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Mercy College
School of Health and Natural Sciences
HLSC 402
Assignment #5: Body of your literature review (20 points)
Due on 4/25 by MIDNIGHT on Blackboard
Instructions: Using the body paragraphs rough draft template discussed in class,
write a rough draft of the body of your literature review. This rough draft should
include at least 3 paragraphs and should be completed with APA in-text citations.
• 1st body paragraph- discuss the process of retrieving and analyzing the
literature and identify the strategies implemented to locate your
literature- databases used, keywords, inclusion/exclusion criteria, etc.
• Following body paragraphs- each paragraph should reflect a theme
answering the research question and should be connected to your
thesis statement; synthesis of the literature should be evident through
use of paraphrases
** Refer back to your PowerPoint slides for additional information and further
guidance
For class next week, please bring a PRINTED copy of your rough draft for peer
editing.
My Institution
My Courses
201810 Spring HLSC-402-DFC (CRN-11053.201810)
› Week 6 Powerpoint slides
Week 6
HLSC 402: Scientific Writing
Sinead Harrington, OTD, MOTR/L
Review of Assignment #4
Summary E
• Located in Week 6 folderLoading…
on Blackboard
• 20-25 minutes
• 5 points
Objectives of today’s class
Emeline Gbo
• Learn and practice the art of synthesizing
• Start to write the body of your literature review
Sections of your literature review
• Introduction
Loading…
• Body
• Conclusion
Section 2: Body
• Body Paragraph #1 :
• Explain the process of retrieving and analyzing the literature
• Identify strategies- databases used, keywords, inclusion/exclusion
criteria
• Following Body Paragraphs:
• Synthesize common themes
• Use paraphrases from multiple sources
• Display similarities and/or differences between sources
First paragraph of your body
• Explain the process of retrieving and analyzing the literature
• Conducted a literature search on the topic of tele-rehabilitation and
COPD
• Identify strategies- databases used, keywords, inclusion/exclusion
criteria
• What databases did you use, what keywords, when were the articles
published?
Following paragraphs of your body
• Each new paragraph reflects a common theme/point answering the
research question
• Divided into subtopics if needed
• For each topic/subtopic, you will synthesize the literature
• Provide evidence with paraphrases from multiple sources
• Show similarities and/or differences between sources
What does it mean to “Synthesize Articles?”
• “Combining separate elements to form a whole”
• Examining a number of studies on a shared topic and noting aspects which answer
your research question
• You state a conclusion about the similarities and differences in the studies you
review
Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of
Massachusetts, Lowell
Why is Synthesizing Important?
• It is efficient—there is no reason for the reader to read all the articles you
describe, since you are synthesizing them
• It allows you to highlight what was important to you about those articles
Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell
How NOT to Synthesize Articles?
• Reviewing one article after another
Loading…
• Describing each article
• Usually giving sample size, method, findings, etc.
• This is not a synthesis
Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Difference between Summaries and Synthesis
•
SUMMARIZING
•
Identify main ideas only
•
Key findings/points to support
•
Not opinions or interpretations
•
SYNTHESIZING
•
When you synthesize, you seek to articulate the
ways in which sources are related (New Century
2).
•
Approach several sources of information to find
the relationships among them
•
Can be accomplished by examining definitions and
by comparing ideas through similarities and
differences
Steps to help you synthesize
• While reading through your sources, you first need to determine the:
• General trends or themes found in the literature
• Similar findings found among the different studies
• Contrasting/different findings found among the different studies
A Synthesis Is:
• Highlights what is important about the study for your paper
• Notes what is similar and what is important across several studies
• Helps orient your reader to what is important to you
• Avoids boring your reader with a lot of unnecessary detail
14
Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Bad synthesis
• Sexual harassment has many consequences. Adams, Kottke, and Padgitt (1983)
found some women students said they avoided taking a class or working with
certain professors because of the risk of harassment. They also found men and
women students reacted differently. Their research was a survey of 1,000 men and
women graduate and undergraduate students. Benson and Thomson’s study in
Social Problems (1982) lists many problems created by sexual harassment. In their
excellent book, The Lecherous Professor, Dziech and Weiner (1990) give a long list
of difficulties victims have suffered.
