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Comparative study of adhesives applied to materials of varying permeability
Chapter 3 Method of Study
The study will test the compression strength of the adhesives. Each adhesive will be
applied to three separate materials and force will be applied until the adhesive fails. The results
of the study will determine the strength of the adhesives when applied to each material. The
following seven adhesives will be tested.
a. cyanoacrylate a.k.a. super glue
b. polyurethane a.k.a. Gorilla Glue
c. polyvinyl acetate a.k.a. white glue
d. polyvinyl acetate with aliphatic resin a.k.a. carpenters glue
e. two part epoxy a.k.a glue base and hardener
f. synthetic rubber resin construction adhesive a.k.a. Liquid Nails
These adhesives were chosen because they are commonly used and readily available.
According to Lowes (n.d.) each of these adhesives can be purchased at their store. They are all
probable solutions to the problem of which adhesive should be used for any day to day task.
An Instron testing machine will be used to test the strength of the samples. The machine
will slowly apply increasing force on the samples until the glue fails. The results of the tests are
displayed on a computer monitor where they can be interpreted and recorded.
Instron was established in 1946. They manufacture and service materials testing
instruments, systems and accessories. Their testing machines evaluate the mechanical
properties of materials and components using tension, compression, flexure, impact, torsion
and hardness tests. The testing machine used in conducting this research will apply
compression force to one side of the sample. The following are examples of Inspiron models
3340, 5540, and 5840 that could be used to conduct the study (Inspiron, n.d.).
The force required to break the bond made by the adhesive in each sample will be
recorded. There will also be a visual inspection to determine if the adhesive or the material it
was applied to failed. According to Hintz (n.d.) an important factor to measure is how much of
the failed joint is wood and how much is due to the glue. This ratio will vary with the softness of
the wood used.
The performance of each sample on each material will be compared to determine which
samples were the strongest. The cost of the adhesives will also be compared with the
performance to determine if there is any correlation between the two.
Data collected will be entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the Statistical
Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16. A regression analysis will be used to determine
causal relationships among variables. Additional analysis will include mean, standard deviation,
Each adhesive will be used to bond together two pieces of hard wood (Maple), soft
wood (Douglass Fir), and steel plate (impermeable) to produce a sample that will be tested. Ten
samples of each of the three materials will be made from each adhesive making a total of 210
samples to be tested. The pieces being bonded together will overlap ¼. One of the pieces will
be held stationary while a downward force is applied to the other side. When the adhesive
reaches its failure point, the top piece of material will separate from the adhesive.
Table 4 Assembly of sample to be tested
Before force is applied
After force is applied
The study will be conducted per the following research plan.
1. Review of current literature and identify emerging problem one week
2. Develop a spreadsheet and prepare instrument one week
3. Pre-test of the instrument (pilot study) one week
4. Validate the instrument by a panel of expert judges two weeks
5. Testing one week
6. Data compilation, combination, and analysis three weeks
7. Final paper completed one week
Table 5 – Time-on-Task Analysis
Wk 1 Wk2 Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 5 Wk 6 Wk 7 Wk 8 Wk 9 Wk 10
Review of literature
Develop a spreadsheet
Pre-test of the instrument
Validate the instrument
Final paper completed
The research and analysis will be completed in a total of ten weeks
Srinath Anil Boorla
Applied Research for Technology
The Influence of Quality Management Systems in Hospitals and Other Health Facilities
Quality management systems refer to standardized systems that facilitate the
capturing of processes, procedural steps, and responsibilities, with the aim of enhancing
quality policies and goals for a given industry. The increasing demand and need for quality
and improved services have forced many stakeholders across distinct sectors to seek for the
adoption of such systems. Currently, the ISO 9001:2015 is the most dominant standardization
approach used for gauging quality management systems. The world, over a few years ago,
witnessed growing concerns over the quality of health services offered in our health centers
with some individuals blaming the government for failing to ensure quality health services.
Whereas some individuals felt that the government was ensuring the best of health
services, most individuals differed on this. Therefore, a quality measuring mechanism was
fundamental. As mentioned by Evans et al. (60), the role of Quality management systems
cannot be underestimated. They facilitate an approach that forces organizations to take into
consideration clients or customer needs and establish the processes that may hinder the
fulfilment of best services, accepted by the customers. By working on the named variables,
quality gets ensured in organizations.
Plans for improving the quality services in the health sector have always been given a
priority by new regimes of the United States of America. While a lot of funding was directed
towards this, some of the projects failed to yield positive outputs. Such programs were
discontinued for lacking effectiveness and failing to address the problems as expected. The
failures experienced as explained above gave room for the ISO standardization method as a
tool for facilitating the availability of quality healthcare services. As previous researchers
establish, one of the significant advantages of the Standardised Quality management systems
is that they enhance specific frameworks that ensure continuous improvement, therefore
drastically increasing the chances of customers being satisfied.
