To prepare:Consider the issues or concerns you might have when developing an evaluation plan. Reflect on the ethical issues you and your colleagues identified in the Week 9 Discussion.Reflect on potential limitations and opportunitiesTHENIn no more than 10 pages, aggregate all of your work on the Evaluation Project so far into a single document. This document should contain:Your PICO questionAn explanation of the goals of your evaluation planLiterature review (with summary table as an appendix)Evaluation methodology (including research design)Evaluation toolA description of any ethical issues or concerns you may have with implementing your plan and how you could handle them if they aroseA summary of the criteria you will use to define the success of your plan and how you will disseminate findingsAn outline of limitations to the scope of the plan and opportunities resulting from your evaluation plan
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Health Information System
Assignment 2: Application: Evaluation Project Part 4: Evaluation Methodology
This is a descriptive and experimental study that employs mixed methods of data
collection as well as analysis in regard to the adoption of the proposed integrated Health Care
Information System (HIS). The approach will be both quantitative and qualitative. The aim of
this particular study is to expound on the available information regarding the adoption and use of
a Healthcare Information System with special emphasis on Electronic Health Records section.
The Electronic Health Records System is aimed at enhancing the patient service delivery in the
healthcare institutions by synchronizing patient information in a common database that will be
accessible by the healthcare institutions. One of the critical features under scrutiny is the uniform
access of information such as patients historical health data within a synchronized database
accessible by health institutions to ensures that patients can be quickly diagnosed without having
to query their medication history as it will be available.
The qualitative aspect of this research is driven by the desire to observe both the
conventional manual entry and retrieval methods of patient data records as well as the use of the
new electronic system in action.
Data Collection Methods
Data collection will involve both qualitative and quantitative methods. The approaches to
be used include reports from the records department of a medical institution. An examination of
the patient registration process both for first time patients and returning patients will also be
done. Conversations with patients who have been served in the healthcare institution will also be
used as a method to analyze how they rate their experience of the quality of service.Information
will also be gathered across multiple sites of study within the electronic patient recording scope
to find out examples of institutions that have used this method and succeeded. An analysis of
how the healthcare institutions rate the use of an electronic HIS in comparison to the manual
record keeping method will also be done to determine the likelihood of the staff being receptive
of the new HIS system.
The second phase of data collection will also include a survey of how the patients rate the
electronic HIS. It will be solely focused on action research of the initial use of the HIS in a
healthcare set up.Questionnaires will also be administered to the patients in order to gather their
experience about the system.
Description of the Context of this Research
The aim of this research is to enhance service delivery in a healthcare institution to both
nurses and patients. This will be necessitated by the use of an electronic Healthcare Information
System (HIS) to record patient data in a database accessible by health institutions for the purpose
of reducing the frequency of medication errors currently experienced under the semi-manual
In this study, I will employ a data analysis framework proposed by Carol Mutch (2005).
This involves browsing the collected information with an open mind to decipher what it
communicates. The second aspect will be a keen analysis of the repetitive aspects within the data
collected. Then an analysis of the outstanding themes within the data collected will also be used
to draw useful conclusions aimed at ensuring a seamless implementation of the new Electronic
Health Records (EHR) system.
Measurement of Success of the New System
The success of the new system will be base on three key pillars. The first pillar will be
whether it meets the approved standards of ethics in practice of the nursing profession. The
second pillar will be whether the percentage of the errors currently experienced in regard to
patient data records will be significantly reduced by at least 70%. The third pillar will be
determination of whether the confidentiality of the patient health records will be upheld
according to the regulations governing the privacy of individual information.
Ludwick, D. A., & Doucette, J. (2009). Adopting electronic medical records in primary care:
lessons learned from health information systems implementation experience in seven
countries. International journal of medical informatics, 78(1), 22-31.
Mutch, C. (2013). Doing educational research. Nzcer Press.
Nguyen, L., Bellucci, E., & Nguyen, L. T. (2014). Electronic health records implementation: an
evaluation of information system impact and contingency factors. International journal
of medical informatics, 83(11), 779-796.
