Design an employee benefits program for your dream job and discuss pay structure; include thoughts about flex-time. Please reference the textbook as specific information must be included in your benefits package. [REF: Chpts. 9 and 14]* Discuss strategies and methods* Remember
this is your dream job so also be creative.* Minimum 3 pages This must be written up as a business report…therefore, you are typing up an actual paper, NOT a document; hence do not bullet, you must explain/expound.
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100 points total
DeNisi, Angelo; Griffin, Ricky. HR (New, Engaging Titles from 4LTR Press) SouthWestern College Pub. Kindle Edition.
Compensation and Benefit
DETERMINING WHAT TO PAY
After a compensation strategy has been chosen, it is necessary to
determine exactly what employees on a given job should be paid. The
starting point in this effort has traditionally been job evaluation. We
will briefly describe this more traditional method first, but then discuss
a more innovative and strategic approach to determining what to pay.
9-2a Job-Evaluation Methods
Job evaluation is a method for determining the relative value or worth
of a job to the organization so that individuals who perform that job
can be compensated adequately and appropriately. In other words, job
evaluation is mostly concerned with establishing internal pay equity.
Several job-evaluation techniques and methods have been
established.13 Among the most commonly used are classification,
point, and factor-comparison systems.
The classification system for job evaluation attempts to group sets of
jobs together into clusters, which are often called grades.
The point system for job evaluation requires managers to quantify, in
objective terms, the value of the various elements of specific jobs.
DETERMINING WHAT TO PAY
The point manual, used to implement the point system of job
evaluation, carefully and specifically defines the degrees of points from
first to fifth.
The factor-comparison method for job evaluation assesses jobs, on a
factor-by-factor basis, using a factor-comparison scale as a benchmark.
Pay for Knowledge and Skill-Based Pay
Pay for knowledge involves compensating employees for learning
Skill-based pay rewards employees for acquiring new skills.
WAGE AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION
Wage and salary administration is the ongoing process of managing a
wage and salary structure.
Pay secrecy refers to the extent to which the compensation of any
individual in an organization is secret or the extent to which
information on compensation is formally made available to other
Pay compression occurs when individuals with substantially different
levels of experience, performance abilities, or both are paid wages or
salaries that are relatively equal.
In pay inversion, the external market changes so rapidly that new
employees are actually paid more than experienced employees.
Unemployment insurance, a mandated protection plan, is intended to
provide a basic subsistence payment to employees who are between
Social Security (officially the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance
Program), another mandated program, was originally designed to
provide limited income to retired individuals to supplement their
personal savings, private pensions, part-time work, and so forth.
Workers compensation, another mandated protection program, is
insurance that covers individuals who suffer a job-related illness or
Private pension plans are prearranged plans administered by the
organization that provides income to employees at their retirement.
Defined benefit plans are private pension plans in which the size of the
benefit is precisely known and is usually based on a simple formula
using input such as years of service.
Defined contribution plans are private pension plans in which the size
of the benefit depends on how much money is contributed to the plan.
Wellness programs are special benefits programs that concentrate on
keeping employees from becoming sick rather than simply paying
expenses when they do become sick.
Cafeteria-style benefits plan allows employees to choose those benefits
they really want.
DeNisi, Angelo; Griffin, Ricky. HR (New, Engaging Titles from 4LTR Press)
South-Western College Pub. Kindle Edition.
Performance Appraisal and Career Management
A performance appraisal is the specific and formal evaluation of an
employee to determine the degree to which the employee is
performing his or her job effectively.
Performance management is the general set of activities carried out by
the organization to change (improve) employee performance.
METHODS FOR APPRAISING PERFORMANCE
The simple ranking method involves having the manager rankorder
each member of a particular work group or department from top to
bottom or from best to worst.
In the paired-comparison method of performance appraisal, each
individual employee is compared with every other individual employee,
two at a time.
The critical incident method relies on instances of especially good or poor
performance on the part of the employee.
A behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) is an appraisal system that represents
a combination of the graphic rating scale and the critical incident method.
A behavioral observation scale (BOS) is developed from critical incidents like a
BARS but uses substantially more critical incidents to define specifically all the
measures necessary for effective performance.
A goal-based or management-byobjectives (MBO) system is based largely on the
extent to which individuals meet their personal performance objectives.
OTHER ISSUES IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
A distributional error occurs when the rater tends to use only one part of the
A halo error occurs when one positive performance characteristic causes the
manager to rate all other aspects of performance positively.
