Benchmark: Research Project Part 1

Details:Review the feedback provided by your CLC group member. Make any revisions to your paper based on their feedback.This first paper will analyze what you find out about the culture 1) from depictions of the cultural group in U.S. media and 2) from academic journals or scholarly references explaining the communication/values of the cultural group.Write 1,000-1,250 words in response to the following:Compare and contrast the concepts of stereotyping and ethnocentrism.Find two concrete examples that show how the cultural group you are studying is stereotypically represented by local and/or national media in the U.S. (This could include Comic Strips, Newspaper Articles, Advertisements, TV Shows, etc.).Compare and contrast the media stereotypes with research about the culture communication value orientations (pick two value dimensions from the list provided below, describe the value dimension, explain what research findings say about your culture in relation to these values, and give illustrations of how this is expressed in their communication).Using academic sources, explain how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication between you and a member of this cultural group.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.
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COM-263 Peer Review Worksheet
Please provide quality feedback to your peers that will help them to improve their writing skills.
This worksheet will assist you in providing that feedback.
Name of the draft’s author: Perry David
Name of the peer reviewer: Matthew Stone
Reviewer
After reading through the paper one time, write a summary (three to five sentences) of the paper
that includes your assessment of how well the paper meets the assignment requirements as
specified in the assignment directions and rubric.
IMr.
fe David’s paper is well written and thoroughly researched. Though it has a few technical errors, it
appears to adhere to the rubric of the assignment. Should these few technical corrections be made, I
that it will be a high scoring paper.
After a second, closer reading of the paper and another look at the rubric, identify specific areas
that are strong and areas that could use reinforcements or revisions.
Two strengths of the paper:
1.The paper is Informative and well written.
2. The paper is very well researched.
Three things that could use reinforcements or revisions:
The first thing that jumps out right away is the heading. The middle of the page is not in
accordance with GCU guidelines. I would check for proper paper heading.
2. There are some minor punctuation mistakes, along with a minor in-text citation error. Et al
was used as a beginning citation, as it should only be used in a second citation after listing all
authors the first time.
3. Thesis. A thesis should be the very last sentence in the first paragraph. It should also fully
summarize the contents of the entire paper. It appears that in this paper the thesis is at the
beginning of the second paragraph, and it does not encompass the information provided in the
entire essay.
Good job Dude
Benchmark Topic 3 Rubric: Research Project Part 1
Criteria
% Value
% Scaling
1: Unsatisfactory
2: Less Than
Satisfactory
3: Satisfactory
4: Good
5: Excellent
0%
65%
75%
85%
100%
Content – 70%
Compare and
contrast the concepts
of stereotyping and
ethnocentrism
25%
Compare and contrast of
stereotyping and
ethnocentrism is
incomplete or missing.
Compare and contrast
of stereotyping and
ethnocentrism is weak
and missing evidence.
Compare and contrast of
stereotyping and
ethnocentrism is
appropriate.
Compare and contrast
of stereotyping and
ethnocentrism is
strong with sound
analysis and
appropriate evidence.
Compare and contrast
of stereotyping and
ethnocentrism is
comprehensive and
insightful with well
researched evidence.
Find two concrete
examples that show
how the cultural
group you are
studying is
stereotypically
represented by local
and/or national
media in the U.S
10%
Two concrete examples
show how the studied
cultural group is
stereotypically
represented by local or
national media are
missing.
Two concrete
examples show how
the studied cultural
group is stereotypically
represented by local or
national media are
weak or incomplete.
Two concrete examples
show how the studied
cultural group is
stereotypically
represented by local or
national media are
present.
Two concrete
examples show how
the studied cultural
group is stereotypically
represented by local or
national media are
present and
appropriate.
Two concrete
examples show how
the studied cultural
group is stereotypically
represented by local or
national media are
present and well
researched.
