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School of Health and Natural Sciences
Assignment #4- Literature review outline and Introduction (15 points)
Due 4/18 by MIDNIGHT on Blackboard
Instructions: Develop a 1 page outline in preparation for your literature review.
Following your outline, include the first draft of your introduction for your
literature review. Refer back to Blackboard resources and powerpoint slides from
this week. Possible format of your outline can include the one listed below:
A. Literature Review Outline
a. Describe the overall topic you have been investigating, why it is important
b. Identify themes and trends in research questions, methodology, and findings. Give a
big picture of the literature.
II. Theme A
a. Overview of characteristics of the theme
b. Sub-theme narrow but grouped findings related to the theme
i. Study X (Related Findings)
ii. Study X (Related Findings)
iii. Study X (Related Findings)
c. Sub-theme narrow but grouped findings related to the theme
i. Study X (, Related Findings)
ii. Study X (Related Findings)
iii. Study X (Related Findings)
d. Etc., etc., etc. with other findings that fit Theme A; studies can be repeated if there
are multiple findings that fit under more than one theme
III. Theme B follow a, b, c, and so on from above
IV. Keep repeating with themes
a. What are the contributions of this literature to the field?
b. What might be missing?
c. What are some next steps for research? The next steps should explicitly address how
to correct for strengths, weaknesses, and gaps.
Sinead Harrington, OTD, MOTR/L
¦ Located in Week 5 folder
¦ Upload when completed under Blackboard assignment link
¦ 20-25 minutes
Objectives of todays class
¦ Be able to assess the reliability and validity of websites
¦ Begin writing your introduction
¦ Start to organize and outline your Literature Review
ASSESSING WEBSITES: Is it good
¦ CRAAP TEST
¦ When was the information published or posted?
¦ Has the information been revised or updated?
¦ Does your topic require current information, or will older
sources work as well?
RELEVANCE: Importance of information
¦ Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
¦ Who is the intended audience?
¦ Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or
advanced for your needs)?
¦ Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one
you will use?
¦ Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?
¦ Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
¦ What are the author’s credentials or organizational affiliations?
¦ Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
¦ Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
¦ Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? Examples:
.com .edu .gov .org .net
ACCURACY: Reliability of source
¦ Where does the information come from?
¦ Is the information supported by evidence?
¦ Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
¦ Can you verify any of the information in another source or from
¦ Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?
¦ Are there any spelling, grammar or typographical errors?
PURPOSE: Why the information exists
¦ What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, sell,
entertain or persuade?
¦ Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
¦ Is the information fact or opinion?
¦ Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
¦ Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or
Practice using the CRAAP TEST
Click on this link- http://rythospital.com/ and assess the
Use the CRAAP test worksheet- located on BlackboardWeek 5 folder
CRAAP test results- RYT HOSPITAL PAGE
¦ CURRENCY – there is no copyright date apparent on the website
¦ RELEVANCE – the content appears to be written for potential patients
¦ AUTHORITY – the website relies on its self-proclaimed research
hospital status as its authority; it is affiliated with a medical school,
according to Google, doesn’t exist; and the only contact information is
an address Google Maps cannot find
¦ ACCURACY – though it appears unbiased with accurate spelling and
grammar, all the information about the hospital, its staff and its
research is stated without any references at all; many of the links are
¦ PURPOSE – the site’s purpose appears to highlight its so-called
medical breakthroughs, but the content reveals this site to be an
Review the following websites
Use the CRAAP test worksheet to determine which websites
you would use when writing an academic paper:
Organizing a Literature Review
¦ 3 main sections:
Body of Review
Include background information, stats, etc.
Define key terms
Demonstrate importance of topic
Identifies the research question
Concludes with the main idea you want your readers to learnthesis statement
Introduction for your literature review
¦ What background information and key terms should it include?
¦ Gives direction to paper
¦ Should be specific
¦ Covers what you will discuss in the paper and be supported by
¦ Not a quote or question
¦ ***Usually a single sentence at end of introduction
¦ Bad Thesis
There are good and bad things about
computers in the classroom. (vague)
¦ Good Thesis
Computers have brought new
dimensions to the classroom for both
students and teachers, but they are not
without their problems. (specific,
¦ Bad Thesis
Computer games are not just a
waste of time. (too hard to prove)
¦ Good Thesis
Some computer games help to
develop critical thinking skills, such
as evaluating circumstances,
making inferences, and drawing
conclusions. (specific, supportable)
Introduction Example with Thesis
¦ Depression is a broad and complex subject which can be viewed many ways. Studies about
the brains anatomy and chemistry provide information and insight into various ways to treat
depression, including medication, psychotherapy, and electroshock therapy. The most popular
treatment in contemporary American society is medication. Over 43% of those diagnosed with
depression are actively taking anti-depressants; 17% are in psychotherapy alone (with no
medication), and 2% have undergone electroshock therapy (Smith, 2008). While most
Americans opt to take medication to treat depression, literature on the subject suggests
medicinal treatment alone is less effective than psychotherapy in that most patients who use
only medicine have recurring episodes of depression for the rest of their lives, while most
patients in psychotherapy appear to recover in with reporting fewer instances of recurring
¦ The literature review presented here discusses the effectiveness of the treatments along with
their pros and cons. This paper will focus on the differences between psychotherapy and
medication in treating peoples depression and improving their lives.
