Read and review the Canvas Module B, including the Writing and Q&A Guidelines PDF Read and review the Introduction, and Chapters 01 and 02 in course textbook A World of Art by SayreAfter reading and review is complete, write a complete response for ALL of the questions below (near the bottom, after all instructions and guidance points are provided). Understandably, some students are still waiting for their purchased print of Sayre World of Art to arrive via Fed Ex or UPS, and the book has still not been delivered to them. As a temporary solution, I have created and uploaded a PDF scan of the Introduction Pages, and Chapters 01 and 02, which students can use while they are waiting for their print deliveries to arrive by mail. Click on PDF below:Sayre_World of Art_Intro Pages_and_Chapter_01_02 Reduced File Size.pdfThe length of each response will vary, depending on the nature of the question. Written responses will be assessed based on the Grading Key for Written Responses Q&A and students must adhere to the Writing and Q&A Guidelines and Requirements PDF. All of the responses must be evidence-based upon the content in pages presented in this module AND previous module pages; students will NOT write opinions or interpretations of their own.EXAMPLE of a written response that meets all expectations (including citations from vocab guides, study guides, and textbook):Question: Citing from the Vocabulary Guide 1, please define Neoclassicism. Then based upon and citing from studies in the History of Western Architecture and Art, in Chapters 28 and 29, please discuss the style of Neoclassicism: what reasons specifically motivated artists and architects in late 18th Century France and United States to adopt Neoclassicism? Please respond by including a discussion of French artist Jacques-Louis David’s 1784 Oath of the Horatii painting AND American architect Robert Mills 1835 design for the United States Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. Please write a complete response to BOTH questions. This written response is best organized into three (3) or four (4) comprehensive paragraphs and will require approximately 550 to 600 words in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations. Jacques Louis David, Oath of the Horatii 1784 France Robert Mills, U.S.Treasury Building 1836-1842, United StatesWritten Response: According to the Vocabulary Guide 1, the term Neoclassicism refers to a style of art and architecture in 18th and 19th Centuries in Europe and the United States, marking a general revival of interest in the aesthetics and ideas of Classical Antiquity, that is, of ancient Greece and ancient Rome (ART 2C Vocabulary Guide 1, pg. 02). Artists in late 18th Century France were motivated to adopt Neoclassicism for reasons that were essentially political. During the late 18th Century occurred the French Revolution, in which a large-scale uprising of laboring classes both rural and urban, led by educated middle-class thinkers of the Enlightenment, successfully overthrew the French monarchy. For many French artists working during this period, the ancient Greek and Roman styles offered a visual aesthetic of simplicity, heroism and self-sacrifice that corresponded with the spirit of the French Revolution (Sterlinger, pg 217). In Neoclassical visual art, the postures and gestures of figures were modeled after ancient Roman statuary, such as the Augustus of Primaporta or the reliefs on the Column of Trajan (pg. 211). An example of this, the 1784 painting by Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, visually communicated support for the Revolution by connecting French citizens with the heroic warriors of ancient Rome. The painting represents a narrative from an ancient Roman legend involving two warring cities, and the three brothers who were willing to sacrifice their lives for the good of Rome (Sterlinger, pg. 217). David strongly believed that paintings of noble events in ancient history would encourage moral obligation, patriotism and civic virtue in revolutionary France (pg. 218). Also, the visual simplicity of the Oath of the Horatii is notable when compared to paintings of the previous Rococo and non-religious Baroque styles of the upper-class and aristocracy, respectively. In fact, the visual simplicity of the Oath of the Horatii painting had an austerity that has long been interpreted as a conscious reaction to the Rococo and Baroque styles extravagance and luxury, as well as a condemnation of the upper-class and aristocracy who maintained centuries of authoritarian rule in France (pg. 218)Like the Revolution in France, the concurrent late 18th Century American Revolution was led by educated middle-class thinkers of the Enlightenment, whose colonial and allied troops successfully overthrew the English monarchy. Also, like the art and architecture of the French Revolution, architect Robert Mills 1835 design for the new U.S. Treasury Building in Washington D.C. could not be fashioned in the previous Rococo or non-religious Baroque styles because those luxurious and extravagant styles did not reflect the values or revolutionary spirit in the new American Republic, the United States (Sterlinger, pg. 229). It is important to remember that the Neoclassical visual aesthetic was rooted in the ancient Classical period Greek style, which was a style founded in the values of rationalism, idealism, democracy and humanism. The Enlightenment thinkers of 18th Century Europe and America inspired revolutions in support of rational thinking and democracy, including separation of Church and State, the right to vote in an electoral process, the right to assemble, the right to an attorney and fair trial, and the right to publish without censorship. The Neoclassical style of clarity, order, balance and restraint was much more fitting as a visual expression of rationalism and democratic ideals — as well as morality — in the United States. In Robert Mills 1835 design for the Treasury Building in Washington D.C., the Neoclassical style was adopted to represent temperance, morality, patriotism, idealism, and civic virtue (pg. 