A horns error occurs when the manager downgrades other aspects of an
employees performance because of a single performance dimension.
Contextual performance refers to tasks an employee does on the job that are not
required as part of the job but that still benefit the organization in some way.
A career is the set of experiences and activities that people engage in related to
their job and livelihood over the course of their working life.
Exploration is the first traditional career stage and involves identifying interests
The establishment stage of the traditional career model involves creating a
meaningful and relevant role in the organization.
The maintenance stage involves optimizing talents or capabilities.
The fourth traditional career stage, disengagement, involves the individual
gradually beginning to pull away from work in the organization. Priorities change,
and work may become less important.
10-6b The Importance of Career Planning
The individual assessment phase of career planning requires that individuals
analyze carefully what they perceive to be their own abilities, competencies,
skills, and goals.
Career counseling involves interaction between an individual employee or
manager in the organization and either a line manager or an HR manager.
DeNisi, Angelo; Griffin, Ricky. HR (New, Engaging Titles from 4LTR Press)SouthWestern College Pub. Kindle Edition
DeNisi, Angelo; Griffin, Ricky. HR (New, Engaging Titles from 4LTR Press)SouthWestern College Pub. Kindle Edition.
Managing Labor Relations
THE ROLE OF LABOR UNIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS
Labor relations is the process of dealing with employees who are represented by
A labor union is a legally constituted group of individuals working together to
achieve shared, job-related goals, including higher pay and shorter working hours.
Collective bargaining is the process by which managers and union leaders
negotiate acceptable terms and conditions of employment for those workers
represented by the unions.
11-1a Historical Development of Unions
The Knights of Labor was an important early union that expanded its goals and its
membership to include workers in numerous fields rather than a single industry.
The American Federation of Labor (AF of L) was another early union; it focused its
efforts on improved working conditions and better employment contracts rather
than getting involved in legislative and political activities.
Another important early union was the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO),
which focused on organizing employees by industry, regardless of their craft,
skills, or occupation.
The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) administers most labor law in
the United States.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) administers most labor law in the
11-1b Legal Context of Unions
The Labor Management Relations Act (or TaftHartley Act) (1947) was a response
to public outcries against a wide variety of strikes in the years after World War II;
its basic purpose was to curtail and limit union practices.
A closed shop refers to a workplace in which only workers who are already union
members may be hired by the employer.
A union shop agreement includes various types of union security agreements in
addition to a requirement that a nonunion member can be hired, although he or
she must join the union within a specified time to keep his or her job.
An agency shop agreement is one where employees can decide whether or not to
join the union certified as the bargaining agent, but if the employee decides not
to join, he or she must still pay a fee roughly equal to the amount of union dues.
The Landrum-Griffin Act (officially called the Labor Management Reporting and
Disclosure Act) focused on eliminating various unethical, illegal, and undemocratic
Locals are unions organized at the level of a single company, plant, or small
The shop steward, an elected position in a local union, is a regular employee who
functions as a liaison between union members and supervisors.
11-1c Union Structures
The bargaining unit refers to the specifically defined group of employees who are
eligible for representation by the union.
11-4b Setting Parameters for Collective Bargaining
Mandatory items, including wages, working hours, and benefits, must be
included as part of collective bargaining if either party expresses a desire to
negotiate one or more of them.
Permissive items may be included in collective bargaining if both parties agree.
11-5b Barriers to Effective Negotiation
An impasse is a situation in which one or both parties believe that reaching an
agreement is not imminent.
A strike occurs when employees walk off their jobs and refuse to work.
Picketing occurs when workers representing the union march at the entrance to
the employers facility with signs explaining their reasons for striking.
A boycott occurs when union members agree not to buy the products of a
A slowdown occurs when workers perform their jobs at a much slower pace than
A wildcat strike occurs when workers suddenly go on strike, without the
authorization (presumably) of the strikers union and while a binding labor
agreement is still in effect.
A lockout occurs when an employer denies employees access to the workplace.
In mediation, a neutral third party called the mediator listens to and reviews the
information presented by both sides and then makes an informed
recommendation and provides advice to both parties about what she or he
believes should be done.
In arbitration, both sides agree in advance that they will accept the
recommendations made by an independent third-party arbitrator.
Under final-offer arbitration, the parties bargain until impasse, and then the two
parties final offers are submitted to the arbitrator.