Furthermore, previous researchers conducted indicate that when compared to other
quality management systems such as the Joint Commission and the EFM, the ISO standard
was established to be useful since it possesses higher maturity aspects (Van den Heuvel et al.
360). Hence, this explains why adoption of the standard is higher as compared to others. The
research also established that Health facilities would continue to use the ISO standards, based
on the data acquired during the named study.
Given the above, this research aims to establish the impact of Quality management
systems In American health facilities. The research will give detailed information in regards
to the same, emphasizing the ISO 9001 model, and other previous standardization models.
Also, this study is enhanced towards determining the importance of the quality assurance
management systems across hospitals, as they are the leading and primary health services
providers across the United States of America. Below are the other aspects of this research
Statement of the Problem
There is a tremendous need for assessing the role and effectiveness of the
performance systems in hospitals across the United States of America. According to Flynn et
al. (670), the rate of patients visiting health facilities has significantly increased in the
previous five years, raising concerns of the services offered to them since the number is quite
higher. Furthermore, according to him, to serve the ever-increasing numbers of patients, welltrained personnel should be employed and importantly, the best medical equipment should be
availed. Therefore, this research aims to identify the role, effectiveness, strengths, and
weaknesses of the mentioned systems in our medical facilities.
The Purpose of the Research Study
The Major concern for this research is to establish the Influence of performance
measuring systems across the United States of America. In trying to assess and investigate
factors that may account for the same, the following aspects need to be considered:
Identify the role of the Quality systems in Hospitals across the United States of
America and how they facilitate management.
Compare the effectiveness of the quality management systems over other traditional
standards mechanisms which were operational before.
Determine the strengths of the Quality Management systems in Health Facilities
across the United States of America
Establish the weaknesses and other shortcomings of Quality management systems in
our health facilities.
Explain customers (Patients) perception towards the availability of the said systems In
Explore the perception of health providers towards the Introduction and
implementation of Performance Management systems in the United States of
What role is played by the Quality management systems in health centers across the
United States of America?
What is the association between the perception of Health providers and the patients
considerations in regards to the introduction and use of Quality management systems
in Hospitals across the United States of America?
What are the strengths, shortcomings and other relevant issues in connection with the
adaptability of Quality management systems in American Health centers?
What are the impacts, influences, and outcomes observed in the American health
facilities since the introduction and implementation of systems?
How has the facilitation of Excellence management systems impacted on the service
delivery of both In-patients and Out-patients patients visiting hospitals across the
United States of America?
The Research Hypothesis
If the adaptability and implementation of the quality management systems are
enhanced in a positive mechanism in all health facilities across the United States of America,
then we would experience efficient and quality services being offered.
Many hospitals across the world have massively invested towards the use and
implementing of the performance management systems, and especially the ISO:
9001(Sangüesa & others 613-620). They are trying to enhance the adaptability of this
program so that they can improve not only performance but also the Kinds of goods and
services offered to both inpatients and outpatients visiting their health facilities (Platkus 15).
Therefore, this research is aimed at establishing the roles, weaknesses, strengths, and
perceptions of Both Health service providers and patients towards the use and administration
of the standard management systems. To facilitate the effectiveness of this research, I have
established several obvious research question that is meant to cover the variables mentioned
above and additionally, determine the level of Patient and customer satisfaction in connection
to the use and implementation of the Quality Management systems.
Furthermore, this research provides clear insights of an in-depth study, hence
providing a useful basis for solutions for health service offers and other researchers willing to
conduct further investigations on similar topics. Besides, the research contains a short but
quick to understand overview of the relationships between the preemptions incurred by the
patients and feelings of health providers and their employers regarding the adoption and
applicability of the Quality management systems across their workstations. The research is
geared towards determining the Influence of Excellence management processes for
measuring performance and quality of health services across the United States of America.
To incorporate a quality management system, think of operations as processes that
you must improve. Quality is not a one-off result, so, to achieve it, you must focus on
continuous improvement in all processes. The steps you take to improve quality must be
evidence-based. You also must hold suppliers to high standards when it comes to satisfying
requirements. Most importantly, focus on your customers — their requirements, perceptions,
The primary goal of a quality management system is to beat the competition. It does
this by adding value at each stage of production. It defines long term plans for your company
while at the same time providing a framework for it. Quality management systems make
every employee the owner of customer satisfaction. Internally, it generates a sense of
collaboration and motivation. You might set yearly objectives for sales growth or product
innovation, but every objective will be methodically driven on the basis of quality product,
care and service. Initiation of a quality management system in your business can identify
waste, straighten out processes and hence reduce costs by decreasing inefficiencies. It,
therefore, improves customer satisfaction, increases sales and furthers the goodwill of your
Effective quality management is focused on the needs of the patients because they are
the ones who judge the effectiveness of treatments and the appropriateness of the service.
