Hi,I need your help to write 2 pages article review.Please see the attached files for the instruction and the Article.Thanks,
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The article review should be a minimum of 2 pages (double spaced). You
may choose from the six research articles available on Desire2Learn. Your
review should not only be a summary of the article but should also
include your own thoughts and reflections about the methodology and
findings of the study itself. See the instructions below about the 4 major
sections that should be included in your review.
The review will be graded pass/fail, but if you do not follow instructions
you will not receive credit.
1 inch margins
Times new roman font size 12 font
Spell checked with correct grammar (the writing center in the library
is a good place to go for help with this)
The following questions should serve as a guide for your paper.
For the introduction, you should discuss the background and major
conceptual framework given for the study, as well as provide a summary
of the questions, purposes, and hypotheses of the study.
– Clearly state the major research question(s)
– What is the purpose of the study?
– What are the concepts under investigation in this study?
– What major background research has been done on the topic in the
– State the hypothesis or hypotheses of the study
Participants: Who were the participants in the study (How many? Male or
female? Other important characteristics to note?
Materials: What, if any, equipment was used for the study? What
measures were used for the study?
Procedure: What were the steps involved in collecting the data?
What statistical analyses were performed?
What were the major statistical findings?
– Was the hypothesis of this study supported by the findings? Why or
– How do the major findings of this study relate to past research in this
What do you think are the strengths of the study?
What do you think are the limitations of the study?
What future research do you think should be conducted in this area?
*** Do not copy or plagiarize work from the article or any other source. See me if you need
help ensuring that you have not plagiarized. Plagiarism is taken seriously in this course and
the consequences are severe. See the syllabus or me if you would like further clarification on
the plagiarism policy. Here is an additional link if you would like to complete a tutorial on
British Journal of Psychology (2012)
C 2012 The British Psychological Society
Beauty is in the eye of the beer holder: People
who think they are drunk also think
they are attractive
Laurent Be`gue1* , Brad J. Bushman2,3 , Oulmann Zerhouni1 ,
Baptiste Subra4 and Medhi Ourabah5
University of Grenoble 2, France
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
University of Paris Descartes, France
University of Paris 8, Saint-Denis, France
This research examines the role of alcohol consumption on self-perceived attractiveness.
Study 1, carried out in a barroom (N = 19), showed that the more alcoholic drinks
customers consumed, the more attractive they thought they were. In Study 2, 94 nonstudent participants in a bogus taste-test study were given either an alcoholic beverage
(target BAL [blood alcohol level] = 0.10 g/100 ml) or a non-alcoholic beverage, with
half of each group believing they had consumed alcohol and half believing they had
not (balanced placebo design). After consuming beverages, they delivered a speech and
rated how attractive, bright, original, and funny they thought they were. The speeches
were videotaped and rated by 22 independent judges. Results showed that participants
who thought they had consumed alcohol gave themselves more positive self-evaluations.
However, ratings from independent judges showed that this boost in self-evaluation was
unrelated to actual performance.
Beauty is in the eye of the beer holder
Alcohol has many consequences on social perception and relationships. After a drink,
intoxicated people see members of the opposite sex through beer goggles, which makes
them look especially attractive (Jones, Jones, Thomas, & Piper, 2003; Lyvers, Cholakians,
Puorro, & Sundram, 2011; Neave, Tsang, & Heather, 2008). But alcohol can also influence
self-perceptions. Previous research on alcohol and self-awareness has found that alcohol
reduces self-awareness by inhibiting self-relevant encoding processes (Hull, Levenson,
Young, & Sher, 1983). The purpose of the present research is to test the hypothesis
* Correspondence should be addressed to Laurent Be`gue, University of Grenoble 2, LIP, 1251, Av. Centrale, BP47, 38040
Grenoble, France (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Laurent Be`gue et al.
that alcohol consumption increases self-perceived attractiveness. Whereas meta-analytic
reviews indicate that alcohol consumption enhances mood and sexual arousal (Hull &
Bond, 1986), the link between alcohol consumption and self-perceived attractiveness
remains to be clarified and theoretically developed.
