assignment instructions

attached is the assignment instructions. let me know if you have any questions. chapters 1 and 2 are also attached. here is the reference for the reading material:Bierema, L. (2014). Links to an external site.An introduction to organizational development.


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Intervention Paper:
In a two- to three- page paper (not including the title and reference pages) select a, b, or c from
the list below and compare and contrast the change interventions.
A. Transitional and Transformational Change
B. First and Second Order Change
C. Operational and Strategic Change
You must use at least two scholarly journal articles that reference the selected change
interventions, in addition to the text, and format your paper according to APA style guidelines as
outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Organization Development:
An Introduction to the Field,
Its History, and Practices
. Sally Elford/Ikon Images/Corbis
Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• Describe the field of organization development in terms of its purpose, philosophy, and definitions.
• Summarize the history of organization development, including the key practices of each period.
• Explore the roles, values, competencies, professional associations, and ethics of an organization development practitioner.
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More than 2,500 years ago, the Greek philosopher Heraclitus observed, “Change is the only
constant” (Mark, 2010). This sentiment is still true today. From fluctuations in weather and
seasons to the growth and aging of your own body, change is not an option—it is a fundamental
principle of existence. What changes have you experienced recently? Perhaps you became ill
or recovered from an illness, enrolled in or dropped out of a class, were promoted at work
or changed jobs, ended a relationship or got married, or simply changed your mind about
As these examples suggest, sometimes change is intended, but just as often it is unanticipated
or even unwanted. For example, few of us welcomed the recent global economic downturn,
which required us to adjust our budgets and behaviors to cope. Were these changes planned
or unplanned?
Unplanned change refers to changes that were unexpected, like the loss of a job, surprise successes,
the sudden death of a loved one, a failed relationship, natural disasters, or new opportunities.
What unplanned changes have been the most significant in your life?
Assessment: Change Readiness
Most people think they are open to change. But are they? When change comes, do you find
yourself curious and even exhilarated, or are you angry, frustrated, and worried that you
are unprepared? Take a few minutes to assess your readiness for change.
Planned change refers to shifts that are intended and prepared for, such as getting an education,
learning new skills, moving to a new city, starting a new hobby, or finding a new job. Over the
past few years, what significant changes have you planned? Have you been successful at
implementing these changes?
Tips and Wisdom
Bebop was about change, about evolution. It wasn’t about standing still and becoming safe. If
anybody wants to keep creating they have to be about change.
—Miles Davis (1926–1991), U.S. jazz musician and composer
Embracing change is not always easy, but it rewards us with new experiences, new insights,
and new creations.
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What Is Organization Development?
Section 1.1
1.1 What Is Organization Development?
Like individuals, organizations are continually required to adapt to a dizzying number, variety,
and pace of change if they are to thrive. These unplanned changes include globalizing markets,
emergence of the knowledge economy, advancing technology, growing customer diversity, shifting customer preferences, economic
upturns or downturns, natural disasters,
unanticipated competition, and abrupt
reorganizations or changes in management. To navigate such shifts, organizations engage in planned change,
an intentional process in which they
take action to solve problems or overcome challenges. Examples of planned
change in organizations include intentional shifts in products or markets,
mergers and acquisitions (at least for
the controlling company), prearranged
reorganizations, expansion into new
regions or countries, and new product
©ImageZoo/Corbis development.
Organization development (OD) helps organizations
cope with change on a global scale.
Although individuals often manage
planned change independently, organizations frequently seek help so that the
planned change is systematic, effective, and lasting. This assistance is known as organization
development (OD). On its simplest level, OD is a process of helping individuals, groups, and
organizations become more effective through planned change.
Defining OD
Among the many definitions of OD, no single one is universally accepted. Beckhard (1969)
offers an early definition that is now considered classic: “Organization development is an
effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s ‘processes,’ using behavioral-science knowledge” (p. 9).
Beckhard’s (1969) definition points to several key aspects of OD:
1. It is a planned, intentional process to address a problem or issue that needs to
2. It is organization wide, based on an understanding that the organization is an integrated system and that a change made in one place may have ramifications in others.
3. Top management provides buy-in and support of the OD effort.
4. OD activities address both the effectiveness and the health of the organization by
boosting its performance while making it a more humane place to work.
5. It is an intentional process, grounded in evidence derived from the behavioral sciences.
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What Is Organization Development?
Section 1.1
You can see Beckhard’s points in other popular definitions of OD, such as this one from Cummings and Worley (2009): “Organization development is a system wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the
strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organization effectiveness [emphasis added]”
(pp. 1–2).
Similarly, Anderson (2012) advocated: “Organization development is the process of increasing organizational change through the use of interventions driven by social and behavioral
sciences knowledge [emphasis added]” (p. 3).