Patient needs and expectations change over time; consequently, sound quality management
calls for constant monitoring of the patients progress and satisfaction with the service. This
monitoring uses both objective and subjective means — for example, medical test results and
the patients opinion of the effectiveness of treatments — to judge the quality of the treatment
The health care sector is highly regulated and relies on state-of-the-art diagnostic
technologies. Additionally, health care costs usually are covered by a third party, such as an
insurance company or a government program. These factors call for a quality management
system that complies with external regulations and adopts latest technologies and the required
knowledge for effective application of those technologies.
Quality management seeks to improve effectiveness of treatments and increase patient
satisfaction with the service. With an aging population and rising health care costs, quality
management in health care is gaining increased attention. A health care system comprises
small and large entities, such as pharmacies, medical clinics and hospitals, and all
components need to provide quality service for the system to work properly
Most current conceptual frameworks used for hospital quality management exhibit
shortcomings, terminology barriers or too much complexity. We propose a rigorous and
simple model specific to hospitals, based on four entities (patients, activities, resources and
effects) and six levels in order to measure the development of quality management systems.
The proposed model is compatible with other substantiated models, robust in coping with
falsifiability and provides flexibility to avoid a too unilateral approach.
Hospital managers, quality managers, and professionals can use this tool to reflect on
their organizations strategy for quality improvement, to identify specific actions aimed at
improving their strategy and applying it throughout the organizational units. Purchasing
agencies can use this tool to ask care providers critical questions about their ways to improve
quality and safety.
Research on quality improvement methods has resulted in a wide range of assessment
tools, statistical techniques and improvement applications in the last decade. There is
substantial evidence for a large number of clinical and non-clinical interventions to improve
the quality of care. This is in mismatch to the persistent variations in quality and safety that
are consistently documented in the literature and in the media.
Hospital-wide self-assessment would be an early step in any accreditation
programme, using the standards and tools of the selected accreditation organisation. Many of
these organisations make their standards freely available on their website but usually without
detailed criteria and scoring rules. Governmental and intergovernmental (eg Council of
Europe, European Commission, WHO) websites tend to be more generous with sharing
intellectual property of standards and assessment tools. Self-assessment tools for specific
functions or departments are available from various sources and in various levels of
The availability and uptake of external assessments vary between countries and within
countries (at national, regional and municipal level). Based on the results of the DUQuE
questionnaire, the most frequent voluntary external assessment in that sample was ISO 9001
certification; 113 of 178 respondents (63%) had some type of certification at some time,
compared with voluntary accreditation (59%) and teaching accreditation (53%). Mandatory
programmes are confined within governmental boundaries but voluntary programmes, such
as those offered by professional bodies, are usually available across borders. Details on the
effect of external assessment programmes that were found in DUQuE are summarized in:
Shaw C, Groene O, Botje D, Sunol R, Kutryba B, Klazinga NS, Bruneau C, Hammer A,
Wang A, Arah O, Wagner C.
Causal mechanisms for this are not fully understood but cover elements such as
leading by example, non-blaming culture, adequate sourcing of key clinical areas, proactive
monitoring of quality and safety indicators, and early interventions when problems arise.
Leaders should realistically assess the performance of the organisations they represent, be
aware of the quality metrics available in the organisation and engaged with the clinical teams
who are aware of the difficulties of quality improvement.
Critical engagement with quality in all its dimensions (including effectiveness,
patient-centredness and safety) is the key responsibility of executive management. Consider
whether the metrics available in your organisation are sufficient to control and monitor
improvements in all organisational units. Liaise with clinical leaders to identify quality
improvement actions and provide support for their implementation.
A Quality Manager can play a role in this interaction. A linchpin of the organization,
the Quality Manger must work closely with both management and specialists. In hospitals
with an active Quality Manager, the management boards can be more involved. The quality
systems could also be better developed.
More and more patients want to be involved in their care processes and be informed
of treatment choices and possible side effects. Within the existing quality systems,
organizations have organized the involvement of patients or their representatives in quality
committees, in discussing patient surveys and developing guidelines. Unfortunately, no
positive link could be found between the development of the quality system, the involvement
of patients in these quality activities and patient experiences
Professionalism is an important concept to measure and the newly developed scale
enables us to measure professionalism. The dimensions covered by this measurement include
improving quality of care, maintaining professional competence, fulfilling professional
responsibilities and inter-professional collaboration. This measure can allow other researchers
to further study areas that have limited research instruments available.
Specialized expertise and responsibility seems to have strong relationship with some
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