In order to understand the link between alcohol and self-processes, we relied
on the dual-process model of alcohol-related behaviour (Moss & Albery, 2009; see
also Moss & Albery, 2010; Wiers & Stacy, 2010). This model suggests that although
alcohol consumption disrupts cognitive controlled processes, the mind may still become
intoxicated even in the absence of alcohol consumption (Moss & Albery, 2009). For
example, when people believe that they are intoxicated, they behave more aggressively
(Be`gue et al., 2009), and show more sexually disinhibited behaviours (Crowe & Georges,
1989). Various studies indicate that the effects of alcohol on human cognition and
behaviour should distinguish pharmacological and social psychological consequences
of alcohol consumption. In the field of sexual arousal, for example, a meta-analytic
review indicated that alcohol consumption had a non-significant effect on sexual arousal,
whereas the mere expectation of drinking alcohol significantly increased sexual arousal
(Hull & Bond, 1986). From this perspective, behaviours that are disinhibited after
drinking a placebo can be understood as a consequence of the activation of alcoholrelated concepts in memory. In one study, the mere subliminal activation of alcoholrelated concepts caused men to rate the faces of women as more sexually attractive
(Friedman, McCarty, Forster, & Denzler, 2005).
Drunkenness is thus not merely a physiological consequence of alcohol, but involves
complex interactions of both limited processing capacities (myopia theory, see below)
and chronically and temporarily activated mental representations that make certain
patterns of responding more accessible (expectancy theory, see below). According to the
dual-process model of the alcohol behaviour (Moss & Albery, 2009), a full understanding
of alcohol effects has to integrate both pharmacological and extra-pharmacological
consequences of alcohol on human cognition and behaviour. Expectancies are the first
component of the model. They are considered as the result of learned associations
between alcohol-related representations in memory. The sources of this associative
process could be referred to as conditioning (Hull & Bond, 1986) or vicarious learning
(Bandura, 1965). For example, content analyses show that media characters who
drink alcohol are generally depicted as more attractive than those who do not drink
alcohol (McIntosh, 1999). Hence, to the extent that people strongly endorse alcoholself-enhancement expectancies, concepts of alcohol and attractiveness would be
linked together in memory. According to alcohol expectancy theory, alcohol-related cues
could implicitly activate alcohol-related expectancies, which could, in turn, affect social
judgements and behaviours that are in line with these alcohol-related expectancies. The
concept of alcohol expectancy is based on a semantic network model of memory (Collins
& Quillian, 1969), which posits that concepts that frequently co-occur, or share a similar
meaning, are stored close together in memory. When one concept is activated, other
related concepts also become more accessible through a spreading activation process
(Collins & Loftus, 1975). For instance, social knowledge regarding alcohol effects is
automatically activated in memory during the natural course of perception, without
awareness or intention. Knowledge activation, in turn, shapes and guides peoples
impressions, judgements, feelings, and intentions without awareness that such influence
is occurring (see Bargh & Erin, 2006; Bargh & Ferguson, 2000; Ferguson & Bargh, 2004).
Another aspect of the dual-process model is related to the physiological consequences
of alcohol consumption. According to the attention allocation model, alcohol has a
Alcohol and perceived attractiveness
myopic or narrowing effect on attention (Giancola & Corman, 2007; Steele & Josephs,
1990), which causes people to focus attention on the most salient cues and to not
pay attention to more subtle or distal cues. Alcohol myopia is therefore defined as
a state of short-sightedness in which superficially understood, immediate aspects of
experience have a disproportionate influence on behaviours and emotions (Steele &
Josephs, 1990). Although a sober individual can consider a range of information more
or less salient before responding to a social situation, an intoxicated individual will be
less concerned with consideration distal in time and place because he will be captive
of an impoverished version of reality in which the breadth, depth, and timeline of his
understanding will be affected. Various studies show that intoxicated people no longer
have the prerequisite processing skills to attend to all of the multiple cues involved in
social behaviour (Streufert, Pogash, & Gingrich, 1993) and seek cognitive closure (Lange,
In our study on perceived attractiveness, two hypotheses were possible. First, alcohol
could lead to a general increase of perceived attractiveness, because being attractive is a
salient feature of the self. Second, alcohol could produce more polarized responses such
that attractive people would judge themselves even more attractive, whereas unattractive
people would judge themselves as even less attractive.