Good synthesis
• The victims of sexual harassment suffer a range of consequences, from lowered
self- esteem and loss of self-confidence to withdrawal from social interaction,
changed career goals, and depression (Adams, Kottke, & Padgitt, 1983; Benson
& Thomson, 1982; Dziech & Weiner, 1990). For example, Adams, Kottke, and
Padgitt (1983) noted 13 percent of women students said they avoided taking a
class or working with certain professors because of the risk of harassment.
Good or Bad synthesis?
• During the past decade, many researchers have shown interest in
motivation. Their findings are reported here. Smith (1995)
developed a model investigation conducted on…… Jones (1998)
asserts …….. Hoey (1998) makes a clear distinction between…….
Good or Bad synthesis?
• According to Robbins, Millet, Caciooe, and Waters-March (1998) the early
theories of motivation were concerned with need satisfaction. Current thinking
however, does not discount these theories, but simply builds upon them to
include a self-concept. Leonrader, Beasvais, and Scholl (1999) argue there are
three elements to self-perception. They propose…….. These three elements can
be seen as further development of Euson’s original concept of “money as
motivator.”
How to Synthesize Articles: Example
• Suppose you are writing about OT interventions for clients with
COPD
• You read three articles about specific interventions
• You are specifically interested in the self-management approach
• So you synthesize what you have read to reflect this focus
19
Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Example of synthesis
• With limited insurance reimbursement for pulmonary rehabilitation, utilization of a
self-management approach to pulmonary education may be more effective in
facilitating the necessary health behavior changes required for continued
pulmonary rehabilitation benefits (Bourbeau, 2010). The self-management
approach utilizes a more interactive educational approach including
demonstrations and group discussions to encourage the development of valuable
self-management skills (Lorig & Holman, 2003). Incorporation of selfmanagement approaches to pulmonary education has found to improve healthrelated quality of life and perceived levels of dyspnea as well as decrease
healthcare utilization (Zwerink et al., 2014).
RECAP
• http://gseacademic.harvard.edu/~instruct/gutman_library/litreview/synthesize/player.h
ml
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gm8mZ-ClNuw
In class activity- Writing a Successful Synthesis
• Worksheet can be found in Week 6 folder on Blackboard
• Read each excerpt first and highlight the main ideas
• Start to determine common themes and similar findings throughout the excerpts
– use guiding questions to help
• Practice writing a synthesis
Questions?
Body of your literature review
• Review your outline and evidence table
• Review your themes developed in your matrix (last week)
• Start a new paragraph for each theme
• Make sure your themes are reflected in your thesis statement
• Use articles as evidence to support your themes
• Tie articles together, do NOT just provide summaries of each article
• Just include what is important from each article which will support your theme
Paragraph Structure- Video Clip
• https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/paragraphs/topicsentences
MEAL Structure for writing body paragraphs
• M: Main Idea- topic sentence
• Introduce focus of paragraph
• E: Evidence
• Support the main idea with information found in your articles
• A: Analysis
• Explain and analyze the information
Body Paragraphs- ROUGH DRAFT OUTLINE
I. Body: Paragraph #1
A. Explain the process of retrieving and analyzing the literature
B. Identify strategies- databases used, keywords, inclusion/exclusion criteria
II. Body: Paragraph #2: first theme that answers your research question
A. Topic sentence explaining your first theme
B. Evidence from articles supporting your topic sentence- tying all your evidence/research
together:
According to _____________, Research suggests/indicates/found…
Similarly found…. Multiple studies included
C. Transition: Use transitional phrases to introduce your next theme. (ex. In addition, as
well as, also)
III. Body: Paragraph #3: second theme that answers your research question
A. Topic sentence explaining your first theme
B. Evidence from articles supporting your topic sentence- tying all your evidence/research
together:
According to _____________, Research suggests/indicates/found…
Similarly found…. Multiple studies included
C. Transition: Use transitional phrases to introduce your next theme. (ex. In addition, as
well as, also)
IV. Body: Paragraph #4: third theme that answers your research question
A. Topic sentence explaining your first theme
B. Evidence from articles supporting your topic sentence- tying all your evidence/research
together:
According to _____________, Research suggests/indicates/found…
