Beam Deflections Executive Summary

I need you to write Executive Summary about Beam Deflections. I upload LAB manual read and follow section E. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FORMAT to write the executive summary.Also read and follow the all the objectives in LAB #5 IX. Lab # 5 Beam Stresses and Deflections. it in the manual as well. please follow the manual step by step.
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WIDENER UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
CE 206
STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS LABORATORY MANUAL
Spring 2018
Contents
I. LABORATORY FORMAT ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4
A.
COURSE OBJECTIVES …………………………………………………………………………. 4
B.
CLASS ORGANIZATION ………………………………………………………………………. 4
C.
LABORATORY ORGANIZATION …………………………………………………………. 4
D.
LABORATORY REPORT FORMAT ………………………………………………………. 5
E.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FORMAT ………………………………………………………. 9
F. DESIGN-BUILD-TEST PROJECT: …………………………………………………………… 10
II. LABORATORY POLICIES …………………………………………………………………………… 12
III. Technical Writing Assignent: Review of Journal Article ………………………………….. 13
A.
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
B.
References: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
C.
Background: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
D.
Procedure:…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
IV. Lab #1 Concrete Mix Design and Compression Tests ………………………………………. 17
A.
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
B.
References: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
C.
Background: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
D.
Materials: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
E.
Equipment: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
F. Procedure: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
G.
Calculations: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
V. Lab # 2: Measuring Tensile Properties of Metal Specimens ……………………………….. 24
A.
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
B.
References: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
C.
Background: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
D.
Specimens: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
E.
Equipment: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
F. Testing Procedure: ……………………………………………………………………………………. 27
G.
Measurements and Calculations:……………………………………………………………… 28
VI. Lab #3 Measuring Forces in Truss Members Using Strain Gages ……………………… 30
A.
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
B.
References: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
C.
Background: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
D.
Specimens: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
E.
Equipment: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
F. Procedure: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
G.
Calculations: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
VII. Lab #4 Wooden Beam Tests …………………………………………………………………………. 33
A.
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
B.
References: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
C.
Background: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
D.
Materials: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
2
E.
Equipment: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
F.
Procedure:…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
G.
Calculations: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
IX. Lab # 5 Beam Stresses and Deflections …………………………………………………………… 41
A.
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
B.
References: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
C.
Background: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
D.
Specimens: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
E.
Equipment: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
F. Procedure: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
G.
Calculations: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
X. Lab #6 Hot Mix Asphalt Superpave Volumetric Design and Compaction Tests …….. 45
A.
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
B.
References: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
C.
Background: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
D.
Materials: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
E.
Equipment: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
F.
Procedure: (based on AASHTO T166 Test Method A) ……………………………… 47
G.
Measurements and Calculations:……………………………………………………………… 48
3
I. LABORATORY FORMAT
A.
COURSE OBJECTIVES
The Structures and Materials Laboratory is intended to (1) supplement theoretical
knowledge in CE structures and construction materials; (2) acquaint students with basic
measurement and experimental techniques to examine properties of materials and
structural components; (3) develop the ability for planning and design of projects; (4)
familiarize the student with basic statistics for analysis of experimental data; (5) develop
written and oral communication skills; and (6) provide exposure to the interpersonal
relationships involved in group work.
Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to:
1. Conduct experiments to measure properties of materials and systems for civil
engineering applications.
2. Analyze data for error analyses, comparison of experimental and theoretical results,
and application of regression analyses.
3. Prepare engineering laboratory reports using appropriate technical writing methods.
4. Design, conduct, and present an independent project.
B.
CLASS ORGANIZATION
1. The class will be divided into lab teams to perform the experimental work, but
each student is required to submit an individual lab report or executive summary
for each experiment, with the exception of the design-build-test project when a
single group report from the project team is submitted.
2. Detailed instructions for the prepared experiments are included in this manual.
Students are expected to be familiar with the objectives, scope, and content of the
lab prior to the experiment. Some labs may require preliminary calculations
(truss analyses for example), and these calculations should be prepared prior to
the lab. Deviations from the lab manual will be discussed by the instructor prior
to the lab.