Compare and
contrast these media
25%
Compare and contrast of
the media stereotypes
Compare and contrast
of the media
Compare and contrast of
the media stereotypes
Compare and contrast
of the media
Compare and contrast
of the media
© 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.
stereotypes with
research about the
culture
communication value
orientations
with research about the
culture communication
value orientations is
incomplete or missing.
stereotypes with
research about the
culture communication
value orientations is
weak and missing
evidence.
with research about the
culture communication
value orientations is
appropriate.
stereotypes with
research about the
culture communication
value orientations is
strong with sound
analysis and
appropriate evidence.
stereotypes with
research about the
culture communication
value orientations is
comprehensive and
insightful with well
researched evidence.
Explanation of how
mass-mediated
stereotypes may affect
communication is
incomplete or missing.
Explanation of how
mass-mediated
stereotypes may affect
communication is
weak and missing
evidence.
Explanation of how
mass-mediated
stereotypes may affect
communication is
appropriate but
somewhat unclear.
Explanation of how
mass-mediated
stereotypes may affect
communication is
strong with sound
analysis and
appropriate evidence.
Explanation of how
mass-mediated
stereotypes may affect
communication is
comprehensive and
insightful with well
researched evidence.
Thesis and/or main
claim are clear and
forecast the
development of the
paper. It is descriptive
and reflective of the
arguments and
appropriate to the
purpose.
Thesis and/or main
claim are
comprehensive. The
essence of the paper is
contained within the
thesis. Thesis
statement makes the
purpose of the paper
clear.
C2.3: Compare and
contrast how
communicative
behaviors reflect
various cultural norms
Using academic
sources, explain how
mass-mediated
stereotypes may
affect communication
between you and a
member of this
cultural group
10%
Organization and Effectiveness – 20%
Thesis Development
and Purpose
7%
Paper lacks any
discernible overall
purpose or organizing
claim.
Thesis and/or main
claim are insufficiently
developed and/or
vague; purpose is not
clear.
Thesis and/or main claim
are apparent and
appropriate to purpose.
© 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.
Argument Logic and
Construction
Mechanics of Writing
(includes spelling,
punctuation,
grammar, language
use)
8%
5%
Statement of purpose is
not justified by the
conclusion. The
conclusion does not
support the claim made.
Argument is incoherent
and uses noncredible
sources.
Sufficient justification
of claims is lacking.
Argument lacks
consistent unity. There
are obvious flaws in
the logic. Some
sources have
questionable
credibility.
Argument is orderly, but
may have a few
inconsistencies. The
argument presents
minimal justification of
claims. Argument
logically, but not
thoroughly, supports the
purpose. Sources used
are credible.
Introduction and
conclusion bracket the
thesis.
Argument shows
logical progressions.
Techniques of
argumentation are
evident.
Surface errors are
pervasive enough that
they impede
communication of
meaning. Inappropriate
word choice and/or
sentence construction
are used.
Frequent and
repetitive mechanical
errors distract the
reader. Inconsistencies
in language choice
(register), sentence
structure, and/or word
choice are present.
Some mechanical errors
or typos are present, but
are not overly distracting
to the reader. Correct
sentence structure and
audience-appropriate
language are used.
Prose is largely free of
mechanical errors,
although a few may be
present. A variety of
sentence structures
and effective figures of
speech are used.
Writer is clearly in
command of standard,
written, academic
English.
Appropriate template
is fully used. There are
virtually no errors in
formatting style.
All format elements
are correct.
There is a smooth
progression of claims
from introduction to
conclusion. Most
sources are
authoritative.
Clear and convincing
argument that
presents a persuasive
claim in a distinctive
and compelling
manner. All sources
are authoritative.
Format – 10%
Paper Format
(Use of appropriate
style for the major
and assignment)
5%
Template is not used
appropriately or
documentation format is
rarely followed correctly.
Appropriate template
is used, but some
elements are missing
or mistaken. A lack of
control with
formatting is apparent.
Appropriate template is
used. Formatting is
correct, although some
minor errors may be
present.
© 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.
Research Citations
(In-text citations for
paraphrasing and
direct quotes, and
reference page listing
and formatting, as
appropriate to
assignment and style)
5%
No reference page is
included. No citations
are used.
