshold
“With the personifications of his destiny to guide and aid him, the hero goes forward in his adventure until he comes to the ‘threshold guardian’ at the entrance to the zone of magnified
power. Such custodians bound the world in four directions also up and down standing for the limits of the hero’s present sphere, or life horizon. Beyond them is darkness, the
unknown and danger; just as beyond the parental watch is danger to the infant and beyond the protection of his society danger to the members of the tribe. The usual person is more
than content, he is even proud, to remain within the indicated bounds, and popular belief gives him every reason to fear so much as the first step into the unexplored. The adventure is
always and everywhere a passage beyond the veil of the known into the unknown; the powers that watch at the boundary are dangerous; to deal with them is risky; yet for anyone with
competence and courage the danger fades.”
The hero finally accepts the call. (This may or may not be after he initially refused it). This acceptance may occur because the hero realizes there is no one else available or better
qualified, or he may be forced into it. This acceptance may occur after some time has passed and the hero has had time to reflect on circumstances, or there may be further events that
clarify the need for his intervention. He may also be prompted further by his mentor figure. This is really the first step into becoming a hero. Prior to this, circumstances caught up to the
hero, but he didnt really make any choices. Now he does, and its that choice that starts him on the road to herohood.
This provides further bonding between hero and audience, because he is pursuing the role that the audiences wants him to take, and yet feels anxious about him doing so. They can put
themselves into his shoes and feel the same anxiety regarding leaving home, abandoning responsibilities, stepping into danger and the unknown, etc.
This is the point of no return. The hero has started on the journey, and regardless of what happens from this point, his life will never be what it once was. This step involves physical
action and generally movement. The hero leaves home and begins to journey to wherever he must go next. This can be a highly symbolic act, as in crossing from one realm to another
(think of the tradition of a bride being carried into her new home). Its symbolic of change and commitment leaving behind the old and accepting the new.
Often, the threshold to adventure is guarded by some kind of monster, guardian, or difficulty that must be overcome in order for the hero to prove himself or else to really emphasize
the dangers that the hero has undertaken.
Shrek: Shreks decision to confront Lord Farquaad in order to get his swamp back
Harry Potter: Harrys decision to believe Hagrid and leave with him
Stage Five: The Belly of the Whale
“The idea that the passage of the magical threshold is a transit into a sphere of rebirth is symbolized in the worldwide womb image of the belly of the whale. The hero,
instead of conquering or conciliating the power of the threshold, is swallowed into the unknown and would appear to have died. This popular motif gives emphasis to
the lesson that the passage of the threshold is a form of self-annihilation. Instead of passing outward, beyond the confines of the visible world, the hero goes inward, to
be born again. The disappearance corresponds to the passing of a worshipper into a templewhere he is to be quickened by the recollection of who and what he is,
namely dust and ashes unless immortal. The temple interior, the belly of the whale, and the heavenly land beyond, above, and below the confines of the world, are one
and the same. That is why the approaches and entrances to temples are flanked and defended by colossal gargoyles: dragons, lions, devil-slayers with drawn swords,
resentful dwarfs, winged bulls. The devotee at the moment of entry into a temple undergoes a metamorphosis. Once inside he may be said to have died to time and
returned to the World Womb, the World Navel, the Earthly Paradise. Allegorically, then, the passage into a temple and the hero-dive through the jaws of the whale are
identical adventures, both denoting in picture language, the life-centering, life-renewing act.”
This stage represents the final separation of the hero from everything that was familiar to him. He has been irrevocably changed by his acceptance of the journey, and
even if he was to quit now, he will never be the same. He has already been changed by his venture into the outside world. It has broadened his worldview and he is not
the same person. In some ways, as Campbell indicates, this is a form of rebirth. He is no longer the ordinary citizen that he was prior to beginning the journey. He has
seen new things and has been affected by them. He is aware of the world outside of his own in a way that he wasnt before.
Harry Potter: Harrys trip on the Hogworts Express and subsequent arrival at Hogwarts
Shrek: Shreks confrontation and subsequent deal with Lord Farquaad
Stage Six: The Road of Trials
“Once having traversed the threshold, the hero moves in a dream landscape of curiously fluid, ambiguous forms, where he must survive a
succession of trials. This is a favorite phase of the myth-adventure. It has produced a world literature of miraculous tests and ordeals. The
hero is covertly aided by the advice, amulets, and secret agents of the supernatural helper whom he met before his entrance into this region.
Or it may be that he here discovers for the first time that there is a benign power everywhere supporting him in his superhuman passage. The
original departure into the land of trials represented only the beginning of the long and really perilous path of initiatory conquests and
moments of illumination. Dragons have now to be slain and surprising barriers passed again, again, and again. Meanwhile there will be a
multitude of preliminary victories, unretainable ecstasies and momentary glimpses of the wonderful land.”
