I have already made the first draft and I have it revised I need help with the corrections. The orginal paper is uploaded as a doc. The revised is uploaded as a PDF. The topic was:Select a notable mythological
figure such as Athena. Research and report on the different ways in which he or
she is represented visually in media such as sculpture or painting. Does the
manner of representation change over time? Which episodes from your figure’s
life are represented most frequently? This paper should have a diachronic
perspectivei.e., examine visual representations from
several artistic periods, such as Hellenistic,
Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, etc. The provided instructions bellow were used for the paper:-The research paper is to be 1800-2400 words long- please read the uploaded docs carefully before writing the assignment. – no plagiarism. – in the dock there is a way to show you how to source your sources for this paper. – No fake sources I will be checking the sources and if the writing matches or not. – credible and English sources onlyprimary sources as discussed in the doc can be the following 1- Hesiods Theogony2- Apollodorus Library3- Hyginus Fabulae,4-Ovids Metamorphoses5- ,and/or the Bible, as appropriate for the topicIf you would like to use Euripides Medea, a perfectly fine translation by C.A.E. Luschnig is available at http://www.stoa.org/diotima/anthology/medea.trans.shtml.not: other primary sources can be use if they are only credible
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Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom, war, and crafts. She was the only daughter of
Zeus and is considered the wisest, most courageous and the most resourceful goddess among the
Olympian gods. Although Athena was not the goddess of the warriors, she had prudent
intelligence in war because her strategies always led to victory. The Greeks also consider Athena
as a goddess of the industries because he had intelligence on what ensued in that sector. Athena
was born from the head of Zeus where his head had to be split with an ax. There have been
numerous myths explaining the origin and the meaning of the name Athena. Many people
believe that there exists a close association between her name and the name of Athens City
which is the capital of Greece. Many Greeks believe that the city was named after Athena. The
Olympian goddess has been represented visually in the form of paintings and sculptures which
have changed over time depending on the artistic period.
The Birth of Athena
Athena was born from Zeus’ head. Zeus had earlier on swallowed Metis who was
pregnant with Athena by then (Apollodorus, Library, book 1, chapter 3, section 6). There was
prophesy that his son would dethrone Zeus and he opted to swallow Metis because he feared the
fulfillment of the prophecy. Immediately after swallowing Metis, Zeus began to have headaches
which forced Hephaestus to use an ax to open up his head (Apollodorus, Library, book 1, chapter
3, section 6). Athena came out of Zeus’ head as a grown and fully dressed goddess ready for war.
The first piece of visual painting showcasing the birth of Athena is reserved at the Fogg Art
Museum. The painting is painted using the black-figure technique, and it resembles a trapeze.
Although the birth of Athena took place between 550-525 B.C., the painting is from the 6th
century. The painting is approximately 5 inches high and 4.5 inches in breadth. However, the
birth of Athena took place before the Hellenistic period.
The key component of sculptures during the Hellenistic period was the manner in which
they expressed the face and the body to elicit emotional response among viewers. Dramatic
figures characterize Hellenistic sculptures, scenes which are dominated by tension, the carvings
are made from high relief with drillings that allows light and shadows with the sole intention of
showcasing the naturalism aspect of the figure.
A typical example a Hellenistic sculpture is the marble head of Athena which dates back
to 200 B.C. The marble head is a stone sculpture with a height of 19 inches.
Over time, Hellenistic sculptures have adopted a new level of hyper-realism where drama
and pathos have been incorporated as the new factors. The style is nowadays exaggerated, and
focus has shifted to the details of the sculpture with the sole intention of adding a heightened
level of emotion and pathos. Athenas marble head showcases an exaggerated baroque style
which was started in various places in the Mediterranean before spreading to other parts of the
world during the 2nd century B.C. In the stone sculpture, Athena can be seen wearing a helmet
which must have been made of bronze or marble
Another sculpture dating back from the Hellenistic period and precisely 175 BCE is the
sculpture of Athena and Alkyoneos which is situated in Bargama Turkey.
Figure 3: form http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/Civilization/id/772
The sculpture which is a north freeze of the altar of Zeus depicts a scene where Athena is
fighting with the gigantic Alkyoneus. Athena is grabbing Alkyoneus head and pulling it back
whereas Gaia emerges from the bottom to plead with her son over his life. However, there is a
winged Nike which resembles someone crowning Athena. The sculpture depicts heightened
emotions through their facial strains, the watery eyes. All of them are a sign of terror and sorrow
and Gaia mourns the death of her son.
The medieval/Gothic sculpture is any form of art which dates back from the 3rd to the 10th
century. Medieval art was characterized by cultural diversity where the Christian kingdoms, the
Anglo-Saxons, the Celts and the Norse all intervenes. Medieval paintings and sculptures retain
their form and important traits from the classical world. The most renowned sculptures of Athena
showcase her two personalities; one of a calm and gentle woman while the other one is of a warready goddess.
According to Apollodorus Library, Athena was a goddess of victory, and those who
heeded his advice always emerged triumphantly(Apollodorus, Epitome, book E, chapter 3,
section 2). Humankind had invented weapons for use in the war and other forms of armories. In
the second sculpture, Athena can be seen holding a spear which proves that she was the goddess
of war. Her calm nature in the second sculpture shows that Athena was also the patroness of
Athens following his move to plant an olive tree. This is a symbol of peace and calmness, and
Athena is displayed as a calm and peaceful goddess in the second sculpture.