3. Safety policies are posted in each laboratory and in this manual (see Laboratory
Policies). Students are expected to comply with these policies at all times. Failure
to comply with these policies will result in reductions of lab grades and possibly
dismissal from the lab.
C.
LABORATORY ORGANIZATION
1.
A schedule of lab experiments will be provided for the semester. The instructor
will discuss objectives and procedures for each experiment during the weekly
4
lecture period. Each student is expected to read and be familiar with the
objectives, background, and procedures for each week’s lab prior to lecture.
2.
All students are required to be present for, and participate in, the experimental
work done in the laboratory. All excused absences require a written request in
advance and/or proper corroboration such as a physician’s note. Unexcused
absences cannot be made up and will result in the student receiving a zero for the
lab.
3.
All students are expected to participate and contribute to the success of each lab
experiment. Tasks should be coordinated within each group and should include
setting of lab equipment, making preliminary calculations and quality assurance
checks, obtaining measurements and recording data. It is the responsibility of the
entire team to ensure that the best results are obtained.
4.
One set of data should be recorded per group. The responsibility of data recorder
should rotate. At the completion of the lab, the instructor will post the data sheets
or a compilation of the data for all group members on shared files. These data
sheets should be attached in the appendix of all lab reports. It is extremely
important to clearly and accurately record all data.
D.
LABORATORY REPORT FORMAT
1.
Lab reports and executive summaries should be written from the perspective of a
practicing engineer to the extent possible. The reports should be written for a
general technical audience (such as another engineering student or faculty).
Assume that the assignments are projects that you are assigned to work on by your
project manager or client. Therefore, phrases such as: “the students were given the
test specimens ….,” should be avoided. In addition, the stated objectives of the lab
should be technical objectives, not “educational objectives.” For instance, a
practicing engineer is not likely to tell his client that he did the work to learn how to
use the equipment.
2.
All reports should be prepared using Microsoft Word and submitted through the
assignment tab in Campus Cruiser. Assignments are due at the start of the class.
Students will be responsible for maintaining copies of all reports in the event that a
file is lost or revisions are necessary.
3.
All text should be double spaced. Margins (at least one-inch) should be provided
on all sides of the page. Pages should be consecutively numbered beginning with
page 1 following the title page.
4.
All Tables and Figures must be properly numbered (Figure 1, Table 1), titled,
and labeled (including units), and they should appear as soon as possible after
they are referred to in the text. For figures (graphs, sketches, pictures, or other
illustrations), the figure number and title appear at the bottom of the figure. Table
5
numbers and titles appear at the top of each table. Original data records and
sample calculations DO NOT belong in the body of the report, but should be
included in titled appendices. The results should be presented in tabular/graphical
format, and must include all data and information so the reader can check the work.
5.
All equations must be sequentially numbered (ie. Eq. 1), and all variables in the
equation must be identified the first time they appear in the report.
6.
Avoid the use of personal pronouns such as “we” or “I”. Although these pronouns
are perfectly acceptable in other writing styles, they are not widely accepted by
technical journals in science and engineering. Science and engineering journals
prefer an objective viewpoint; the work being described should be reproducible by
anybody following the procedures described in the study. The use of “we” and “I”
is subjective and may imply that only the authors could do the work. In recent
years it has become more acceptable to use “we,” especially in situations where the
author is discussing or interpreting (such as in the introduction or conclusion
sections); however it is still good practice to avoid “we” whenever possible (for
example, write “Four cylinders from each batch of concrete were tested” instead of
“we tested four cylinders from each batch of concrete”.
6.
Avoid the use of colloquialisms, jargon, and meaningless or unnecessary phrases
(ie. – “the results were as expected”, or “this was a good experiment”). All
parts of the lab report should directly support the objectives of the lab.
7.
Use proper spelling and grammar – points will be deducted from lab reports if
grammar and spelling errors persist. Help from the University Writing Center
should be considered, or may be required, if writing problems are not corrected.
References will be made available for help with technical writing.
8.
Sections and Content of the Lab Reports:
Students should view their lab report as the final product of their work, or their
“deliverable,” similar to the way a practicing engineer views the report he or she
submits to a client. Lab reports will be organized in the following sections:
a.