Similarly found…. Multiple studies included
C. Transition: Use transitional phrases to introduce your next theme. (ex. In addition, as
well as, also)
Editor’s Choice
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Home-based telerehabilitation via real-time videoconferencing
improves endurance exercise capacity in patients with COPD: The
randomized controlled TeleR Study
LING LING Y. TSAI,1,2 RENAE J. MCNAMARA,2,3 CHLOE MODDEL,4 JENNIFER A. ALISON,1,5
DAVID K. MCKENZIE3 AND ZOE J. MCKEOUGH1
1
Discipline of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, 2Department of Physiotherapy, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep
Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, 4Agency for Clinical Innovation and 5Department of Physiotherapy, Royal Prince Alfred
Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
ABSTRACT
Background and objective: Telerehabilitation has the
potential to increase access to pulmonary rehabilitation
(PR) for patients with COPD who have dif?culty accessing centre-based PR due to poor mobility, lack of
transport and cost of travel. We aimed to determine the
effect of supervised, home-based, real-time videoconferencing telerehabilitation on exercise capacity, self-ef?cacy, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and
physical activity in patients with COPD compared with
usual care without exercise training.
Methods: Patients with COPD were randomized to
either a supervised home-based telerehabilitation group
(TG) that received exercise training three times a week
for 8 weeks or a control group (CG) that received usual
care without exercise training. Outcomes were measured at baseline and following the intervention.
Results: Thirty-six out of 37 participants (mean ! SD
age = 74 ! 8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s
(FEV1) = 64 ! 21% predicted) completed the study.
Compared with the CG, the TG showed a statistically
signi?cant increase in endurance shuttle walk test time
(mean difference = 340 s (95% CI: 153–526, P < 0.001)), an increase in self-ef?cacy (mean difference = 8 points (95% CI: 2–14, P < 0.007)), a trend towards a statistically signi?cant increase in the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire total score (mean difference = 8 points (95% CI: -1 to 16, P = 0.07)) and no difference in physical activity (mean difference = 475 steps per day (95% CI: -200 to 1151, P = 0.16)). Conclusion: This study showed that telerehabilitation improved endurance exercise capacity and self-ef?cacy in patients with COPD when compared with usual care. Clinical trial registration: ACTRN12612001263886 at anzctr. org.au Correspondence: Ling Ling Y. Tsai, Department of Physiotherapy, Prince of Wales Hospital, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia. Email: lingling.tsai@health.nsw.gov.au Received 20 May 2016; invited to revise 26 July and 14 October 2016; revised 28 August and 24 October 2016; accepted 24 October 2016 (Associate Editor: Bob Hancox). © 2016 Asian Paci?c Society of Respirology S UMM A R Y A T A GL AN C E An 8-week home-based telerehabilitation exercise programme using real-time videoconferencing software showed a statistically signi?cant increase in endurance shuttle walk test time and self-ef?cacy when compared with usual care with no exercise training in patients with COPD. Key words: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise, pulmonary rehabilitation, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing. Abbreviations: 6MWD, 6-min walk distance; 6MWT, 6-min walk test; ANCOVA, analysis of covariance; BMI, body mass index; BODE, BMI, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity; CAT, COPD Assessment Test; CG, control group; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRDQ, Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; DLCO, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; EE, energy expenditure; ESWT, endurance shuttle walk test; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FPI-SF, Functional Performance Inventory – Short Form; FRC, functional residual capacity; FVC, forced vital capacity; GOLD, Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HR, heart rate; HRQoL, healthrelated quality of life; ISWT, incremental shuttle walk test; MCID, minimum clinically important difference; MD, mean difference; MET, metabolic equivalent; MMRC, Modi?ed Medical Research Council; OA, osteoarthritis; PA, physical activity; PAL, PA level; PR, pulmonary rehabilitation; PRAISE, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Adapted Index of Self-Ef?cacy; RCT, randomized controlled trial; RPE, rate of perceived exertion; RV, residual capacity; SpO2, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation; SWA, SenseWear Armband; TG, telerehabilitation group; TLC, total lung capacity. INTRODUCTION Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a ?rst line management