Write a report based upon the application of Nonconsequentialist ethical theories learned during the course of this milestone. Your instructor has a team building exercise for you and your co-workers. Assess whether the consideration of consequences be safely eliminated from any moral system? Why do you think so? (Thiroux 59)Review the Sample for Case Study , to complete this task and meet the expectations of how the case study is to be compiled.You should cite all sources by using a number in parentheses after the sentence in which a source was utilized, keyed to a reference list below your completed answer with the full citation in MLA format. Like this:Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3). An artistic example of this can be seen in Paul Klee’s “Twittering Machine” (Klee).Works CitedBurke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method.Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive. “Klee: Twittering Machine.” 22 May 2006 http://artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.htmlSubmission SpecificationsNonconsequentialist Ethical Theory Case Study in a Microsoft Word document named LastnameFirstinitial_M2T4_CaseStudy_PHI1010.doc that includes:200-word (minimum) essayTry to answer all questions asked by your peers and/or your instructor in the same manner. Keep this discussion going until the end of the week.Every posting must be of substance, showing research, citations, and a mastery of your textbook readings as they address the question, at the very least. Avoid brief, one-line posts. Show your stuff!Cite all sources as per the guidelines provided in the Overview section.Review the Sample for Case Study for reference.Reply to at least two other postings by your peers. You may first paraphrase their response, showing that you understood what they posted (i.e., “As I understand you Mary, you are saying …”); then compare and contrast your research and ideas on the matter, doing extra research as needed and offering new information; then end with a probing question about your peers’ ideas that you would like them to answer (this should not be a yes/no type question, but a how/why/what type question).When posting, remember to always reserve the first line of your post for a title of 6 words or less that captures the core ideas or message of your postingeven when you are replying to someone.
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Sample for Case Study
In “Mr. Trumans Degree,” Elizabeth Anscombe wrote, Come now, if you had to choose between boiling
one baby and letting some frightful disaster befall a thousand peopleor a million people, if a thousand is
not enoughwhat would you do? (Anscombe 64).
She was arguing that Truman was wrong to kill innocent civilians, including babies, when he ordered the
bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Anscombe presented a deontological argument. Some acts, regardless of their consequences, are
always wrong. The word deontological comes from the Greek word deon, which translates to “duty.” For
deontologists, it is the character of the act that matters more than the consequences of an act. Immanuel
Kant is a famous deontologist. He argued that we should never do an act unless we would universally will
it. That is, we should never lie and we should never kill innocent people.
Those that justified the bombings presented both utilitarian and ethical egoist arguments. Utilitarians
argued that it is morally acceptable to kill innocent civilians, even babies, if it does the greatest good
overall. They argued that more lives were probably saved by these bombings because the war ended
shortly after these attacks.
Ethical egoists argued that it saved more American lives. We need to look out for ourselves, and it is
natural that we should value American lives over other human lives. Hence, Trumans actions were
morally justified when he ordered the bombs to be dropped.
A passage in the textbook states:
Could President Harry Truman have foreseen all of the consequences of his decision to drop the
atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II? Obviously he could determine
the more immediate consequences, such as the shortening of the war and the saving of
American lives. But could he have foreseen the long-range consequences: the cold war, the
development of the hydrogen and neutron bombs, the stockpiling of nuclear weapons to the point
of overkill, the radiation fallout and consequent pollution of the atmosphere, and so on?
Deontologists argue that certain moral rules exist that place restrictions on our conduct that cannot be
violated for the sake of any outcome. What do you think? Was bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki morally
justified? What reasons support your claim? What ethical theory supports your position? Please submit a
response of at least 150 words. You must include terminology and concepts from the textbook into your
Anscombe, G. E. M. Mr. Trumans Degree. Ethics Religion and Politics: Collected Philosophical Papers,
Vol. III. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, 1981.
Krasemann, Jacques P. Thiroux and Keith W. Ethics: Theory and Practice. 10th ed. Pearson Learning
Solutions, 2008. Web. 16 May 2017. .