Title Page
b.
Table of Contents
c.
Abstract: The abstract is a brief one to two-paragraph summary of the objectives,
work conducted during the experiment, and significant results or findings.
Sometimes a background statement may be provided at the beginning of the
abstract. The abstract allows the reader to determine the nature and scope of the
report without having to read from beginning to end. The optimal length is one
paragraph, but it could be as short as two sentences. The length of the abstract
depends on the subject matter and the length of the paper. Between 80 and 200
words is usually adequate.
6
d.
o
o
o
Introduction: Background statement on the relevance of the lab from an
engineering perspective; technical objectives of the lab; overview, or scope of
work describing the major tasks or activities completed in the lab. If the
introduction is not logical, then your reader will assume that the rest of the
document is garbage. A good introduction is a clear statement of the problem or
project and the reasons that you are studying it. This information should be
contained in the first few sentences. Give a concise and appropriate discussion of
the problem and the significance, scope, and limits of your work. The Introduction
can be structured something like this:
Context: Connect the lab you are doing to real world applications to show that you
understand the problem and its relevance from an engineering perspective
Problem Description: Give a brief description of what you were required to do in
the lab – an overview, or scope, of the work.
Goals: Discuss the technical objectives. What were you trying to accomplish?
e.
Background: Provide any information necessary for the reader to understand
subsequent sections of the report. Sometimes the Background section is combined
with the Introduction; in other reports, the Background section may be used to
explain the underlying theoretical basis for later calculations.
f.
Methods and Procedures: This section often consists of two parts:
1. Experimental Procedures: procedures performed to acquire data,
2. Analytical Procedures: methods applied to analyze the data to produce the
results and achieve the objectives.
This section can also be called “Experimental Methods” or “Materials and
Methods”. The Experimental Procedures subsection should provide a general
description of the equipment used and the work conducted during the experiment,
with particular attention to any deviations from the lab manual. This section is not
a repeat of the step by step set of instructions that are found in the lab manual!
For experimental work, give sufficient detail about your materials and methods
(both experimental procedures and methods of data analysis) so that other
experienced workers can repeat your work and obtain comparable results. When
using a standard method, cite the appropriate literature and give only the details
needed. Identify the test specimens/materials and equipment/apparatus used
for the laboratory work. Describe equipment/apparatus only if it is not standard or
not commercially available. Giving a company name and model number in
parentheses is nondistracting and adequate to identify standard equipment.
If the laboratory work will also involve calculations using theoretical equations,
then the “Methods” portion of the Procedure can be broken into two subsections –
one to cover “Experimental Procedures” and one to describe “Analytical
Procedures” or “Theoretical Calculations.” The “Analytical Procedures” subsection
should include sufficient mathematical detail to enable other researchers to
7
reproduce derivations and verify numerical results. Include all equations and
formulas necessary, but lengthy derivations are best presented in the Appendix.
Many students fail to recognize that the equations and statistical methods applied to
obtain the results are as important as the raw data. The reader expects to see these
methods discussed BEFORE the results are presented. After reading these details in
the Procedures and Methods Section (or in the Background), the reader will know
what to look for and expect in the Results and Discussion Section. Students may
wish to use subheadings, such as Experimental Procedures and Analytical
Procedures, to help write and organize this section.
The Analytical Procedures subsection should present and discuss the theories,
formulas, and equations that are applied to the data, or otherwise examined during
the experiment. Equations should be numbered and all symbols or parameters in the
equation should be identified as you would find in a technical journal article.
g.
Results and Discussion: This is where you detail the results you obtained in the
laboratory. Summarize the data collected and their statistical treatment. Include
only relevant data, but give sufficient detail to justify your conclusions. Tables and
graphs should be used where necessary to present your data, calculations, and
results. Remember that all figures and charts must be accompanied by supporting
text. Discussion must be provided to describe and explain the data and the
significance of the information in the tables and graphs. The purpose of the
discussion is to interpret and compare the results. Be objective; point out the
features and limitations of the work. Relate your results to …
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