229). Ultimately, Neoclassicism offered a conservative visual style worthy of stately buildings for the government of the United States, but with stricter moral standards for its revolutionary population (pg. 230). * Another EXAMPLE of a response that meets all expectations (including citations from study guides, textbook):Question: The Woman or “Venus” of Willendorf (ca. 28,000 – 24,000 B.C.E.) from Austria, and the Human Figure (ca. 6500 B.C.E.) from ‘Ain Ghazal, Jordan, are BOTH sculptural representations of the human form. However, these two sculptural representations were informed by significantly different historical circumstances. With this in mind, please write a comparative analysis, discussing specific ways in which the relatively much newer Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal differs from the much older “Venus” of Willendorf AND please explain how these differences seen in the Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal are representative of major historical changes for human beings. This written response is best organized into three (3) or four (4) comprehensive paragraphs, and will require approximately 700 words in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations. Woman or “Venus” of Willendorf, Austria, ca. 28,000 – 24,000 B.C.E. Paleolithic Human Figures from ‘Ain Ghazal, Jordan, ca. 6500 B.C.E. NeolithicWritten Response: The Venus of Willendorf (ca. 28,000 24,000 B.C.E.), from Austria, and the Human Figure (ca. 6500 B.C.E.), from Ain Ghazal, Jordan, are both sculptural representations of a human form; beyond this similarity, the two art works are different in almost every way. The Venus of Willendorf was created during the Paleolithic period (ca. 30,000 to 9,000 B.C.E.). This period corresponds to the last Great Ice Age, when frozen glaciers covered much of the European continent. The Paleolithic peoples were nomadic, that is, they moved from place to place following the herds of animals as the glaciers froze and thawed (Study Guide Chapter 01 pg. 01). The nomadic culture of the Paleolithic people helps to explain the very small size of the Venus of Willendorf, only 4 and 3/8 inches, because only a very small art work could be carried from place to place (Study Guide Chapter 01 pg. 02). The Venus of Willendorf is believed to have some symbolic purpose, as the Paleolithic peoples did have the capacity for spoken language and sign-making (pg. 01). The exaggerated size of the sculptures breasts, womb and belly, suggest that it might have been a symbol of female fertility, especially because survival was difficult during the Paleolithic period and healthy child-bearing women were very important (pg. 01). Beyond meanings of fertility, other analysis suggests that Paleolithic female sculptures, such as the Venus of Willendorf, were used as communication devices to create alliances between hunter-gatherer clans (Stokstad, pg. 07). This also points to the fact that survival was difficult during the Paleolithic period, and interactions and alliances among humans were highly necessary (Stokstad, pg. 07). Meanwhile, the relatively much newer Human Figure from Ain Ghazal was created during the Neolithic Period (ca. 8,000 3,500 B.C.E.). The Neolithic period corresponds to the agricultural developments occurring in various regions of the world, in which humans learned how to successfully domestic animals and grow their own food. The emerging human practice of harvesting crops and raising cattle is known historically as the Agricultural Revolution. The results of the Agricultural Revolution during the Neolithic Period allowed for another revolution to subsequently occur, that is, human settlement (Study Guide Chapter 02 pg. 01). Situated along the river valleys of the most fertile regions in the world, the Neolithic human settlements would eventually prosper and grow into densely populated urban civilizations (pg. 01). One of the historically important early urban settlements in the Neolithic Near East was Ain Ghazal, in present-day Jordan. The Human Figure from Ain Ghazal represents these major historical changes for human beings. Instead of existing as a very small hand-held form like the Venus of Willendorf, the Human Figure of Ain Ghazal is comparatively large, about 35 inches tall. This can be explained by the fact that Neolithic humans were settled and no longer nomadic; there was no longer a need to carry art works from place to place. Instead, the Neolithic humans, including those from Ain Ghazal, created large art works like the Human Figure, which was buried together with other similar figures in underground pits. Archeological evidence suggests that the Human Figure of Ain Ghazal was NOT used as a female fertility symbol or as a communication device to form alliancesas human figure sculptures were used in Paleolithic times. Instead, the Human Figure of Ain Ghazal was likely used as part of rituals related to deceased persons buried beneath the houses of Ain Ghazal. This sheds light on another important change for human beings during the Neolithic period: human settlement and surplus of food allowed spare time for creative activities including the development of more elaborate funerary rituals (Study Guide Chapter 02, pg. 02). Lastly, of note is the difference in material. Instead of being carved from stone as the prehistoric Venus of Willendorf, the Neolithic Human Figure of Ain Ghazal is created from fired lime plaster, the same material with which homes interiors were finished in Ain Ghazal, as well as houses in earlier Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük in present-day Turkey. The plaster material reinforces the connections between the Human Figure of Ain Ghazal and the urban housing growth of the Neolithic Period; additionally, it serves as a reminder of how human settlement allowed for the development of more complex systems of creating objects, including kilns and other fabrication equipment. * Students must please submit all assignments as an uploaded file in MS Word doc / MS Word docx format. There will be a 25% grade deduction for any written submission that is not correctly formatted. Formatting of MS Word doc submissions must adhere to the guidelines and examples shown in the previous module, incluing DOUBLE-SPACING all text, always including the original question and question number in the text. Questions:1.According to the “Student Tool kit” pages in the very beginning of the World of Art textbook (pages xvi and xvii), why is it important to avoid oversimplification or misrepresentation of an art object? Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to the question above.This written response is best organized into two comprehensive paragraphs, and will require approximately 100 to 150 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above. NOTE: while author Henry Sayre in the World of Art text does occasionally write in the 2nd person “you” form, the instructor of this course, Joy Holland, follows the correct standards of academic writing for colleges, universities and professional publications, in which the 2nd person “you” form is NOT used, and students are expected to do the same (there are exceptions: please see the Writing and Q&A Guidelines and Requirements PDF, Guideline 09, on page 05). 2.Please describe the 1993 site work Project to Extend the Great Wall of China by 10,000 Meters: Project for Extraterrestrials No. 10, by Chinese artist Cai Guo-Qiang. What is signficant about Dunhuang, China, the artist’s chosen origin point for this work? Please discuss Dunhuang in terms of its historical background, its religious significance, and its artistic importance. Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to all parts of the questions above. This written response is best organized into a minimum of four (4) paragraphs, and will require approximately 400 to 450 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above. 3.In Exploring Art: A Global Thematic Approach, authors Margaret Lazzari and Dona Schlesier conclude that the idea of beauty is unsupportable as a universal notion of aesthetics because, firstly, there is no worldwide agreement about what constitutes beauty and, secondly, because philosophers today consider many qualities other than beauty as significant attributes of art (Lazzari, pg 08). With this conclusion in mind and based on the information in Chapter 01 of A World of Art text, explain three (3) ways that Pablo Picasso’s 1930 painting La Baigneuse (Seated Bather) could be considered beyond the argument of beautiful versus not beautiful. Meaning, if we do NOT discuss beauty, then what else can we discuss in regards to this painting, La Baigneuse (Seated Bather), based on evidence in the text? Possible discussions include personal, biographical, historical, comical, and psychological. Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to the question. Please note that in the above question, 3 ways [ways of discussing the example art work beyond the issue of beauty] is plural; literally, three (3) ways must be explained. This written response is best organized into either one comprehensive paragraph, or 3 smaller paragraphs; and will require approximately 200 to 225 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.4.PLEASE LEAVE BLANK and move to question 5.5.The term avant garde, in French meaning vanguard or advance guard, refers to the most progressive writers, artists, musicians and other creative people who took great risks by trying unprecedented modes of expression, applicable to visual and performing arts, and literary arts. The origins of avant garde art occur in France with artists who rebelled against the strict conventions of the Academy of Fine Arts. In consideration of Marcel Duchamp, an early pioneer in conceptual art, please decribe his 1912 painting Nude Descending a Staircase and explain why this painting is now considered visionary and ahead of his time?Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to BOTH questions. This written response is best organized into two (2) or three (3) comprehensive paragraphs and will require approximately 300 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above. 6. PLEASE LEAVE BLANK and move to Question 7.7. One vocabulary term studied in this course is realism (see Vocabulary Guide 1 PDF), which can refer to visual art of any period or location, so long as the art work strives for an accurate representation of the visible world with NO idealization, NO embellishment and NO stylization; because most visual art is stylized, embellished and/or idealized, the occurrence of realism is rare in art. Another vocabulary term studied in this course is naturalism (see Vocabulary Guide 1 PDF), which is a method of representation in visual arts based on close observation of the natural world in the attempt to adhere to the appearance of nature (plants, animals, landscape, human figures); naturalistic visual art is often also stylized, embellished, idealized or subjective, and is very common in almost all art. With this in mind, would it be correct OR incorrect to consider Albert Bierstadt’s 1870 painting Puget Sound in the Pacific Coast a work of realism? Please explain why. What would be a more accurate way to describe this painting? Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to all three (3) questions. This written response is best organized into comprehensive paragraphs, and will require approximately 225 to 250 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.8. PLEASE LEAVE BLANK and move to question 9.9.The term iconography is described in the Chapter 02 text as a system of visual images whose meanings are understood by a particular culture or cultural group (Sayre, pg. 39). What are three (3) examples of iconography in the 1982 work Charles the First by Jean-Michel Basquiat?To which culture or cultural group(s) is Basquiat’s iconography most meaningful and why? Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to BOTH questions. This written response is best organized into at multiple comprehensive paragraphs, and will require approximately 400 to 450 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.
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