SLEEP HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Over the decade of time, the health care system, especially in the United States, have
shown a critical perpetuation in healthcare related issues, therefore causing an overwhelming
experience in the American Nurse Association and the healthcare organization at large. From the
paper, it is evident that sleep health disorders majorly cause many healthcare related issues,
(Ford et al. 2015), Such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) a mental illness. According to Buysse,
(2013) the term Sleep Health can be defined as a multifaceted pattern of sleep or wakefulness
which adapted to an individual, environmental demands, and socially that actively supports the
physical and the mental well-being of a person, (Buysse, 2013). Therefore, examples of sleep
disorders include Sleep Apnea, Insomnia, parasomnias, Restless Leg Syndrome, and narcolepsy.
Therefore, in this paper, I will discuss the project evaluation of sleep health and its preventive
The sleep health can be caused by many factors which can be categorized into four folds
such as the physical disturbances, psychiatric disorders, medical issues, and finally
environmental issues. Many individuals have shown fighting this sleep disorders on a daily basis,
and to subside the sleep disorders many American citizens are under medications and treatment
such Melatrol natural sleep support, which take for them to sleep. In the paper, it revealed that
the concept of Epidemiology relates to sleep health in one way or the other. Therefore, this term
epidemiology refers to the study of health-related issues, states or incidents such as disease and
to control symptoms and conditions of other health issues on how they distributed. In other
words, this study helps in knowing the extent to which it’s distributed to control the spread of
diseases to other countries.
This study is classified into two domains called convection (Classical) and standard.
Therefore, this study relates to sleep health on the basis of helping doctors to be able to
prevent further spread by putting up preventive measures to it. By first knowing the
population affected by the disease and the time frame, which will help to estimate in
perception of the essential needs of the health status in the relation of identifying between the
demand and the need thereof, (Ibrahim, 2015). Therefore, this principle helps to provide
quality health care services that are heavily dependent on medicine, which results in having
the goal of improving the sleep disorder of the affected population through management.
This is achieved through the usage of bringing variations through studying the geographical
coverage, its ethnicity and other related issue such as gender, therefore bringing about the
outcome of the measurements through the required procedures. In addition, they can
implement the use of diagrams in relation to how many doctors or physicians are on the
In conclusion, healthy sleep is a vital key in the life of every individual, which helps
people to relax and be able to concentrate. Therefore, every American individual is advised
to make sure the undergo treatment and diagnosed with health disorders. Its essential for the
government also to be part of this project evaluation process in order to help us curb sleep
health disease and better the lives of patients.
Michel A. Ibrahim, (2015): Epidemiology and the Delivery of Health Care Services:
Methods and Applications, Second Edition American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 155,
Issue 6, 15 March 2002, Pages 580581, https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/155.6.580-a
Ford, E. S., Cunningham, T. J., & Croft, J. B. (2015). Trends in self-reported sleep
duration among US adults from 1985 to 2012. Sleep, 38(5), 829-832.
American Thoracic Society. (2017). Sleep Apnea may increase risk of developing
Alzheimer’s disease. Science Daily. Retrieved April 6, 2018 from
Buysee, D. J,. (2013). Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter?. Sleep, 37 (1),
How Nurses have embraced the use of healthcare information system as opposed to old semimanual process to decrease medication errors
This study aims to figure out how the introduction of healthcare information system as opposed
to old semi-manual process to decrease medical error. The exploration of the way nurses uses
this informations which are captured, stored and eventually transmitted to get access to the
information related to the health of an individual. Healthcare Information system will be
analyzed against semi-manual process to see how it has reduced medical errors. Participants
included Nurses from various hospitals who have practically used the system and has seen its
effects on medical error. An ethnographic study would be used to compare both the healthcare
Information System and old semi-manual process, and their effects on healthcare.
Healthcare Information System and Old Semi-manual process are reviewed separately here due
to the tremendous differences in the two. In this study, they will be compared against one another
to analyze the differences and similarities in how medical errors have decreased.