Overview of present research
The present research investigates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-perceived
attractiveness. In Study 1, carried out in a barroom, we analyse the relationship between
an objective measure of intoxication (i.e., breathalyser reading) and self-perceived
attractiveness. Study 2, an experimental study, clarifies the causal link between alcohol
consumption and self-perceived attractiveness using a balanced placebo design (Marlatt
& Rohsenow, 1980), which allows one to separate the pharmacological effects of alcohol
from the psychological effects of alcohol. In Study 2, objective measure of attractiveness
were also obtained by independent raters to determine whether the effects of alcohol
consumption on self-perceived attractiveness are grounded in reality, or whether they
are simply an illusion of the drinker.
Study 1 provided an initial test of the hypothesis that intoxicated people think they
are more attractive than sober people do. One major strength of Study 1 is that it was
conducted in a naturalistic setting a barroom.
Participants were 19 customers (63% males; M age = 22.5, SD = 5.0, range = 1940)
in a barroom in Grenoble, France. They received a lottery ticket in exchange for their
Participants rated how attractive, bright, original, and funny they felt at the moment
(1 = not at all to 7 = extremely; Cronbachs ? = .71; M = 4.27, SD = 1.11). Next, we
Laurent Be`gue et al.
estimated blood alcohol level (BAL) using a breathalyser (Draeger 5100S; M = 0.34%,
SD = 0.38). A debriefing followed.
Results and Discussion
Because they were not normally distributed, BAL values were transformed using a natural
log function. As expected, the higher the BAL, the more attractive participants thought
they were, r = .56, p = .012.
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that intoxicated people think they
are more attractive than sober people do. Because of the correlational nature of Study
1, however, we cannot rule out the possibility that individuals who think they are
attractive tend to drink more in barrooms, or that some third factor is related to perceived
attractiveness and alcohol consumption.
Study 1 also does not allow one to determine whether it is the actual consumption
of alcohol or the mere belief that one has consumed alcohol that relates to perceived
attractiveness. In the real world it is impossible to separate the pharmacological and
expectancy effects of alcohol, but in the laboratory it is possible to separate them using a
balanced placebo design (Marlatt & Rohsenow, 1980). Study 2 was therefore carried
out to disentangle both possible origins of the alcohol-self-perceived attractiveness
Study 1 also did not allow us to test whether intoxicated participants were, in fact,
more attractive. We wanted to conduct videotaped interviews with barroom patrons,
and then show these interviews to independent judges, but this was not possible. Study
2 also overcomes this weakness of Study 1.
In Study 2, we experimentally tested the expectancy and pharmacological effects of
alcohol consumption on self-evaluated attractiveness. Participants drank a beverage that
contained or did not contain alcohol. Within each group, half were told the beverage
contained alcohol and half were told it contained no alcohol. Next, participants delivered
a message that was filmed, supposedly to be used in future advertisements for the
beverage. After watching the filmed message, participants rated how attractive, bright,
original, and funny they thought they were. We predicted that alcohol consumption
would increase self-perceived attractiveness, as in Study 1. However, we were unsure
whether this effect would be due to the pharmacological effects of alcohol, the
expectancy effects of alcohol, or both.
As an objective measure of how attractive participants were, independent judges,
blind to beverage conditions, also rated participants on the same dimensions. Because
the judges were sober, we predicted that alcohol consumption would be unrelated to
this objective measure of attractiveness.