Upon crossing the threshold and beginning his journey, the hero will undergo a series of tests and ordeals designed for him to prove himself
worthy. These may test him physically, mentally, or spiritually. These trials also make the hero stronger, in a sense training him for his final
battle. Often, these tests appear in groupings of threes, as for many cultures, three was a symbolic number. Sometimes, the hero might fail
some of the tests, which can be part of his transformation and growth, as he must learn to deal with adversity and gain perseverance.
Shrek: Everything that happens on the way to rescue the princess in the tower
Harry Potter: Everything that happens throughout the year at Hogwarts
Stage Seven: The Meeting with the Goddess
Step Seven: The Meeting with the Goddess
“The ultimate adventure, when all the barriers and ogres have been overcome, is commonly represented as a mystical marriage of the triumphant hero-soul with the
Queen Goddess of the World. This is the crisis at the nadir, the zenith, or at the uttermost edge of the earth, at the central point of the cosmos, in the tabernacle of the
temple, or within the darkness of the deepest chamber of the heart. The meeting with the goddess (who is incarnate in every woman) is the final test of the talent of the
hero to win the boon of love (charity: amor fati), which is life itself enjoyed as the encasement of eternity. And when the adventurer, in this context, is not a youth but a
maid, she is the one who, by her qualities, her beauty, or her yearning, is fit to become the consort of an immortal. Then the heavenly husband descends to her and
conducts her to his bedwhether she will or not. And if she has shunned him, the scales fall from her eyes; if she has sought him, her desire finds its peace.”
This is the point in the heros journey when he finds a love for someone or something that becomes all-powerful, all encompassing, and unconditional. It has been
likened to the love an infant feels for its mother. This love makes the hero a better person, because its a selfless love. The hero will be willing to do great things for the
sake of this love. Keep in mind, this is not always a romantic or sexual love, and its not always for a person. This sometimes takes place entirely within the hero when
s/he no longer feels as if they are missing a part of themselves and becomes comfortable with who they are. Although Campbell symbolizes this step as a meeting with a
goddess, unconditional love and/or self unification does not have to be represented by a woman.
Again, the audience may feel a bond with the hero because they may have someone or something that they would do anything for, or they may wish they had that kind
of love. In any case, they can appreciate why this provides motivation for the hero to risk himself, and they cheer him on.
Shrek: meeting Fiona
Harry Potter: understanding of his parents sacrifice for him
Stage Eight: Woman as Temptress
“The crux of the curious difficulty lies in the fact that our conscious views of what life ought to be seldom correspond to what life really is.
Generally we refuse to admit within ourselves, or within our friends, the fullness of that pushing, self-protective, malodorous, carnivorous,
lecherous fever which is the very nature of the organic cell. Rather, we tend to perfume, whitewash, and reinterpret; meanwhile imagining that
all the flies in the ointment, all the hairs in the soup, are the faults of some unpleasant someone else. But when it suddenly dawns on us, or is
forced to our attention that everything we think or do is necessarily tainted with the odor of the flesh, then, not uncommonly, there is
experienced a moment of revulsion: life, the acts of life, the organs of life, woman in particular as the great symbol of life, become intolerable
to the pure, the pure, pure soul. The seeker of the life beyond life must press beyond (the woman), surpass the temptations of her call, and
soar to the immaculate ether beyond.”
This is the stage where the hero is confronted by temptation, sometimes of a physical nature, but not always. This temptation may lead the
hero to abandon or postpone his journey or quest. Although Campbell frames it as a woman, this is metaphorical. In Western culture, woman
has long been a metaphor for the physical or material temptations of life, thanks to Biblical stories of Eve. The woman can tempt the hero
into lust, which leads him away from his spiritual journey. Refusing this temptation is yet another test of the heros worthiness.
The audience understands temptation, but at the same time, because they are outside the story, they understand that it IS temptation and
should be rejected. Its easier for them to reject this than the hero who is living inside the story.
Shrek: Shreks battle over whether or not to put himself out there with Fiona
Harry Potter: Harry is tempted several times to just give up and let older, more experienced wizards handle everything
Stage Nine: Atonement with the Father
“Atonement consists in no more than the abandonment of that self-generated double monsterthe dragon thought to be God (superego) and the dragon thought to be Sin (repressed
id). But this requires an abandonment of the attachment to ego itself, and that is what is difficult. One must have a faith that the father is merciful, and then a reliance on that mercy.
Therewith, the center of belief is transferred outside of the bedeviling god’s tight scaly ring, and the dreadful ogres dissolve. It is in this ordeal that the hero may derive hope and
assurance from the helpful female figure, by whose magic (pollen charms or power of intercession) he is protected through all the frightening experiences of the father’s ego-shattering
initiation. For if it is …
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