Reference page is
present. Citations are
inconsistently used.
Reference page is
included and lists
sources used in the
paper. Sources are
appropriately
documented, although
some errors may be
present.
© 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.
Reference page is
present and fully
inclusive of all cited
sources.
Documentation is
appropriate and
citation style is usually
correct.
In-text citations and a
reference page are
complete and correct.
The documentation of
cited sources is free of
error.
Running head: THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE
Perry David
The African-American Culture and Intercultural Communication Challenges
The element of Intercultural communication
Grand Canyon University
Mark Matthews
April 22, 2018
THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE
In a society where different cultures co-exist, there is bound to be lots of
misunderstandings, judgments, and biases. Two main factors have contributed to this kind of
situation are ethnocentrism and stereotyping (Ryan et al., 2007). Ethnocentrism refers to the
tendency of an individual to belittle other people’s culture, creating a notion that his own
culture is superior to others. Ethnocentric people usually judge others in comparison to their
own, generally by language, customs, religion, and behavior. In turn, stereotyping refers to a
widely accepted idea about specific actions to depict an entire group as a whole, which may
be true or false. While this may be universally existent, the similarity in ethnocentricity and
stereotyping lies in the fact that they have gained more negative connotation than the
positive, especially in recent times. The difference is that stereotypes do not necessarily
exhibit superiority to other people and can sometimes share different commonalities.
Over a long time, the African American culture has been depicted in several ways
which do not necessarily bank on their strengths by both the local and national media. In
showing this evidence, this paper will give examples both from the historical and modern
perspective. Historically, one of the most prominent stereotypes is depicted during the
Minstrel shows performed in the 1830’s where white actors used shoe polish and burnt cork
to ‘blacken’ their faces. These performers were dressed in tattered clothing to depict AfricanAmericans who were battling slavery at the time (Sampson, 2013). These shows depicted the
African-Americans as being foolish, lazy, superstitious, ignorant, cowardly and hypersexual.
The most popular blackface character was ‘Jim Crow’ played by Thomas Dartmouth Rice
which inspired the manufacturing of make-up, music, and costumes for the black stereotypes
upon which they built brand new shows. These blackface performances and the popularity
they gained are partially responsible for the racial animosity that brewed between the whites
and blacks at the time. In the 21st century, the African-American community has been
depicted as a materialistic, independent and angry lot-especially the women. They are seen as
2
THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE
having very little morals exhibiting uncivilized behavior, aggressiveness and are very loud.
Their independence is often portrayed as being overachieving, narcissistic and financially
stable, usually emasculating male blacks that they interact with (Henry, 2011; Moody, 2012).
Educationally, the media depicts African-American’s as non-intelligent; requiring a lot more
commitment and passion to be recognized as scholars and academicians. This black angry
and aggressive stereotype is also seen in movies like ‘Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus’ by
Grace Walker in 2017, and 2015’s ‘Empire’ played by Cookie Lyon (Johnson, 2015).
According to Hofstede (2011), the leading cultural dimensions exist by power,
gender, identity, time and uncertainty. Cultural value dimensions help individuals to
understand their own culture as well as that of others and fosters the cultural awareness
needed to promote excellent intercultural communication. In individualism versus
collectivism, individualist cultures are more geared towards independence, self-reliance, and
personal achievement while collectivist cultures exhibit traits of group consensus and
harmony and excellent collective relationships. The African-American culture despite being
projected as an independent lot, they portray more collectivism. This is because they stress on
the obligations they have towards other members of the society and are willing forgo
individual needs to benefit the entire group. One such example is the ‘I am because we are’
slogan used in colleges dominated by African Americans (Carson, 2009). This can be seen
whenever they undergo racial discrimination and come out together to fight against it. They
put more emphasis on fitting in and providing a sense of conformity and belonging that could
be as a result of the problems they faced in earlier centuries (Peters, Aroian & Flack, 2006).