In other words, OD is an intentional change process that involves the total system. It takes an
evidence-based approach to planning change that improves the effectiveness and health of
the organization. Moreover, management is personally invested in making the organization
more effective and healthy. Consultants who work with organizations to identify and implement appropriate interventions practice OD.
OD Consultants and Clients
Many organizations rely on professionals to steer them through complex and changing
environments with planned responses to problems and challenges. These professionals are
known as organization development consultants. Also known as OD practitioners, human
resource developers, human resource managers, or learning and development professionals,
OD consultants are skilled at assessing problems, providing direct feedback to the organization, and influencing change. OD consultants lead organizations through interventions that
are based on careful study and preparation and are grounded in the behavioral sciences.
The key stakeholder in the OD process is known as the client. Sometimes there is more than
one type of client. For instance, the person who initially contacts the OD consultant may provide
introductory information about the problem but not be the owner of the problem or the person
paying for the services. It is important for OD consultants to correctly identify the client—an
issue we will cover in Chapter 3.
When Is OD Warranted?
Beckhard (2006) notes there are certain conditions that warrant an organization engaging in
an OD effort. These include when a client or organization wants to
1. change a managerial strategy;
2. develop an organization that better meets the needs of employees, the organization,
and the environment in which the organization works (markets, community, and so
3. change cultural norms;
4. change structure and roles;
5. build intergroup collaboration;
6. improve communications;
7. improve planning;
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What Is Organization Development?
Section 1.1
8. tackle issues related to mergers;
9. address motivation issues among the workforce; and
10. better adapt to a changed environment.
Have you experienced an OD effort at an organization you have worked for? If so, what motivated it?
When someone decides to make a change, they usually do something specific. For instance,
if you decided to rein in your spending, you might establish a budget, create a spreadsheet to
track it, switch to electronic banking, visit a financial planner, or change your saving habits.
Actions like these that are taken to improve a situation are known as interventions. What are
some problems you have experienced and interventions you have made?
In OD an intervention is a corrective action made to resolve problems or address challenges.
Interventions in OD focus on tackling organization challenges such as low morale, quality
defects, shifting markets, new management, leadership problems, strategic planning, and
so forth.
Philosophy of OD
Most of us want to do meaningful work in an organization that has pleasant working conditions, with colleagues who are respectful, and where our work is recognized and rewarded.
OD seeks to honor the individual and advance organization goals. This commitment to benefit
all organizational stakeholders is grounded in the philosophy of humanism.
Humanism is the belief in the inherent good of human beings, their capacity to reach full
potential in life, and their right to be treated fairly and humanely. “The OD value is not about
change but about change that makes people better—humanistic values” (Marshak in Wheatley, Tannenbaum, Yardley Griffin & Quade, 2003, p. 4). OD experts herald OD’s humanistic values as the field’s distinguishing feature (Greiner & Cummings, 2004; Porras & Bradford, 2004;
Wirtenberg, Abrams, & Ott, 2004), embracing the notion that “the individual has to gain in the
long-term for the organization to gain in the long-term” (Porras & Bradford, 2004, p. 401).
Wirtenberg, Abrams, and Ott (2004) capture this sentiment:
The need in organizations to manifest socially responsible values and create win–win business results has never been greater. OD is in an excellent
position to seize the opportunity to build bridges, find common ground, and
address organizational and cultural divides. (p. 479)
If you are fortunate enough to work in an organization with a highly functioning OD process,
you should observe an operation engaged in continual improvement for individuals, teams,
and the organization itself. As you read the case study on Sparklite, ask yourself if this company is engaging in humanistic practices.
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What Is Organization Development?
Section 1.1
Case Study: Is Sparklite a Candidate for OD?
Sparklite, a spark plug manufacturing plant, underwent a management change 6 months
ago when John Stevenson became the plant manager. Stevenson replaced Al Smith,
who was a beloved manager and had run the plant for 20 years. Smith was a hands-on
manager. He was always willing to roll up his sleeves and work on a problem, whether it
involved a machine in the plant or a conflict with a customer. He was not a micromanager;
rather, he would work closely with the team to solve problems. He listened to input,
whether from the janitor or the vice president. He expected all management personnel
to behave similarly. People who worked in the plant respected Smith and felt respected
by him. Over time a true community atmosphere evolved, and the plant was one of the
highest performing in the company.
Stevenson, on the other hand, spends a lot of time in his office, reading over production
numbers, talking on the phone, and holding meetings with his management team. Rarely
does he go out onto the manufacturing floor and talk with employees or listen to their
ideas. When one of his managers suggests, “It might be helpful if you spent more time
getting to know our workers,” Stevenson barks, “That is what I pay the supervisors to do.