Healthcare Information System
Health Information System is used in capturing, storing and transmitting health-related
information to nurses within health sectors. These have helped in sound decision making as
healthcare statistics are disaggregated in different parts. The healthcare Information System has
reduced medical errors as Nurses are now more organized and efficient. These are achieved
because everything related to the patients can be tracked, files can easily be accessed from the
system, this has done away with hard data and loose papers. Information in the system cannot be
manipulated as the nurses have no permission to update, delete or change any information
records. Patients right information can be reviewed anytime to avoid confusion which can lead to
an error. Patients confidentiality is maintained as the nurses adhere to patients privacy.
Online service for brain cancer detection and its types prediction using support vector
machines with enhanced naive Bayes Classifier.
In this paper, efficient online service for brain cancer prediction and prediction types are
based on SVM with Enhanced Naïve Bayes Classifier algorithm. Data sets of the patients are
stored in MySql software. Precondition patters and Questionnaire are made using Eclipse Indigo
with MS SQL software and finally managed in the database. The respondent to the
Questionnaires can access them through a web browser (Kavitha, & Chellamuthu, 2015). Later
the SVM categorizes the data set into brain cancer data hence brain tumor dataset is enhanced
using naïve Bayes Classifier thus a brain cancer is found.
Systems for storing, analyzing, retrieving and displaying medical data
Healthcare facilities have devices which monitor patients and are always placed at the
bedsides. These devices have sensors, processing equipment, and displays for obtaining and
analyses medical parameters like saturation level, blood oxygen, and respiratory rate. The results
of the parameters are used by the nurses for diagnosis and prescribing treatment. The nurses can
also use the parameter to monitor the patient in case there is a need for increased medical care.
When some of the parameters exceed safe threshold and alarm is triggered (Muhsin, Sampath, &
Gruber, 2015). Alarm functions are embedded on the patients monitoring devices, and this
enables immediate response by the nurses. This device has many patients to be monitored at the
same time from a central place.
Systems and Method of exchanging information among exchanged application
Health facilities have used healthcare information system to exchange patients medical
information among medical practitioners. These have helped in situations of emergencies and
where patients cannot communicate (Eisner, & Oancea, 2018). These have helps to reduce deaths
and errors which could have occurred due to communication gap.
Medical error is the third leading cause of death in the US. Factors like communication
breakdown, poor judgment, diagnosis error and inadequate skills have led to harm and even
death of patients. Medical error is then seen as a failure to complete planned action,
implementing incorrect plans, deviating from care process which may harm the patient. A
mistake can end the life of a person who could have lived longer and mostly caused by moving
away from care process (Makary, & Daniel, 2016). Lack of information is also a cause of
medical error as nurses may lack knowledge during an outbreak and may end up prescribing
Reducing the Frequency of Errors in Medicine Using Information Technology
The paper talks about how frequency and consequence of error can be minimized by
use of information technology in providing care services. The system needs to be tested before
use; it is also able to communicate with one another ( Bates, Cohen, & Sheridan, 2001).
Therefore transformation from old semi-manual process to the use of healthcare information
system has dramatically reduced medical error.
Kavitha, & Chellamuthu, (2015). Online service for brain cancer detection and its types
prediction using support vector machine with enhanced naive Bayes classifier. International
Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 17(1), 55-71.
Muhsin, Sampath, & Gruber, (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,142,117. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office.
Eisner, & Oancea, (2018). U.S. Patent No. 9,860,348. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and
Makary, & Daniel, (2016). Medical error-the third leading cause of death in the US. BMJ:
British Medical Journal (Online), 353.
Bates, Cohen, & Sheridan, (2001). Reducing the frequency of errors in medicine using
information technology. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 8(4), 299308.
Finalized PICO Question
Finalized PICO Question
Does it mean that if nurses embrace the use of healthcare information system as opposed to old
semi-manual processes will result in decreased medication errors?
I- Use of healthcare information system
C- Old semi-manual processes
O- Decreased medication errors
In the revised question, I have adopted two suggestions to make the question measurable
o P- Replaced healthcare professionals with nurses
o O-Replaced improved patient care with decreased medication errors
I have retained the following variables
o I-use of healthcare information system
o C- Old semi-manual processes
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