strategy in patients with COPD as it reduces breathlessness, increases exercise capacity and Respirology (2017) 22, 699–707 doi: 10.1111/resp.12966 700 improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL).1,2 A small but signi?cant increase in physical activity in patients with COPD has also been shown following PR.3 However, 8–50% of those referred to PR never attend, whilst 10–32% of those who commence do not complete the programme.4 Barriers to attendance and completion include dif?culty accessing the programme, poor mobility, lack of transport and cost of travel.5 Home-based PR may overcome the barriers to attendance at a centre-based programme. Home-based PR resulted in signi?cantly greater improvements in exercise capacity and HRQoL compared with usual care in patients with COPD1 and these improvements were similar to those demonstrated with centre-based programmes.6 An alternative approach to delivery of supervised home-based PR is telerehabilitation, which is de?ned as the delivery of rehabilitation services using telecommunication technologies7 such as realtime videoconferencing. While there have been a number of telerehabilitation studies in COPD,8–15 the type of telecommunication strategies used have differed across studies. Two pilot randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared a web-based exercise programme with smartphone activity coaching, self-management education and teleconsultations to a control group (CG) of usual care.8,9 Results indicated a positive improvement in activity levels with high compliance to the activity coach,8 and high satisfaction but low adherence with the exercise programme.9 Other pilot studies where the home exercises have been supervised using real-time videoconferencing facilities have reported that programmes were safe, feasible and well accepted11–15 by patients with COPD with a high adherence rate13 and signi?cant improvements in exercise capacity12–14 and HRQoL.12 Only one study has compared telerehabilitation with outpatient PR in patients with COPD.10 This study was not an RCT and the telerehabilitation involved unsupervised home exercise training with telemonitoring support and periodic video assistance for support to exercise. The telerehabilitation group (TG) demonstrated improved physical activity, exercise capacity and dyspnoea equivalent to the outpatient PR group.10 No studies have explored the effects of home-based telerehabilitation supervised using real-time videoconferencing facilities on exercise capacity, physical activity and HRQoL in a RCT for patients with COPD. The primary aim of this study was to determine, in patients with COPD, the effects of a supervised, home-based, real-time videoconferencing telerehabilitation programme on endurance exercise capacity compared with usual care without exercise training. The secondary aim was to explore the effects of telerehabilitation on HRQoL, level of physical activity, functional performance, overall health status, anxiety and depression and self-ef?cacy compared with usual medical care in patients with COPD. METHODS Participants Patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital PR programme in Sydney, Australia, with a primary © 2016 Asian Paci?c Society of Respirology LLY Tsai et al. medical diagnosis of stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <70% and FEV1 < 80% predicted post-bronchodilator) were invited to participate in the study. Participants were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria (Table S1, Supplementary Information). Study design This study was a prospective, blinded (assessor and statistician) RCT. Participants were randomized by one of the investigators (L.L.Y.T.) using a computergenerated sequence (https://www-users.york.ac.uk/ ~mb55/guide/minim.htm) and concealed allocation to one of the two groups: TG who performed supervised exercise training via desktop videoconferencing or the CG who performed no exercise training. Randomization was strati?ed according to the distance walked in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) (i.e. 6-min walk distance (6MWD) > or = 350 m) and the degree of airway
obstruction (FEV1 > or = 50% predicted). The study
was approved by the South Eastern Sydney Local
Health District Human Research Ethics Committee
(12/177) and registered on the Australia New Zealand
Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612001263886).
Intervention
Telerehabilitation group
During an initial home-visit prior to training, a laptop
computer with an in-built camera (HP EliteBook
8560p, CA, USA), a stationary lower limb cycle ergometer (Tunturi, E60, Netherlands) and a ?nger-tip pulse
oximeter (Nonin Onyx Vantage 9590, MN, USA.) were
delivered to the participant’s home by an experienced
physiotherapist for use in the home environment for
the duration of the …
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