Based on the Rogerian method essay I attached to this order, please answer the questions posted by my instructor.

Unlike the Toulmin and Rogerian methods where one side is argued over another, the Middle Ground argument mediates between two sides of an issue hopefully arriving at a compromise solution between two positions.Using the essay attached to this order, Let the class know your previous claim and briefly how you proved this claim in your essay. After this brief review discussion, discuss how you would have approached this particular topic if you were to write a Middle Ground argument, instead of a Toulmin or Rogerian argument. Would you have adjusted your claim? If so, what sort of adjustment would you need? Would you have to find additional sources about your topic in order to prove this new claim? Is a middle ground solution a more practical solution to your chosen issue?
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McDonough 1
Brandon McDonough
Professor Donovan Karraf
Effectiveness in Writing/Engl 102
20 April 2018
Immigration Impact in the U.S.
Immigration is currently one of the most debated issues in the U.S political arena. Being
the touchstone of various political debates have seen policymakers trying to weigh all competing
humanitarian, economic and security concerns. Congress has not been able to reach a conclusive
agreement on proper immigration reform. Controversial policies have been moved into executive
and judicial branches. Immigrants and their U.S born children make up twenty-seven percent of
U.S. inhabitants. Of these, only two-thirds are documented. Over 10 million immigrants
currently reside in the country and are growing by 700,000 annually (Glazer 285). Some argue
that the presence of the massive influx of aliens is a powerful testament of America’s
attractiveness and robust economy, while others worry that it has posed a threat to the country’s
political and economic stability. However, after a close examination of both sides, it is evident
immigration on a massive scale has presented significant contributions to both the economy and
security.
Proponents of immigration say it is good for the economy as it increases the overall GDP.
Others argue that although the GDP rises, it is disadvantageous to the least educated and poor Na
American citizens who have to compete for work with immigrants (Glazer 283). Another
argument by proponents is that immigrants have become a valuable asset to the security since
some of them work in law enforcement. Both advocates and critics want to be assured of job
McDonough 2
security now and for the future. This position is objected by others who believe some immigrants
are terrorists hiding in plain sight.
Opponents of immigration believe massive immigration has negatively impacted
economic security leading to a downward spiral in the labor market. This is a valid concern
given that highly skilled immigrants have in the past competed with natives over jobs and caused
temporary unemployment. According to basic economic theory, immigration has to result in a
net gain for American citizens (Camarota 353). For that to happen, income from low-income
Americans must be redistributed to those who are not in competition with immigrants and to
owners of capital as well. However, studies done by the National Research Council show that
there is no substantial evidence that immigration has impacted job security of Americans
negatively.
Furthermore, critics of immigration argue that immigration has increased security risks.
This is a justified concern seeing that the September 11th terrorist attackers entered the U.S
legally with some of them having overstayed their visas (Rosenow-Williams 413-415). However,
this is more of a constructed threat than an actual threat since with proper rigorous background
checks on immigrants; security risks would be mitigated if not eliminated (Messina 534). Both
sides can agree on the fact that an unsecured border may pose a security threat especially if
background checks on immigrants are not thorough. It is important to note that America has to
implement rigorous security measures with regards to border control to protect the citizen’s
interest (Cole 909). However, care should be taken to ensure people of particular races are not
profiled and unfairly treated because of the perception of racism is not in anyone’s best interest.
Studies show that highly skilled, highly paid immigrants increase the GDP of a country.
McDonough 3
George Borjas, a leading U.S economist, argues that presence of both legal and illegal
immigrants increases the GDP by $1.6 trillion per year (Camarota 359). Economic impact in
every state is very different and depends mostly on the financial condition at the time, so there is
no substantial proof that immigration affects the economy negatively. Even with these opposing
views, all Americans still want to see growth in GDP as it is beneficial to the quality of life and
strength of the currency.
Connecting immigration to terrorism is a weak perception. Griswold of Cato Institute
argues that entrenching and reinforcing the connection between the two is a political discourse
practiced by policymakers to shape public opinion (Macias-Rojas 26; Cole 123). Study’s indicate
that cities with the highest amount of immigrants have not shown any significant changes in
violent crimes (Stowell, Barton, Messner and Raffalovich 909; Wilson 563). Neither has it
indicated changes between the number of native arrests and that of immigrants. The correlation,
therefore, shows that this concern is constructed threat that lacks empirical facts. America is a
nation of immigrants. Perfect harmony and co-existence what all citizens of the United States
should be striving for. After all, the best way to remove prejudice is through personal experience
with people from different cultures.
In conclusion, the need to secure our country’s economic and physical security cannot be
ignored. As much as a growing GDP is beneficial, it is important to remember that social
programs cannot be funded by welcoming only immigrants with no education. As for internal
security, both proponents and opponents agree that American’s physical security should be a
priority when it comes to implementing border control policies.
McDonough 4
Annotated Bibliography
Camarota, Steven: “The Fiscal and Economic Impact of Immigration: The current Debate.”
Guide to U.S economic policy (2013): 347-360.
This article explains the Basic Economic Theory with regards to the impact of
immigration on the native’s job security. This justifies the views of the proponents of
immigration.
Cole, Phillip. “On the borders of solidarity: ethics, power and immigration controls.” Soundings,
vol. 63, no. 63, 2016, pp. 123-135.
This article illustrates immigration as political discourse. This serves to strengthen the
argument of proponents.
Glazer, Sarah. “‘Europe’s Immigration Turmoil’: Issues for Debate in American Foreign Policy:
Selections from CQ Researcher.” Council on Foreign Relations (2018): 281-315.
This article gives a review of the population of immigrants in the U.S and the political
debate issues surrounding it. It helps draw the attention of the public with regards to the
seriousness of the matter.
Macias-Rojas, Patrisia. “Immigration and the War on Crime: Law and Order Politics and the
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996.” Journal on
Migration and Human Security (2018): 1-26
This article shows studies done by Cato Institute on the impact of immigration to the
economic and physical security of the country. It helps to shape public perception to get
away from the rhetoric of blaming terrorism on the country’s openness to immigration.
McDonough 5
Messina, Anthony M.” World Politics, vol. 66, no. 03, 2014, pp. 530-559.
The article describes the aftermath of the September 11th attacks and how it influenced
public opinion and concepts of security with regards to immigration. This legitimizes the
concerns of Security Agencies and the general public.
Messina, Anthony M. “Securitizing Immigration in the Age of Terror.” World Politics, vol. 66,
no. 03, 2014, pp. 530-559.
This article claims that the linking between terrorism and immigration has received a
great deal of scholarly and public attention. It goes on to describe it as a discourse and an
exercise of power. This sheds light on the weaknesses of opponent’s argument.
Stowell, Jacob I., et al. “Addition by Subtraction? A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of
Deportation Efforts on Violent Crime.” Law & Society Review, vol. 47, no. 4, 2013, pp.
909-942.
This article talks about the relationship between immigration and high crime rates. It
disapproves the assumption of correlating the two. This serves to disapprove opponent’s
point of argument.
Wilson, Thomas M. “The Anthropology of Security: Perspectives from the Frontline of
Policing, Counter-terrorism, and Border Control.Mark Maguire, Catarina Frois and Nils
Zurawski.” American Ethnologist (2017): 563-564.
McDonough 6
This article gives the reasons as to why strong border policies are required to ensure the
security of Americans is not compromised. This shows the common ground, a common
concern, for both proponents and opponents of immigration.

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