Chapter 12 Safety, Health, Well-Being, and Security
DeNisi, Angelo; Griffin, Ricky. HR (New, Engaging Titles from 4LTR Press)
EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND HEALTH
Safety hazards are conditions in the work environment that have the potential to
cause harm to an employee.
Health hazards are characteristics of the work environment that more slowly and
systematically, and perhaps cumulatively, result in damage to an employees
OSHA is both the act that authorized the U.S. government to create various
standards regarding occupational safety and health and the administrative agency
that enforces those standards.
12-1c Controlling Accidents at Work
Safety engineers are experts who carefully study the workplace, try to identify
and isolate particularly dangerous situations, and recommend solutions for
dealing with those situations.
Stress is a persons adaptive response to a stimulus that places excessive
psychological or physical demands on him or her.
Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual
simultaneously experiences too much pressure and too few sources of
Turnover refers to people leaving their jobs, whether voluntarily or involuntarily
(i.e., through firings).
12-3b Differences in How One Experiences Stress
12-3d Wellness Programs in Organizations
Dysfunctional behavior refers to any behavior at work that is counterproductive.
These behaviors may include theft and sabotage, as well as sexual and racial
Institutional programs for managing stress are undertaken through established
Collateral stress programs are organizational programs created specifically to help
employees deal with stress.
Chapter 13 Motivation at Work
DeNisi, Angelo; Griffin, Ricky. HR (New, Engaging Titles from 4LTR Press)
Motivation determines how a person will exert his or her effort. It represents the
forces operating on the person to exert effort, as well as the direction in which
that effort will be exerted.
MOTIVATION AND NEEDS
Need-based theories are theories of motivation that focus on what motivates a
person, rather than on how that motivation occurs.
Probably the best known of the need-based theories, the hierarchy of needs
model proposed by Abraham Maslow, specifies five levels of needs that are
capable of motivating behavior: physiological, security, social, esteem, and self
According to Maslows theory, prepotent needs are those specific needs (of the
five levels in the model) that are capable of motivating behavior at any given
point in time.
A need-based theory of motivation proposed by Clayton Alderfer, ERG theory
involves three rather than five levels of needs, and also allows for someone to
regress from a higher-level need to a lower-level need.
A need-based theory proposed by Frederick Herzberg, dual factor theory
identifies motivators and hygiene factors as two sets of conditions at work that
can satisfy needs. Research into this theory, however, has provided little empirical
support for its model.
13-3a Reinforcement Theory
Process theories are motivation theories that focus on how people become
motivated and what they are motivated to do rather than on what motivates
Reinforcement theory is a process theory, usually associated with B. F. Skinner,
which proposes that all behavior is a function of its consequences.
A term from reinforcement theory, positive reinforcement refers to the situation
in which a behavior is followed by positive consequences and thus is likely to be
Also a term from reinforcement theory, extinction refers to the situation in which
a behavior is followed by no consequences and eventually disappears.
Yet another term from reinforcement theory, punishment refers to a situation in
which a behavior is followed by negative consequences and so is not repeated.
Behavior modification is the combination of positive reinforcement with either
punishment or extinction that replaces an undesired behavior with a desired
Equity theory is concerned with a persons perceived inputs to a (work) setting
and the outcomes received from that setting. The theory suggests that everyone
calculates the ratio of inputs to outcomes, similar to considering a return on any
First proposed by Ed Locke, goal theory is a fairly simple model of motivation
based on the premise that people with goals work harder than people without
goals. Beyond that, the theory suggests that not all goals are created equal, and
that goals that are difficult and yet specific and concrete will motivate employees
Agency theory addresses potential conflicts of interests among different groups
of stakeholders in an organization. The name of the theory and some of its basic
principles are derived from the fact that, in most modern organizations, the
individuals who own a firm do not actually run it on a daily basis. Problems arise
when the interests of the owners (the principals) are in conflict with the interests
of the managers (agents).
Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to do work because it is interesting,
engaging, or possibly challenging rather than because someone is rewarding us to
do the work.
Creative behavior involves doing things at work that are innovative and that
provide some value for the organization.
Chapter 14 Managing and Enhancing Performance: The Big Picture
DeNisi, Angelo; Griffin, Ricky. HR (New, Engaging Titles from 4LTR Press
Firm-level performance is an indication of a firms chances of longterm survival.
Performance at this level generates profits for potential profit sharing and
determines the companys stock price.
14-1b Job Redesign
Job rotation involves systematically moving employees from one job to anothe …
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