Starting your introduction
Background information and defining key terms
THESIS STATEMENT- referring back to the original research question
For clients with COPD, is tele-rehabilitation an effective intervention?
WHAT IS THE ANSWER ACCORDING TO THE LITERATURE YOU HAVE
¦ *** Refer back to introductions of each scientific article for
Generating your Thesis
¦ Your thesis needs to make a claim about the currently accepted state of knowledge on your
Generate a working thesis, focusing on what you currently know about your topic. Play with
¦ The literature on ___ reveals ____.
In recent years, research on ___ has focused on ___, with little research on ___.
Organizing a Literature Review
¦ BODY OF THE REVIEW
Groups articles into thematic clusters or subtopics
Emphasizes the main findings of the articles in your own words
Visual representation of all
the relevant literature on your
Synthesizing all your literature
Source # 1
Source # 2
Source # 3
Grouping information according to when it was published or
the time period
Organized around particular subthemes within the literature
Focuses on the methods of the researcher or writer
Matrix grid example
¦ Found in Week 5 folder on Blackboard
¦ Read over each sources information
¦ Place each statement in the correct box matching the main theme
¦ Look for similarities/common themes
Your matrix grid
¦ Found in Week 5 folder on Blackboard
¦ Determine themes seen throughout your COPD articles
Refer back to evidence table assignment
¦ Fill in your own matrix grid (25-30 minutes)
¦ Please come up and ask questions
Organizing a Literature Review
Summarizes the major themes which emerged in the review
Pinpoints strengths and weaknesses among the articles
(innovative methods used, gaps in research, problems with
theoretical frameworks, etc.).
Concludes by formulating questions which need further research
within the topic
Method to Organize your Literature
¦ Allows you to analyze and reflect on themes
¦ Provides a sequence for your ideas
¦ Provides a plan for your literature review
Questions to guide your outlining
¦ Does it thoroughly examine the contents?
¦ Are the themes supported by strong evidence?
¦ Are the conclusions warranted?
¦ Does the outline represent the integrated whole?
¦ Have you omitted all extra/repetitious material?
Some common outlining mistakes
¦ Resist the urge to just compile a list of facts and ideas
¦ Include all pertinent information
¦ Do not just list articles, must go under themes
Theme Based Literature Review
Identifying Themes for a Literature
¦ Each group will receive 12 sentences
¦ After reading each sentence, start to organize sentences into same
topic/theme (should be 3)
¦ Then write a topic sentence (1 sentence) summarizing the theme for
your group of sentences
To develop an appropriate topic sentence, read the all the sentences together as a
whole and think about their main idea/point they share
¦ Assignment # 4: Literature review outline and introduction due on
Blackboard by midnight on 4/18
¦ Discussion Board Post # 5
Home-based telerehabilitation via real-time videoconferencing
improves endurance exercise capacity in patients with COPD: The
randomized controlled TeleR Study
LING LING Y. TSAI,1,2 RENAE J. MCNAMARA,2,3 CHLOE MODDEL,4 JENNIFER A. ALISON,1,5
DAVID K. MCKENZIE3 AND ZOE J. MCKEOUGH1
Discipline of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, 2Department of Physiotherapy, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep
Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, 4Agency for Clinical Innovation and 5Department of Physiotherapy, Royal Prince Alfred
Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Background and objective: Telerehabilitation has the
potential to increase access to pulmonary rehabilitation
(PR) for patients with COPD who have dif?culty accessing centre-based PR due to poor mobility, lack of
transport and cost of travel. We aimed to determine the
effect of supervised, home-based, real-time videoconferencing telerehabilitation on exercise capacity, self-ef?cacy, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and
physical activity in patients with COPD compared with
usual care without exercise training.
Methods: Patients with COPD were randomized to
either a supervised home-based telerehabilitation group
(TG) that received exercise training three times a week
for 8 weeks or a control group (CG) that received usual
care without exercise training. Outcomes were measured at baseline and following the intervention.
Results: Thirty-six out of 37 participants (mean ! SD
age = 74 ! 8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s
(FEV1) = 64 ! 21% predicted) completed the study.