My time is better spent on finding ways to cut costs and improve our margin.” Stevenson
is very driven by numbers: When they are not good, he slams his fist on the table and
demands that the next shift “pick up the slack.”
It does not take long for the supervisors to become afraid of Stevenson and to quit coming
to him with problems. The convivial atmosphere the plant had enjoyed for so many years
quickly erodes into an atmosphere of fear. Soon the plant’s performance begins to suffer.
Morale sinks. Members of the management team begin applying for transfers to other
locations. Longtime workers are exploring other employment options. This only makes
Stevenson more frustrated, agitated, and frightening to the workers.
One day a corporate vice president comes for a plant tour and visit. It is immediately clear
to her that the plant has taken a turn for the worse. She talks with several employees and
can see that something has to change.
Critical Thinking Questions
How might planned change play a role in turning things around at Sparklite?
How aligned with humanism is the organization emerging under Stevenson’s
Characteristics of OD
As we have already learned, OD is a planned change process that is grounded in a humanistic
philosophy. It also has the following key characteristics (Beckhard, 2006, p. 9).
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What Is Organization Development?
Section 1.1
OD Is Systems Based
OD interventions are planned with consideration for the whole organization as a system. Like
medicine, OD intends to “first, do no harm.” Recall that the tenets of humanism require that OD
benefit all stakeholders. This means, for example, that before implementing a change to work
flow, the OD consultant would check to make sure the adjustments do not have a negative
impact elsewhere in the organization. For instance, a work-flow change might expose employees to repetitive-motion injuries or make the work flow in another area unmanageable.
Top Management Is Committed
Effective OD secures management’s awareness of and commitment to the chosen intervention
and its management from the very beginning. Employees look to management for approval
and example, and it is imperative for organization leadership to visibly support any change
effort. OD consultants play a key role in holding management accountable for demonstrating
sustained and visible commitment to the OD change process.
The Intervention Is Tied to the Organization’s Mission
A key aspect of securing management commitment is helping leaders see how the OD initiative helps actualize the organization’s mission. It is also important for employees to understand this connection. For example, in the Sparklite case study, the organization’s mission to
produce quality products on a timely basis was facilitated by a collegial, collaborative atmosphere that was being eroded by Stevenson’s behavior. If an intervention were made to help
Stevenson and other managers change their managerial style to a more participative one,
everyone would have to understand and buy in to how the new behaviors would help the
organization meet its mission.
There Is Long-Term Commitment to Implementing the Intervention
Although OD interventions can sometimes be relatively simple and quick to implement, they
often require a long-term commitment, sometimes 2 to 3 years or more. Interventions that
change work practices, beliefs, or standards do not succeed overnight. Making lasting organization change needs long-term commitment and action from all levels of the organization.
Consider a large change made by your organization—perhaps a shift to a new database, marketing plan, or procedure. How long did it take? Make a list of a few changes you can recall
and estimate how long they took. Chances are, the more complex changes required more time
and resources.
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What Is Organization Development?
Section 1.1
OD Has a “Bias for Action”
Management guru Tom Peters, coauthor of In Search
of Excellence, one of the best-selling business books
of all time, became famous for saying that effective
organizations have a “bias for action” (1982; 2004).
This means that an organization engages in active
decision making and moves quickly to action, rather
than being caught in an incessant cycle of planning
without action. Although OD implementation can
take a long time, it is based on taking action, analyzing how the action is working, tweaking it, and
repeating the process for as long as necessary.
OD Focuses on Changing Attitudes or
Lasting change occurs when people alter their ways
of thinking and doing. This is why OD can be powerShannon Fagan/Taxi/Getty Images
ful and can also take a long time to implement. For The goal of OD is to take timely, meanexample, when leaders experience opportunities ingful action to address problems,
for leadership development and receive feedback challenges, and opportunities within
that indicates they are not as effective as they think the organization.
they are, they usually engage in introspection and
change. Becoming less autocratic may not happen
overnight, but real, lasting change occurs as leaders experiment with new ways of thinking
about their role as leaders and when they implement new behaviors, such as listening or
including others in decision making.
OD Tends to Incorporate Experiential Learning
We will learn throughout this book that when people change, they learn new ways of thinking
and doing. OD favors action; thus, interventions often create opportunities for employees to
experience new ways to think and act. Can you recall a time when you participated in a change
that prompted new learning? For example, when I participated in a leadership development
initiative, I learned how to coach employees in a way that focused on helping them solve problems on their own, rather than me giving them the answer. Although there was a chance to
learn about coaching from books, I did not internalize it until there was an employee in front
of me with a problem and I made a conscious effort to behave differently.
OD Is Largely a Group Process
Most OD is not done in isolation. Even when consultants make individ …
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