Participants were 94 French men. Three did not follow instructions, and two in placebo
condition and three participants in anti-placebo condition suspected a discrepancy
between what they were told concerning their beverage and what they were actually
Alcohol and perceived attractiveness
given. We therefore excluded them from the sample. Thus, the final sample included
86 men (M age = 27, SD = 7). Participants were recruited via newspaper advertisements
for a taste-test study and were paid 14 ($21) per hour. Men who responded to the ads
were interviewed over the phone, ostensibly to determine if they were allergic to any
foods, including alcohol. Potential at-risk drinkers were identified by the CAGE screening
test for alcohol dependence (Beresford, Blow, Hill, Singer, & Lucey, 1990), and were
excluded from the study.
Participants were told the private research firm Stat-Food (actually a bogus company)
was conducting a taste-test study at a community health centre. Participants fasted from
food and drink (except water) for 3 hr prior to their scheduled appointment (Millar,
Hammersley, & Finnigan, 1992). A physician verified that each participant was healthy.
After informed consent was obtained, participants were randomly assigned to
beverage conditions in a balanced placebo design. The balanced placebo design is a
2 × 2 factorial design that crosses alcohol content (participants drink a beverage that
contains either alcohol or no alcohol) with alcohol-related expectancies (participants
are told that their beverage either contains or does not contain alcohol). The major
strength of the balanced placebo design is that it allows researchers to untangle the
pharmacological effects of alcohol from the expectancy effects of alcohol.
Unfortunately, suspicion is often very high in the balanced placebo design, as high
as 90% in some studies (Martin & Sayette, 1993). Three different types of cues can make
participants suspicious: (1) internal cues (i.e., participants in the placebo condition
do not feel intoxicated even though they are told their beverage contains alcohol;
participants in the anti-placebo condition feel intoxicated even though they are told
their beverage contains no alcohol); (2) gustative cues (i.e., participants in the placebo
condition expect to taste alcohol, but do not taste it; participants in the anti-placebo
condition do not expect to taste alcohol, but they taste it), and (3) instructional cues
(e.g., manipulation checks make participants question the actual content of the beverage,
cover stories are not believable). In Study 2, as in our previous research (e.g., Be`gue
et al., 2009), we attempt to reduce suspicion by focusing on all three cues. We handled
the issue of internal cues indirectly by using several distracting tasks to divert participants
attention away from their bodily sensations. Previous alcohol research has shown that
distraction decreases the salience of interoceptive cues (Rohsenow & Marlatt, 1981).
The issue of gustative cues was handled by a major change in typical procedures used
in alcohol-related research. In the anti-placebo condition, participants were told that
we were testing a new non-alcoholic beverage that tasted like alcohol, for people who
appreciated the taste of alcohol but wished to avoid drinking alcohol. In the placebo
group, we mixed a small quantity of alcohol in the beverage, placed alcohol on the surface
of the beverage, and sprayed alcohol on the rim of the glass. We handled the issue of
instructional cues by disguising the study as a taste-test study. In addition to handling
these three cues, we also used people from the general population as participants,
because they are far less suspicious about psychological studies than college students
Each participant was given three cold isovolemic glasses that contained a cocktail of
grapefruit and grenadine cordial, mint, and lemon concentrate. For half the participants,
the beverage contained 2.01 oz of pure alcohol to target a peak BAL of 0.10 g/100 ml.
The dose was not adjusted, except when the participants weight was more than 20 kg
Laurent Be`gue et al.
under or over the median weight (75 kg). Within each group, half the participants were
told that the beverage contained alcohol (the equivalent of five to six shots of vodka),
whereas the remaining participants were told that the beverage contained no alcohol.
In the expected alcohol conditions, the rims of the glasses were sprayed with alcohol
immediately prior to serving. The drinks were mixed by a research assistant, allowing
the experimenter to be blind to beverage condition.
Participants were given 10 min to consume their beverage. Next, they were given
5 min to write an advertising message that would allegedly be used by the (bogus)
company Stat-Food to promote their products. Participants then evaluated their drinks,
which took 15 additional minutes (giving time for alcohol absorption for participants
who consumed an alcoholic beverage and distracting participants who consumed a
placebo beverage from focusing on internal cues). Next, participants delivered their
advertising message on a stage while a female experimenter filmed them. After the
recording, participants …
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