Compared with the CG, the TG showed a statistically
signi?cant increase in endurance shuttle walk test time
(mean difference = 340 s (95% CI: 153526, P < 0.001)), an increase in self-ef?cacy (mean difference = 8 points (95% CI: 214, P < 0.007)), a trend towards a statistically signi?cant increase in the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire total score (mean difference = 8 points (95% CI: -1 to 16, P = 0.07)) and no difference in physical activity (mean difference = 475 steps per day (95% CI: -200 to 1151, P = 0.16)). Conclusion: This study showed that telerehabilitation improved endurance exercise capacity and self-ef?cacy in patients with COPD when compared with usual care. Clinical trial registration: ACTRN12612001263886 at anzctr. org.au Correspondence: Ling Ling Y. Tsai, Department of Physiotherapy, Prince of Wales Hospital, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 20 May 2016; invited to revise 26 July and 14 October 2016; revised 28 August and 24 October 2016; accepted 24 October 2016 (Associate Editor: Bob Hancox). © 2016 Asian Paci?c Society of Respirology S UMM A R Y A T A GL AN C E An 8-week home-based telerehabilitation exercise programme using real-time videoconferencing software showed a statistically signi?cant increase in endurance shuttle walk test time and self-ef?cacy when compared with usual care with no exercise training in patients with COPD. Key words: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise, pulmonary rehabilitation, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing. Abbreviations: 6MWD, 6-min walk distance; 6MWT, 6-min walk test; ANCOVA, analysis of covariance; BMI, body mass index; BODE, BMI, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity; CAT, COPD Assessment Test; CG, control group; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRDQ, Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; DLCO, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; EE, energy expenditure; ESWT, endurance shuttle walk test; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FPI-SF, Functional Performance Inventory Short Form; FRC, functional residual capacity; FVC, forced vital capacity; GOLD, Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HR, heart rate; HRQoL, healthrelated quality of life; ISWT, incremental shuttle walk test; MCID, minimum clinically important difference; MD, mean difference; MET, metabolic equivalent; MMRC, Modi?ed Medical Research Council; OA, osteoarthritis; PA, physical activity; PAL, PA level; PR, pulmonary rehabilitation; PRAISE, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Adapted Index of Self-Ef?cacy; RCT, randomized controlled trial; RPE, rate of perceived exertion; RV, residual capacity; SpO2, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation; SWA, SenseWear Armband; TG, telerehabilitation group; TLC, total lung capacity. INTRODUCTION Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a ?rst line management strategy in patients with COPD as it reduces breathlessness, increases exercise capacity and Respirology (2017) 22, 699707 doi: 10.1111/resp.12966 700 improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL).1,2 A small but signi?cant increase in physical activity in patients with COPD has also been shown following PR.3 However, 850% of those referred to PR never attend, whilst 1032% of those who commence do not complete the programme.4 Barriers to attendance and completion include dif?culty accessing the programme, poor mobility, lack of transport and cost of travel.5 Home-based PR may overcome the barriers to attendance at a centre-based programme. Home-based PR resulted in signi?cantly greater improvements in exercise capacity and HRQoL compared with usual care in patients with COPD1 and these improvements were similar to those demonstrated with centre-based programmes.6 An alternative approach to delivery of supervised home-based PR is telerehabilitation, which is de?ned as the delivery of rehabilitation services using telecommunication technologies7 such as realtime videoconferencing. While there have been a number of telerehabilitation studies in COPD,815 the type of telecommunication strategies used have differed across studies. Two pilot randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared a web-based exercise programme with smartphone activity coaching, self-management education and teleconsultations to a control group (CG) of usual care.8,9 Results indicated a positive improvement in activity levels with high compliance to the activity coach,8 and high satisfaction but low adherence with the exercise programme.9 Other pilot studies where the home exercises have been supervised using real-time videoconferencing facilities have reported that programmes were safe, feasible and well accepted1115 by patients with COPD with a high adherence rate13 and signi?cant improvements in exercise capacity1214 and HRQoL.12 Only one study has compared telerehabilitation with outpatient PR in patients with COPD.10 This study was not an RCT and the telerehabilitation involved unsupervised home exercise training with telemonitoring support and periodic video assistance for support to exercise. The telerehabilitation group (TG) demonstrated improved physical activity, exercise capacity and dyspnoea equivalent to the outpatient PR group.10 No studies have explored the effects of home-based telerehabilitation supervised using real-time videoconferencing facilities on exercise capacity, physical activity and HRQoL in a RCT for patients with COPD. The primary aim of this study was to determine, in patients with COPD, the effects of a supervised, home-based, real-time videoconferencing telerehabilitation programme on endurance exercise capacity compared with usual care without exercise training. The secondary aim was to explore the effects of telerehabilitation on HRQoL, level of physical activity, functional performance, overall health status, anxiety and depression and self-ef?cacy compared with usual medical care in patients with COPD. METHODS Participants Patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital PR programme in Sydney, Australia, with a primary © 2016 Asian Paci?c Society of Respirology LLY Tsai et al. medical diagnosis of stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <70% and FEV1 < 80% predicted post-bronchodilator) were invited to participate in the study. Participants were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria (Table S1, Supplementary Information). Study design This study was a prospective, blinded (assessor and statistician) RCT. Participants were randomized by one of the investigators (L.L.Y.T.) using a computergenerated sequence (https://www-users.york.ac.uk/ ~mb55/guide/minim.htm) and concealed allocation to one of the two groups: TG who performed supervised exercise training via desktop videoconferencing or the CG who performed no exercise training. Randomization was strati?ed according to the distance walked in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) (i.e. 6-min walk distance (6MWD) > or = 350 m) and the degree of airway
obstruction (FEV1 > or = 50% predicted). The study …
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