Write a report based upon the application of Nonconsequentialist ethical theories learned during the course of this milestone. Your instructor has a team building exercise for you and your co-workers. Assess whether the consideration of consequences be safely eliminated from any moral system? Why do you think so? (Thiroux 59)Review the Sample for Case Study , to complete this task and meet the expectations of how the case study is to be compiled.You should cite all sources by using a number in parentheses after the sentence in which a source was utilized, keyed to a reference list below your completed answer with the full citation in MLA format. Like this:Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3). An artistic example of this can be seen in Paul Klee’s “Twittering Machine” (Klee).Works CitedBurke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive. “Klee: Twittering Machine.” 22 May 2006 http://artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html Submission SpecificationsNonconsequentialist Ethical Theory Case Study in a Microsoft Word document named LastnameFirstinitial_M2T4_CaseStudy_PHI1010.doc that includes:200-word (minimum) essayTry to answer all questions asked by your peers and/or your instructor in the same manner. Keep this discussion going until the end of the week.Every posting must be of substance, showing research, citations, and a mastery of your textbook readings as they address the question, at the very least. Avoid brief, one-line posts. Show your stuff!Cite all sources as per the guidelines provided in the Overview section.Review the Sample for Case Study for reference.Reply to at least two other postings by your peers. You may first paraphrase their response, showing that you understood what they posted (i.e., “As I understand you Mary, you are saying …”); then compare and contrast your research and ideas on the matter, doing extra research as needed and offering new information; then end with a probing question about your peers’ ideas that you would like them to answer (this should not be a yes/no type question, but a how/why/what type question).When posting, remember to always reserve the first line of your post for a title of 6 words or less that captures the core ideas or message of your postingeven when you are replying to someone.
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Sample for Case Study
In “Mr. Trumans Degree,” Elizabeth Anscombe wrote, Come now, if you had to choose between boiling
one baby and letting some frightful disaster befall a thousand peopleor a million people, if a thousand is
not enoughwhat would you do? (Anscombe 64).
She was arguing that Truman was wrong to kill innocent civilians, including babies, when he ordered the
bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Anscombe presented a deontological argument. Some acts, regardless of their consequences, are
always wrong. The word deontological comes from the Greek word deon, which translates to “duty.” For
deontologists, it is the character of the act that matters more than the consequences of an act. Immanuel
Kant is a famous deontologist. He argued that we should never do an act unless we would universally will
it. That is, we should never lie and we should never kill innocent people.
Those that justified the bombings presented both utilitarian and ethical egoist arguments. Utilitarians
argued that it is morally acceptable to kill innocent civilians, even babies, if it does the greatest good
overall. They argued that more lives were probably saved by these bombings because the war ended
shortly after these attacks.
Ethical egoists argued that it saved more American lives. We need to look out for ourselves, and it is
natural that we should value American lives over other human lives. Hence, Trumans actions were
morally justified when he ordered the bombs to be dropped.
A passage in the textbook states:
Could President Harry Truman have foreseen all of the consequences of his decision to drop the
atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II? Obviously he could determine
the more immediate consequences, such as the shortening of the war and the saving of
American lives. But could he have foreseen the long-range consequences: the cold war, the
development of the hydrogen and neutron bombs, the stockpiling of nuclear weapons to the point
of overkill, the radiation fallout and consequent pollution of the atmosphere, and so on?
Deontologists argue that certain moral rules exist that place restrictions on our conduct that cannot be
violated for the sake of any outcome. What do you think? Was bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki morally
justified? What reasons support your claim? What ethical theory supports your position? Please submit a
response of at least 150 words. You must include terminology and concepts from the textbook into your
Anscombe, G. E. M. Mr. Trumans Degree. Ethics Religion and Politics: Collected Philosophical Papers,
Vol. III. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, 1981.
Krasemann, Jacques P. Thiroux and Keith W. Ethics: Theory and Practice. 10th ed. Pearson Learning
Solutions, 2008. Web. 16 May 2017. .
Yu Chen Pua
Introduction to Ethic
Moral dilemma applies to all people in their daily lives and the decisions that an
individual chooses dictates the rightness or wrongness of the dilemma. A solution to any moral
dilemma takes a moral analysis that incorporates various theories that are termed as fit in aiding
for a better solution (Kant, 45). My profession as part of a processing company entailed ensuring
quality in products and providing economic benefit to the organization. During one of my
product analysis, I found the inclusion of a preservative that could cause long-term health effects
to consumers. After consultation with the management, they decided to offer a bribe in order to
leave the situation and continue production with the same product. The moral dilemma, in this
case, was to both take the bribe and become rich or to testify the issue to the obligated authorities
and save the lives of many consumers. The outcome of choosing to refuse the bribe in this
scenario was to lose my job and at the same time affect the organizations brand and its overall
market percentage. Following this case scenario, the natural law theory can be employed to help
solve the dilemma. This theory is based on the impression that correct actions are those that
concur with natural law which is implanted in nature. In this case, choosing to take the bribe and
get rich without considering the number of consumers who will get to suffer goes against the
natural theory that believes in the importance of human life. Even though taking the bribe will
improve my life status, the justification of this action in relation to the number of lives that will
suffer from the products does not equate this action. Therefore, the performance of a bad action
with an aim to achieve good is never permissible in this theory. In favor of the natural theory, I
would choose to report the matter to the necessary authorities even though I might lose my job
and affect the company’s welfare.
Autonomy is the principle aspect towards ethical decision making since it helps to
liberate the decision creator from the subjective concerns of personal desires and prejudiced
decision-making influences. In this scenario moral universalism apply in that regardless of a
person’s origin, race or gender taking a bribe is considered morally incorrect and under even if it
is meant for personal good. Based on Kant’s categorical imperative choosing a good deed for the
sake of evil is a universal decision that applies to all societal norms, time and cultures. This
decision involves putting into consideration if the decision maker was on the receiving end of the
decision. Would the decision please him or her? A Kantian, in this case, will solve the dilemma
based on a maxim of the end that it can be a universal law for everyone that involves doing what
is morally right (Wedgwood, 795 – 814). The act of taking the bribe is wrong to everyone but on
the other hand, it is good for the person taking it. The bribe can improve the person’s livelihood
but on the other hand, people’s health will be affected. Therefore, a Kantian may decide to take
the bribe and at the same time report, the matter to the necessary authorities since doing
something good because one is inclined to it goes against a Kantian. Secondly, a Kantian can
also reluctantly decide to report the matter to the necessary authorities even though it may affect
the company’s brand and business activities.
The theory that best fits, in this case, is Kantians moral theory that elaborates that states
the rightness or goodness of a particular deed or action does not depend on the consequences but
rather on whether they complete our role. The supreme principle of morality in this case known
as categorical imperative directs towards making the best decision without being guided by a
reason but rather by what we view fit and reasonable. The act of taking a bribe is evil and
therefore making a decision based on this belief results in a failure in the decision-making
process. On the other hand, poisoning the consumers are also evil but at the same time has
benefits to the organization. Therefore, the most important theory to employ in this case is the
Katian’s moral theory that goes into a close relationship with divine command theory (Aune, 45).
This theory mostly emphasizes on following what is good but at the same time, an option is
provided to choose on what to follow based on personal view on the dilemma.
Aune, Bruce. Kant’s theory of morals. Princeton University Press, 2014.
Wedgwood, Ralph. “Two Grades of Non-consequentialism.” Criminal Law and Philosophy 10.4
Kant, Immanuel. Kant: The metaphysics of morals. Cambridge University Press, 2017.
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