Fang Yi Lin
Introduction to Ethics
Cost-Benefit Moral Analysis
Consequentialism theory describes the connection between rightfulness of acts and their
outcomes. Consequentialism is based on two principles. The first principle states that if an act
produces more good consequences, then that particular act is the most ethically right choice. The
second principle states that the rightness or wrongness of an act depends on the results or
consequences of that specific act. The consequentialism theory is applied depending on the
situation at hand. It can take the form of utilitarianism or hedonism (Pollock, 64). Under
utilitarianism, an action or decision should allow people to maximize their well-being. On the other
hand, hedonism holds that people should always maximize the pleasure of human beings.
Considering the moral dilemma in question, elimination of terrorists would require an
application of utilitarianism that maximizes on the well-being of people. Besides, utilitarianism
employs straightforward cost-benefit analysis where the calculation is considered to be indifferent
o the persons and relationships involved. In utilitarianism, ethical decisions are not based on ranks,
wealth, personal relationships, status, race or gender (Pollock, 135). In this case, I would employ
an ethical decision that promotes the well-being of human beings. The primary concern of the
organization at hand is to eliminate the terrorist. Furthermore, the organization has identified the
location of the terrorist and the only option is to use a bomb to eliminate the terrorists. The firm is
found in an ethical dilemma because eliminating the terrorist would require utilization of bomb
that can result in the death of other people. The best action that the company should take is to
eliminate the terrorist to reduce the threats that are caused to the human populace. The company
should eliminate the terrorist but should be liable to take care of the casualties involved (Byrne,
27). In this case, elimination of the terrorist will maximize the well-being of the remaining
populace and the firm at large. By eliminating the terrorist, the number of casualties that will be
reported will be less as opposed to when the terrorist is allowed to live. If he is allowed to continue
living, then the well-being of the people will not be maximized. According to utilitarianism, any
ethical decision should maximize the well-being of the people. In this case, elimination of the
terrorist will contribute to the maximum-well being of human beings both in the short-term and
Just like utilitarianism, Kantianism does not consider personal relationships in ethical
decision making. According to Kantianism, you should do unto others what you would expect
them to do unto you. According to Kantianism, the reason is the primary foundation of the moral
law. It is contrary to utilitarianism where acts or decisions are often based on happiness and human
pleasure. Kantianism employs ethical decisions which are universal and free of any contradictions
(Pollock, 175). In the application of ethical decision based on Kantianism, there are some moral
constraints that an individual is expected to abide by. In other words, one is expected to obey the
moral law in making ethical decisions. In the case at hand, Kant would argue that we should act
as we expect others to act towards us and in a way that should have universal applicability. In
other words, we should treat people in a way that would consent to treat us in the same way. In the
case of terrorism, Kantian is obligated to the terrorists. The terrorist is obligated by the moral law
to do unto others what they would expect them to do unto him. Kant will agree with the ethical
decision where the terrorist is eliminated because that is what he wants to do unto others. This
ethical decision can be considered as universal because it is for the good of both the public and the
company. The primary role of the company is to promote the well-being of the members of the
society. In this case, Kant will be obligated to eliminate the terrorist to save the society from future
threats of acts of terrorism.
I would choose utilitarianism theory because it promotes happiness and well-being of
members of the society. Utilitarianism considers the most ethically correct choices. The
application of moral law is based on quantitative calculation to help in the determination of the
ethically right choice. The ethical choice relies upon total pleasure, pain, and utility. In other words,
total pleasure less total pain should be equal to total utility. Utilitarian determine what is ethically
correct by conducting a quantitative measure of what is right and wrong. In this case, the most
ethically correct choice is to eliminate the terrorist since he is a threat to the lives of other people.
Byrne, Alan. “Resolving ethical dilemmas.” Keeping good companies 62.8 (2010): 502.
Lo, Bernard. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2013. Internet resource
Pollock, Joycelyn M. Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice. Nelson Education, 2014.
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