The Apollodorus Library borrows heavily from the Hesiods Theogony to narrate how
the birth of Athena came into place (Athene Myths 1). Unlike other sources which omit the
Metis from Athenas birth story, these two sources have categorically stated that Metis was
Athenas biological mother (Hesiods Theogony, line 886-890).
The painting showcases Athena fighting with the giant Enceladus. He was one of the
giants that started a war against gods. During the war, he faced the goddess Athena and when he
tried to escape the field, Athena buried him under the Sicilian Mount Aetna (Athena Myths 1).
Moreover, Alkyoneus was one of the giants that Zeus managed to conquer the giants who had
haunted Athens for a long time ago with the assistance of the Athena. There was prophesy which
claimed that no single god would manage to conquer the giants without the assistance of an
immortal ally (Athena myths 1). The immortal ally, in this case, was Athena, and she offered
advice which always led to victory. Zeus called Herakles to be his ally but immediately after
shooting an arrow at the giant Alkyoneus, it recovered (Athena Myths 1). However, Athena
intervened and advised Herakles to the giant outside Pallene where it died.
During the Renaissance period, many parts of the world experienced a revival in drawing,
art, and paintings. The changes resembled a rebirth which impacted the classical Greek Art.
Artists were in search of new artistic values which would be suitable for the international world.
All artists had a recurring desire for universality, and the same is evident in the visual arts
representing Athena during the renaissance period. The Renaissance art of Athena was driven
and motivated by the new aspect of humanism. During the Renaissance period, artists
emphasized the visual aspect of a piece of art where the human aspect would be domineering.
Instead of the ancient symbolic and blurred images in paintings, artists focused on personifying
In the painting below, Athena can be seen pushing Ares, the god of war, away from a
young woman. The painting looks clear, and the characters resemble real-life individuals. The
mode of dressing shows that the world was in the process of embracing civilization. The space in
the painting is well managed, and the background is also relatable. Additionally, it is easier to
understand and interpret the art because the contents resemble a modern era. Consequently, the
painting also has a thematic meaning which matches that of the mythical Olympian goddess.
Athena was a peacemaker, and she always advocated for peaceful coexistence among all
dwellers of Athens City.
There have been numerous changes in the manner in which artists exhibit their sculptures
and paintings. The paintings and sculptures of Athena have become resourceful learning
materials for teaching classical art. Over time, the paintings and sculptures of Athena gained
worldwide recognition because more artists managed to redraw the works on the Olympian
goddess. Athena became to be considered as an international symbol of knowledge and wisdom.
Hephaistos love to Athena caused him to rape her. Hephaistos raped Athena after he
divorced unfaithful wife Aphrodite that had an affair with Ares. Athena was uncomfortable and
did not want to have any association with Hephaestus. Athena vanishes and Hephaestus is forced
to ejaculate on the ground which in the long run bore Erichthonius (Hephaistos, Loves).
This period runs from the early 17th century to the late 18th century and is marked by a
couple of revolutionary changes in arts. In the recent years, baroque art has become more direct,
visible and also dramatic. In fact, all the arts in the baroque period attempts to draw viewers
closer to the scene. The primary motive is to generate emotional tension and the psychological
aspect of reality. However, the settings are extravagant and are usually decorated with various
types of ornaments and jewelry.
A typical example is the sculpture below which has a myriad of colors. Additionally,
there is a dramatic contrast in the bright and the dark colors. It is easier to decipher light and
shadows in the Athena sculpture. Recently, there have been numerous sculptures of Athena all
over the world. Athena has appeared in all black-figured paintings and sculptures around the
globe. Nowadays, Athena is used as a symbol of democracy and freedom following her
numerous attempts to maintain peaceful co-existence between the dwellers of Athens City.
Roman Poet, Ovid, had another perception of who Athena was. He depicts Athena as a
warrior goddess who did all that is within her means to protect the city of Athens. Ovid believes
that Athena has the power to transform individuals. After conquering Arachne, Athena turned
him into a spider while Medusa was turned into a snake (Ovid, Metamorphoses 6.1). This
resulted after the latter saw her being raped by Poseidon at the temple. Ovids idea of
metamorphoses emanates from the westernized culture of poetry and later spread to other parts
of the world. Nowadays, Ovids contribution to the modern day paintings and sculptures cannot
Nowadays, Athena is known as a protector of the civilized life and an advocate for justice
and democracy. She is praised for her compassion and generosity in most parts of the world.
Athena served as guardian of Athenss city with the sole intention of ensuring that the safety and
well-being of all persons are legalized. On some occasions, her sculptures and paintings will
have an owl on one shoulder. Over time, the paintings and the sculptures are expected to change
especially with the advancement of technology.
It is inadmissible that Athena is well represented in art since the Hellenistic period till
date. There have been numerous changes in the manner in which art is used to relay the intended
message to the viewer. The changes can be attributed to various factors such as the spread of
civilization and the latest technological advances. Multiple artists all over the world may have
different works depending on their source of information. Athena has a couple of versions of
herself which are well represented in paintings and sculpture. However, all of them are aimed at
maintaining the originality of the mythical character, Athena, as known by the Greeks.
Apollodorus, The Library. Sir James George Frazer, Ed. Retrieved from
Hesiod, Theogony. Retrieved from https://msu.edu/~tyrrell/theogon.pdf
Ovid, Metamorphoses .TRANSLATED BY BROOKES MORE, Ed. Retrieved from
Athene Myths 1. (2000). Theoi Project. Retrieved from
HEPHAISTOS LOVES. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2018, from
Marable head of Athena Retrieved from
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