In their communications, this is shown by the fact that they freely express themselves while
taking into account the emotions and impact that their stance has on other people in contrast
to what is portrayed in the media.
3
THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE
A high versus low power-distance also exists in the African-American culture where
people embrace power as an important part of the society. The superiors, usually the male
gender, are tasked with the provision and taking care of their families, and in turn, their
subordinates return loyalty, obedience, and deference. In these settings, the superiors are
given preference in public settings such as when taking seats. It is a common phenomenon
that the juniors usually refrain themselves from expressing negative opinions and thoughts
(Basabe & Ros, 2005; Hofstede, 2011). This is in contrast to low power-distance societies
where people put more value more gender equality and seek to eliminate existent inequalities.
Democracy is highly valued, and subordinates are free to question any actions or behavior.
The existence of high power-distance in the African-American culture has greatly influenced
their communication. One such illustration that governs communication as a result of high
power-distance lies in the notion that male adolescents should learn to ‘speak like a man’ or
‘take it like a man’ (Morgan, 2002; Richardson, 2003).
A study by Appel & Weber (2017) shows that negative and devaluing stereotypic
depictions of individual cultures in the media lead to a decline in their achievements- both
educational and cognitive, and as a result affects their levels of intercultural communication.
Grim portrayals of African-Americans by the media as being hypersexual, violent and very
aggressive have influenced my communication with members of this group because I expect
some aggression in case my message gets misconstrued. Despite the fact that I know this is
just a stereotype, the media has made it look like an almost-reality, it has hampered several
chances of interracial communication. Numerous other people have also become fearful of
this cultural group because of this negative connotation. Welch (2007) in his study on black
stereotypes admits to the fact that the portrayal of this group as being violent contributes to a
deep-seated fear of their ‘savageness’, hampering communication.
4
THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE
The media is guilty of the ethnocentrism and stereotyping which have had negative
impacts on people. However, these minority groups have also played a part in it because they
accept large monetary benefits at the expense of making self-disparaging shows. Despite the
fact that progress has been made on this issue since the 19th century, this cultural group
should have gained more substantial results regarding the fair portrayal of both the minority
and majority groups in a country.
5
THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE
References
Appel, M., & Weber, S. (2017). Do mass mediated stereotypes harm members of negatively
stereotyped groups? A meta-analytical review on media-generated stereotype threat
and stereotype lift. Communication Research, 0093650217715543.
Basabe, N., & Ros, M. (2005). Cultural dimensions and social behavior correlates
Individualism-Collectivism and Power Distance. International Review of Social
Psychology, 18(1), 189-225.
Carson, L. R. (2009). “I am because we are:” collectivism as a foundational characteristic of
African American college student identity and academic achievement. Social
Psychology of Education, 12(3), 327-344.
Henry, C. P. (2011). Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America. The
Black Scholar, 41(4), 52-54.
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online
readings in psychology and culture, 2(1), 8.
Johnson, J. (2015). Examing the Effect of Counterstereotypical Examples of African
American Women in the Media on People’s perspective of the African American
Woman.
Moody, M. (2012). From Jezebel to Ho: An analysis of creative and imaginative shared
representations of African-American women. Journal of Research on Women and
Gender, 3(1).
Morgan, M. (2002). Language, discourse, and power in African American culture (Vol. 20).
Cambridge University Press.
Peters, R. M., Aroian, K. J., & Flack, J. M. (2006). African American culture and
hypertension prevention. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 28(7), 831-854.
Richardson, E. (2003). African American literacies. Routledge.
6
THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE
Ryan, C. S., Hunt, J. S., Weible, J. A., Peterson, C. R., & Casas, J. F. (2007). Multicultural
and colorblind ideology, stereotypes, and ethnocentrism among Black and White
Americans. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 10(4), 617-637.
Sampson, H. T. (2013). Blacks in blackface: A sourcebook on early black musical shows
(Vol. 2). Scarecrow Press.
Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal of Contemporary
Criminal Justice, 23(3), 276-288.
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